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THE STORY 



IRISH IN BOSTON 



TOGETHER WITH 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF REPRESENTATIVE MEN 
AND NOTED WOMEN 



EDITED AND COMPILED BY 
JAMES BERNARD CULLEN 

ILL USTRA TED 




BOSTON 

JAMES B. CULLEN & COMPANY 
1889 



COPYRIGHT, 1889, 
BY JAMES B. CULLKN & COMPANY. 



Thi* book is sold only by subscription by us and through our authorized agents* 

It can never be obtained in any other -way, excepting fraudulently. 

All persons are -warned not to buy *this book from 

stores, as all -who sell it unauthorized by 

us will be held responsible. 



pwrss or 

Bochtattl anil Cfjurchtlt 

BOSTON 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE purpose of this work is to give an account of the settlement, 
progress, and development of the Irish and their descendants 
in Boston, from the earliest times. 

The propriety, expediency, and necessity of presenting the 
subject was conceived by the author ten years ago, while engaged in 
preparing an article for the Boston " Pilot," relating to the Irishmen 
of Boston. The work then seemed to be impracticable, by reason 
of the complex character of unpublished historical data, the long 
period of time that would be required to unravel the skein and 
weave the story together. 

Within a few years the labor of examining various histories 
and collecting manuscripts of invaluable interest and worth was 
commenced. The researches in this direction revealed many sur- 
prising events in the colonial, as well as in the more recent history of 
Boston, wherein Irishmen were active participants ; and, strange to 
say, where the importance of their achievements is mentioned at all, 
or they themselves are written about, the most meagre information 
is given. 

By careful study and recourse to comparative references many 
facts, hitherto generally unknown, were brought to light. 

An examination of the table of comparative statistics shows an 
unequalled record of immigration to Boston, to the credit of the Irish 
nation. Nor were all the early Irish settlers here " hewers of wood and 
drawers of water." Amongst the dignified professional, mercantile, 1 



'John Cogan, of the County Cork, Ireland, was the father of mercantile life in Boston. 
He was the first to open a store on the north-east corner of Washington and State streets. 
His house stood on the north-west corner of Tremont and Beacon streets. In 1635 
Nathaniel Hancock came from Ireland, and settled in Newtown (now Cambridge, Mass.). 
He died in Cambridge, in 1652. See Holmes' Annals. 

(iii) 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

and commercial l men of the time stood the self-reliant and brainy 
Irishman. 

In 1634 the General Court of Massachusetts granted lands to 
Irish and Scotch gentlemen on the Merrimac river, now Newbury- 
port. 2 The successive communities from the old Puritan days have 
realized the good and useful deeds of the Irish in this city, whose 
unswerving fidelity and loyalty to Boston, old and new, remain 
unsurpassed. 

Their love of liberty, their hatred of oppression, their valor and 
heroism in the War for Independence, when remembered, should sink 
so deep in the hearts of their fellow-citizens as to fraternize them 
forever. When lovely Peace had spread her white pinions over the 
land, Irishmen wended their way to the farm, the workshop, and the 
mill. 

Their adaptability and loyal adherence at all times to the 
strange and newly constructed government which followed the 
Revolution, and their observance of the stranger laws and customs 
then introduced, are as characteristic of them as their love of 
industry, thrift, and success. 

Once in this free country, they guarded her interests, of which 
theirs formed an integral part, jealously, carefully, valiantly. 

The Irish soldier of Boston engaged in the successive wars that 
followed the Revolution, and the reader has but to turn to the pages 
of history to find him fighting and dying on the altar of liberty in 
its defence. Scrutinize the regimental history of the Union armies : 

*A.D. 1636, mo. 3, 15. "Here arrived a ship called the 'St. Patrick,' belonging to 
Sir Thomas Wentworth, Deputy of Ireland, one Palmer, Master. When she came near 
Castle Island the Lieutenant of the fort went aboard her, and made her strike her flag, 
which the master took as great injury, and complained of it to' the magistrates; who 
calling the Lieutenant before them, heard the cause, and declared to the master, thai 
he had no commission so to do. And because he had made them strike to the fon 
(which had then no Colors aboard) they tendered the master such satisfaction as h< 
desired, which was only this, that the Lieutenant aboard their ship should acknowledge his 
error, that so all the ships company might receive satisfaction lest the deputy should hav< 
been informed that he had offered that discourtesy to his ship, which he had never offeree 
to any before." " Winthrop's Journal," p. 100, Vol. L 

1 See Records of General Court, Vol. i., p. 28. 

II 



INTRODUCTION. V 

Where will we find the Union soldiers, foreign or native born, nearer 
the breastworks of the enemy than those who wore the sprig of 
green ? 

Generations of Irishmen have made their home in Boston. 
They and their descendants have inwrought their work on the 
various departments of municipal life. Where is it recorded ? Have 
we an Irish Historical Society in Boston to preserve the history and 
lives of our people ? 

In this respect there has been a void in the literature of Boston. 
The original design of this work was draughted on a much smaller 
scale ; but, by the advice of many persons eminent in letters and 
public life, it was enlarged. 

The subject is presented in two parts historical and bio- 
graphical. The first seven historical chapters were written by Mr. 
William Taylor, Jr. 

The biographical sketches Distinguished Men of Early Times, 
Representative Men of Our Own Times, and Noted Women, 
including a newly written sketch of the Catholic Church in Boston, 
Sketches of Men in Professional and Public Life, etc., were written, 
and in some instances compiled, by the author, who 'also prepared 
the table of contents, in a way to make it interesting. The en- 
gravings were made especially for this work. 

If the work shall lead to a more thorough knowledge of the 
good accomplished by the Irish in Boston, and thereby awaken 
a fuller appreciation of their worth as citizens, its object will have 
been attained. 

J. B. C. 

BOSTON, MASS., February, 1889. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAOK 

THE Irish in the colonial period. St. Botolph's town. Pro-English and Anti-Irish 
feeling among the colonists. Irish names that appear in Boston's colonial his- 
tory. Causes of Irish emigration. Religious prejudice. The authorities extend 
an invitation to the New-England colonists to settle in Ireland. The undesirable- 
ness of Ireland as a home at that time. The "Scotch-Irish." Visits of the 
Puritans to Ireland. American colonists of Irish descent. Declaration of the 
citizens of the town on the Catholic question. Extracts from the town records 
of Sept. 22, 1746. "Pope's night" in Boston. Burning the Pope in effigy. 
Gen. Washington appears on the scene. He reprimands the soldiers. 
The Abbe de la Poterie. Irish apostates. Difference in race between the 
" Scotch-Irish " and the Catholic-Irish. The Charitable Irish Society. " Of the 
Irish Nation." The Scots' Charitable Society. AJD. 1636. The Brecks of 
Dorchester. A numerous and distinguished family. An unrecorded deed. 
" Robert Breck of Galway, in Ireland, merchant." Florence Maccarty in Boston 
as early as 1686. Thaddeus Maccarty and family. Edward Mortimer, the 
mathematician and volunteer fireman. Distinctively Irish names which appear 
in the register of births, marriages, and deaths, in Boston, from 1630-1700. 
Under Cromwell's government many Irish people emigrate to New England. 
On their arrival they are sold as slaves. The reason why. In 1654 the ship 
" Goodfellow " arrives at Boston with a large number of Irish immigrants. 
What Cotton Mather says. The petition of Ann Glyn and Jane Hunter, spins- 
ters, lately arrived from Dublin, Ireland. English criminals systematically sold 
to the colonists. Daring pirates kidnap men and sell them to Americans. 
The brigantine " Bootle," Capt. Robert Boyd commanding, touches Boston in 
August, 1736. The selectmen order him not to let his passengers " Come on 
Shoar." II 

CHAPTER II. 

THE Irish witch. The belief in the actual existence of imps, witches, and embodied 
devils. The defenders of the belief were often men of great and distinguished 
talents. Eminent counsel and learned divines gave attendance at trials of sus- 
pected witches. The devil's marks " being pricked will not bleed." Watching 
for the witch's imp. The wise magistrate. Colonial society ajar, and seized 
by the devil-fear. Mrs. Ann Hibbins falls a victim to the witch-hunter. The 

1 



z CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

fourth victim. The Goodwin family suspected of witchcraft. Gov. Hutch- 
inson and the "Wild Irish." The ministers appoint a day of fasting and prayer 
with the Goodwin family. Goody Glover speaks in the Gaelic tongue while ren- 
dering her testimony in court. She is said to be under the devil's influence. 
Her house searched while she is on trial. What was found there. " Two honest 
men " act as her interpreters. She is sent to prison. Cotton Mather visits her 
twice while she is in prison. She speaks to him in Irish. Her interpreters 
tell him that the Irish word for "spirits" is the same as for "saints." A witness 
testifies to having seen Goody Glover come down the chimney. Examined by the 
physicians. Their conclusion is that poor Goody is sane. Sentenced to be 
hanged. From the prison to the gallows. The prophecy. The procession. 
The tumult Judge Sewall makes an entry in his diary. The execution . . 25 

CHAPTER III. 

THE Charitable Irish Society. The earliest association of Irishmen in Boston. 
Object, aim, and scope of its founders. Extracts from the records. Early mem- 
bers of the Society. James Mayer and Robert Henry. The cautious selectmen. 
The law of the province. In 1722 John Little is warned by the selectmen to 
" depart out of this town." John remains in Boston. Interesting incidents and 
anecdotes about other early members of the Society. Peter Pelham, painter and 
engraver. His unsettled life. A sketch of his life and works. He marries the 
widow of Richard Copley. Squire Singleton, of Ireland, and his daughter. 
"The best Virginia Tobacco, cut, pigtail, and spun, of all sorts by Wholesale and 
Retail, at the Cheapest Rates." A sketch of' John Singleton Copley. The 
Auchmuty family. Capt William Mackay, Gentleman. His address to the 
members of the Society at a meeting held in October, 1784, the first after the Revo- 
lutionary War. A word about the Tory members of the Society. The Scots' 
Charitable Society abscond in a body at the beginning of the Revolution. They 
carry off the Society records to Halifax. Capt. John Mackey, master of the 
schooner " Margaret," is elected into the Charitable Irish Society in 1791. Capt 
Robert Gardner furnishes the town of Boston a ship to take home " A true 
account of the horred Massacre " of Nov. 5, 1770. His interest in his fellow- 
countrymen. Many old members^aricTsome interesting facts connected with their 
lives. The Society and the Irish Presbyterian Church. Gov. Hancock presents 
the bell and vane of the old Brattle-street meeting-house. The first pastor. 
Rev. John Moorhead. In 1717 another colony of Irish immigrants arrives with 
Capt. Robert Temple. The Know-nothing spirit already abroad. The Society 
visits Andrew Jackson, President of the United States, at the Tremont House, June 
22, 1833. President Jackson's address in reply to an Address of Welcome, by 
Mr. James Boyd, on behalf of the Society. The Society honors Lafayette. The 
centennial celebration, March 17, 1837. The President of the Charitable 
Mechanics' Association addresses the Society. An impending crisis. Hugh 
O'Brien submits a draft of resolutions condemning and abhorring every principle 
or movement that would dissever the Union, and invoking the assistance of 



CONTENTS. 3 

* PAGE 

citizens of all classes to devote themselves to the cause of the common country. 
Many members go to the seat of war. The centennial anniversary of the battle 
of Bunker Hill 31 

CHAPTER IV. 

CAFF. Daniel Malcom and the revenue acts. He is appointed on a committee to 
regulate the sale of lambs. The revenue officers suspect him of keeping contra- 
band goods on his premises. They institute a search without due warrant. 
The sturdy captain stops them at the door of a room that he has his own reasons 
for protecting. The officers retire. They return again and meet with a worse 
reception. Captain Malcom has his Irish temper aroused. Bloodshed immi- 
nent. The British officers give up the search. The attitude of the Crown offi- 
cials. The government depositions regarding the event. A town-meeting held 
at which a committee of eight of the foremost citizens is appointed, including 
Otis, Hancock, and Adams, to ask the governor for copies of the testimony. 
False views of the trouble gain credence with the ministry. Faneuil Hall closed 
to the revenue officers at the State dinner on election day. The revenue officers 
complain to England. Gage stations a regiment in Boston. Castle William 
prepares for active service. Trouble brewing. "Rebel" and "Tyrant." 
A guard of forty men and what they did. The streets filling with an excited 
crowd. Wild rumors and a war ship. Malcom stands at the head of his 
friends. The boats arrive. The excitement increases. Malcom threatens to 
throw the frigate's people into the sea. The moorings are cut. The vessel 
leaves the wharf. An attack. The Collector's boat dragged to the Common. 
The Puritan Sabbath follows. A meeting at Liberty Hall. Otis, Hancock, Adams, 
and Malcom wait upon the governor. They submit a petition. Otis speaks of 
armed resistance. Malcom still busy vindicating the rights and liberties of the 
people. He is appointed to report on the best course for the town to adopt " in 
the present emergency." With the recording of the report Captain Malcom 
passes away. His membership in the Charitable Irish Society. His grave on 
Copp's Hill 44 

CHAPTER V. 

THE immigrant. The first considerable influx of Irish immigrants. Capt. Robert 
Temple and the Irish Protestants. Five ships in Boston harbor bearing Irish 
immigrants. The authorities warn the Irish to depart the town. Governor 
Wentworth receives friendly warnings that the Irish are settling in the Merrimack 
valley. John Sullivan, the Limerick schoolmaster, settles in Berwick, Me. 
His distinguished sons, James and John. A transcript from the memorial tablet 
in King's Chapel relating to William Sullivan. The Amorys. The introduc- 
tion of the potato and the spinning-wheel by the Irish. The establishment of 
a public spinning-wheel by the town. The Society for encouraging Industry. 
A public spinning match on the Common. 1 736-38, ten ships come to Boston 



4 CONTENTS. 

PACK 

from Ireland. The immigrants ordered to Spectacle Island. Capt. Bene- 
dict Arnold touches at Boston in the " Prudent Hannah." A fifty-nine days' 
passage from Kingsgate, Ireland, to Boston. The returned Irish emigrant in- 
spires Swift to write " Gulliver's Travels." Dennis Sullivant appears before the 
selectmen of Boston in 1 736. A pathetic letter from across the sea. The 
province appropriates fourteen pounds to send the poor fellow home. A sloop in 
the harbor. The horrors of starvation. Cannibalism resorted to by the crew. 
In the hospital on Rainsford's Island. Governor Shirley receives a letter from a 
ship's crew in extreme want. Piracy, pure and simple. The result of a priva- 
teering exploit. Importing Irish Protestants. A letter to Samuel Waldo from 
James Boies. " An act to regulate the importation of Germans and other pas- 
sengers coming to settle in this province." The modern emigrant ship. 
Thanks to Miss Charlotte G. O'Brien 51 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE Know-nothing movement. Its origin, history, and development. Beautiful 
Devorgilla, of Brefny. Dermot McMurrough and the O'Rorke. English 
hatred towards the Irish. Its influence on American thought and action. 
Fostered by a careful silence of English historians on the grievances of the Irish. 
Nursed on American soil, it sinks to sleep in times of danger. The Irish 
citizen stands preSminently among the defenders of American liberty. The 
utterance of Cotton Mather. " There has been formidable attempts of Satan and 
his Sons to unsettle us." Boston trembles for the purity of her English stock. 
Regulations imposed upon the march of colonization. The records of 1723. 
Many Irishmen in Boston at the time of the Revolution. The Loyal Irish Vol- 
unteers. Catholics claim the right to worship. Irish citizenship asserts itself. 
A prerequisite to citizenship. Foreign-born citizens take refuge in the ranks of 
the democracy. Accession to the Presidency of Thomas Jefferson. The natu- 
ralization Act of 1802. The War of 1812 kindled by the Irish exiles. The 
religious phase of the hostility to the Irish in Boston. The Broad-street riot. 
A blot on Boston's history. Mayor Eliot on the scene. He calls out the 
militia. The riot is speedily quelled. The burning of the Ursuline Convent at 
Charlestown. The Montgomery Guards. An insult given to the Irish com- 
pany. The march from the Common to Faneuil Hall. Followed by a mob and 
stoned. The Irish boys march steadily through the spiteful shower of missiles 
until they reach their armory. Governor Everett applauds the Irish company, 
and denounces the conduct of the City Guards. " Native- Americanism " again. 
"I don't know." An " address " to the Native-Americans of New York. 
Another anti-Irish excitement in Boston. Famine in Ireland. The political 
aspect of the case. The visits of Catholic priests to the city institutions con- 
sidered as revolutionary. The citizens' movement. The Boston " Bee." 
Mayor Shurtleff and the Board of Aldermen wait upon John, Bishop of Boston. 
" Protestant Jesuits " organize. Their political machinery carefully and perfectly 
regulated. The Know-nothing candidate. He is defeated. The election of 



CONTENTS. 5 

PAGE 

Alexander H. Rice to the mayoralty. The Columbian Artillery. It disbands 
to escape persecution at the hands of the State government. The birth x>f the 
anti-slavery movement. Wreck of the so-called American party. War! 
Irishmen to the front . 65 

CHAPTER VII. 
I. Concord and Lexington. 

THE Irish soldier. Irish heroes come forward to take their places in the annals of 
American history. Col. James Barrett at Concord bridge. The cry of Paul 
Revere. Irishmen heard it and sprang to the defence of the common cause. 
The minute-men. A beautiful picture of united patriotism. A battle without a 
parallel in history. Yankee marksmen lay the red-coats low. Irish- American 
minute-men. Hugh Cargill, of Ballyshannon. Dr. Thomas Welsh, the army 
surgeon, to the patriots. " Lo ! from the east I see the harbinger, and from the 
train 'tis Peace herself, and, as attendants, all the gentle arts of life." Irish 
names on the rolls of the Lexington minute-men 82 

II. Bunker Hill. 

THE morning of June 17, 1775. A wonderful sight. The breastworks on top of 
Breed's Hill. Manned by yeomen. A blow for liberty, and another in revenge 
for the dreadful oppression of their forefathers in Ireland. One thousand men at 
work under the veil of darkness. A fierce cannonade from the English war-ship 
" Lively." Brave Col. John Stark addresses his men. They fight to the death. 

Charlestown ablaze. The flower of the English army twice hurled back from 
their defences. " There, see that officer ! Let's have a shot at him \ " The 
English columns broken to pieces. " The patriots stand like the Greeks of 
Thermopylae." Names of Irishmen found on the rolls of Bunker Hill, as given 

in the Massachusetts archives .....' 88 

III. The Siege of Boston. 

THE Engh'sh must go. Washington arrives from Virginia, General John Sullivan 
leads a brigade. Emigrants from Ireland settle along the South Atlantic coast 

They go forth to battle for American liberty. Daniel Morgan. Colonel Knox 
promises to send a noble train of artillery to General Washington. He keeps his 
word. A faithful wife. General William Sullivan's reminiscence. General Knox 
financially embarrassed. A trio of men. Friendly tears. " Gentlemen, this 
will never do ! " Irish hospitality. Stephen Moylan. Old Put. " Powder, 
powder; ye gods, give us powder ! " A word about General Sullivan. Irish 
Tories. Arthur Lee on the Irish Catholics. General Howe speaks of " some Irish 
merchants." Crean Brush, the Irish villain. His connection with Ethan Allen. 
Brush is delegated by General Gage. Brush is put'in Boston jail. Remorse and 
suicide of Brush. What is a Firbolg? The Irishmen who served in the Con- 
tinental army besieging Boston .......... 94 



6 CONTENTS. 

IV. The War of 1812 and the Mexican War. 

PACK 

BOSTON, the seat of discontent and turbulence. War declared. Boston is anti- 
bellum. The New England Guards. The Rangers. The Boston and Charles- 
town Sea Fencibles. Irish names on their rolls. The citizen soldiery enlist. 
Irishmen on the rolls of this regiment 102 

V. War of Secession. 

Two distinctively Irish regiments march from Boston to the seat of war. The sun- 
burst floats in companionship with the stars and stripes about the bayonets of the 
famous Ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, and the equally famous Twenty-eighth, 
the " Faugh-a-Ballaghs." The adjutant-general's report of the Ninth regiment. 
Thomas Cass offers his services to Governor Andrew. They are gladly accepted. 

The governor permits the Irish flag to be carried by the soldiers. The war- 
officers of the regiment. The Twenty-eighth is mustered in on Jan. n, 1862, 
at Camp Cameron, near Boston. The war-officers of the regiment. June 29, 
1861. The Ninth on to Washington. At Arlington Heights. The Peninsula 
campaign. The Ninth bears the beautiful national flag which was presented to 
the regiment by the boys of the Eliot school. Aboard the U. S. Transport, "State 
of Maine." The campaign of McClellan. A plan of the peninsular campaign. 

Confederate cavalry ride completely around General McClellan's army. A 
change of base. General Lee planning to attack the Union army. General 
Porter attacked by Gen. A. R. Hill. The battle of Games' Mill follows. A 
desperate engagement. The national army loses 6,000 men. The Ninth's 
ranks decimated. They lose over one-fifth of their fighting strength. Colonel 
Cass is disabled, and dies at Malvern Hill. Col. Patrick R. Guiney succeeds to 
the command. Guiney orders the colors forward. Charge ! The Irish regi- 
ment that never lost a color. The Ninth among the last regiments to leave the 
field of battle. The war correspondent's tribute to the Ninth. After the battle 
of Games' Mill. The rebel yell. McClellan's tribute to the men of the Ninth. 

Colonel Guiney at Harrison's Landing. Promoted for ability and bravery. 
The Ninth in the Second Bull Run. Under McDowell. The Twenty-eighth 
in the battle. The disaster at Fredericksburg. Terrible fighting. Hancock's 
division, with the brigades of Cook, Meagher, and Caldwell, advance. The Ninth 
at Gettysburg. The Twenty-eighth on Cemetery Hill. Exposed to the heavy 
and concentrated musketry fire. Colonel Guiney wounded in the first day's fight 
in the Wilderness. Lieut. -Colonel Hanley in command during the remainder of 
the battle. The Twenty-eighth in the Wilderness. Death of Capt. James 
Mclntire and Capt. Charles P. Smith. A race for Richmond. The Ninth in 
it to Cold Harbor. The loss in this series of engagements. The Twenty-eighth 
stays nearly through the war. Death of Colonel Byrnes at Cold Harbor. At 
Petersburg, Va. The Twenty-eighth the last regiment to leave the intrenchments 
at the battle of Reams' Station. Publicly complimented for gallant conduct by 
General Nelson A. Miles. Officers killed in action. Home again . . . 104 



CONTENTS. 7 

PAGK 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON 121 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF DISTINGUISHED 
MEN OF EARLY TIMES. 

JOHN HANCOCK 167 

MAJOR-GENERAL HENRY KNOX 169 

GOVERNOR JAMES SULLIVAN 171 

ROBERT TREAT PAINE 174 

THE CREHORE FAMILY 175 

REV. JOHN LYFORD 177 

WILLIAM HIBBINS 178 

BENJAMIN CREHORE 178 

GEORGE DOWNING 181 

ANTHONY GULLIVER 181 

JAMES BOIES 183 

JEREMIAH SMITH 186 

JOHN HANNAN 186 

HUGH MCLEAN 188 

JOHN MCLEAN 189 

JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY 190 

LORD JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY LYNDHURST 193 

CHARLES JACKSON 193 

JAMES JACKSON 194 

PATRICK TRACY JACKSON 195 

JAMES KAVANAGH 196 

WILLIAM DOUGLASS O'CONNOR 197 

JEREMIAH SMITH BOIES 197 

ANDREW DUNLAP 198 

CORNELIUS CONWAY FELTON 198 

JAMES BOYD 199 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF REPRESENTATIVE 
MEN OF OUR OWN TIMES. 

JOHN BOYLE O'REILLY 207 

PATRICK A. COLLINS 213 

HUGH O'BRIEN 216 

> PATRICK S. GILMORE .... 219 

Gov. THOMAS TALBOT 221 

THE MILMORES ..".." 223 

\ 



8 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

WILLIAM PARSONS 224 

PATRICK DONAHOE 227 

THOMAS D'ARCY McGEE 231 

REV. HENRY GILES 234 

THOMAS J. GARGAN 235 

THE MOST REV. JOHN J. WILLIAMS 238 

RT. REV. MATTHEW HARKINS 240 

REV. ROBERT FULTON, S.J 241 

ROBERT DWYER JOYCE, M.D., M.R.I.A. 243 

GEN. PATRICK R. GUINEY 245 

JOHN E. FITZGERALD 249 

REV. JOHN CORDNER 251 

REV. ROBERT MEREDITH 252 

EDWARD C. CARRIGAN 253 

REV. HENRY BERNARD CARPENTER 256 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF NOTED WOMEN. 

LOUISE IMOGEN GUINEY 263 

MARY ELIZABETH BLAKE 271 

KATHERINE ELEANOR CONWAY 277 

MARY CATHERINE CROWLEY .281 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF BOSTON LAWYERS .... 
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF BOSTON PHYSICIANS .... 
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF BOSTON JOURNALISTS 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PAST AND PRESENT MEMBERS OF 
THE PUBLIC SERVICE ....'. 

BUSINESS AFFAIRS AND MEN OF BUSINESS . . . . 
APPENDICES 



ENGRAVINGS. 

BY J. P. MURPHY & CO. 



PAGE 

JOHN BOYLE O'REILLY frontispiece 

JAMES BOYD 40 

TOMBSTONE OF DANIEL MALCOM 49 

HENRY A. MCGLENEN \ 102 

GEN. PATRICK R. GUINEY 104 

PENINSULAR WAR MAP 109 

COL. PATRICK T. HANLEY 116 

THE MOST REV. JOHN J. WILLIAMS 124 

JOHN HANCOCK 167 

MAJOR-GENERAL HENRY KNOX 169 

PATRICK A. COLLINS 214 

HUGH O'BRIEN 216 

Gov. THOMAS TALBOT 220 

WILLIAM PARSONS 225 

PATRICK DONAHOE 228 

THOMAS D'ARCY McGEE 231 

THOMAS J. GARGAN 236 

LOUISE IMOGEN GUINEY 264 

KATHERINE E. CONWAY 278 

MARY CATHERINE CROWLEY 282 

EDWARD J. JENKINS 292 

WILLIAM A. DUNN, M.D 304 

JAMES JEFFREY ROCHE 310 

THOMAS F. KEENAN 318 

WILLIAM F. KENNEY 320 

THOMAS MAGUIRE 322 

JOHN J. MERRIGAN 326 

STEPHEN O'MEARA . 328 



10 ENGRA VINGS. 



PAGE 

CHARLES S. O'NEILL 

...... 33 

HELEN F. O'NEILL ..... 

o5 

MARGARET G. REYNOLDS ... 77A 

* * * * OJT 1 

MICHAEL M. CUNNIFF ........ _- o 

EDWARD J. DONOVAN . 

o54 

WILLIAM DOOGUE , 

..... . 356 

PAUL H. KENDRICKEN ...... -^ 

JOHN H. MCDONOUGH . . . ,,. 

' j/4 

MICHAEL J. MCETTRICK ........ t t ._ 6 

JOHN R. MURPHY ........ 3go 

JOHN B. O'BRIEN ......... .g 2 

CHRISTOPHER BLAKE ...... 40 g 

THOMAS B. Frrz . . 



PATRICK MAGUIRE ...... i . . 12 

DENNIS J. HERN ........ . lg 

JOHN B. REGAN ......... t 420 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE IRISH IN THE COLONIAL PERIOD. 

BOSTON, Massachusetts, considered as a name merely, presents 
a contrast of elements that typifies its history. One end of it 
is ancient, Christian, civilized: St. BotolpWs town, so clipped and 
rubbed in centuries of English speech as to leave its canonical name- 
sake out of all memory. As for the other end, it is the native name 
of a tribe whose history had ceased before Boston's was begun. 
" The town of a wild Indian tribe which used to be called after St. 
Botolph" would be a literal translation of its familiar, and, to most of 
us, intrinsically meaningless name. So, in the history of the dear old 
place itself, contradictions appear throughout its existence. Planted 
after several wealthy colonies had already achieved a place in history, 
it was destined soon to lead in all that marks advance of civilization, 
and shortly afterward to inaugurate the sullen state of insubordina- 
tion to England which eventually led to open rebellion. Founded 
for the sake of an unrestrained worship of God, it was most- bitter in 
religious persecution ; giving of its first thoughts to the establishment 
of liberal education, it darkened ignorance in the days of witchcraft 
superstition ; English of all things, it was of necessity anti-Irish, and 
classed this unfortunate people with the heathen tribes of the forest: 
yet among her earliest records appear the distinctively Irish names 
of Cogan, Barry, Connors, MacCarty, Kelly ; throughout her colonial 
history, when the wild Irish, the pope, the devil, and the Pretender 
were classed together and hated in the lump, the Irish were in their 
midst, though Irish Catholicity remained till near the Revolution 

(11) 



12 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

almost unrepresented. And what more striking contrast than 'its 
first year and its last past, when an Irish Catholic mayor forthe fourth 
time ascended the chair of office and entered upon duties that none 
have more ably and faithfully discharged ! 

During the colonization of America, Ireland was certainly a 
dreadful place to live in, and Irish emigration to America was very 
naturally to be expected. Class lines in Ireland were drawn sharply 
on the basis of formal religion, and the people were divided into three 
unequal portions, the largest having least power, and the smallest the 
greatest power. The government of the country was in the hands 
of communicants of the Established Church of Ireland ; all refusing 
the rigid and systematic tests were excluded from the franchise. 
These Episcopalians were the agents of the most cruel and systematic 
oppression that ever disgraced civilization. They lived among a 
people outnumbering them nearly ten to one, whose religion they 
despised and persecuted, whose ignorance they mocked at while they 
fostered it, whose extreme poverty and distress were the conditions 
of their own prosperity. Avarice and bigotry both urged them to 
abuse their despotic power. They lived there as the carpet-baggers 
lived at the South after the war ; and they had every reason to want 
to leave at the first profitable opportunity. 

A large number of Presbyterians from Scotland had settled in 
the North of Ireland, in the reign of James I. These shared, to a 
certain extent, the political disqualifications of the Catholics. They 
hated Catholicism perhaps even more fiercely than the English them- 
selves, and they sowed the seeds of an unchristian bigotry, which to this 
day disgraces the name of Ulster. They were between the upper and 
the nether millstone, the Episcopalians above, the Catholics beneath ; 
and soon after the beginning of the eighteenth century, the best of 
them gave up the struggle and flocked in shiploads to America. 

As for the Catholics, who constituted nearly four-fifths of the 
population, their condition is best described in the words of the his- 
torian Bancroft : 

"... a conquered people, whom the victors delighted to 
trample upon, and did not fear to provoke. Their industry within the 



THE COLONIAL PERIOD. 13 

kingdom was prohibited or repressed by law, and then they were 
calumniated as naturally idle. Their savings could not be invested on 
equal terms in trade, manufactures, or real property; and they were 
called improvident. The gates of learning were shut on them, and 
they were derided as ignorant." Add to this that the law of the 
land was always and everywhere set against the dictates of their 
conscience, while the persecution of their priesthood delivered them 
over to the spiritual guidance of any ignorant peasant whose courage 
and faith enabled him to face the terrors of the law. 

The same motive that brought about the " plantation of Ulster " 
moved the authorities to invite some of the New England colonists, a 
few years after the founding of Boston, to go to Ireland and settle 
there. In spite of liberal bounties offered for such colonization, very 
few went, and the episode is interesting rather as showing the un- 
desirableness of Ireland as a home at that time, than for its influence 
on the course of history on either side of the water. 

When this sketch was first proposed it seemed to the writer that 
to begin before the Revolution with the history of the Irish here 
would be a profitless task. The subject has not before been treated 
in any publication. There are one or two church histories that deal 
with the question, but they, as well as all others, take it for granted, 
without very careful search, that an Irishman in New England was in 
early times as rare as a white blackbird. But on consideration of 
the large "Scotch-Irish" immigration to New Hampshire and to the 
South, and of the occasional visits of the Puritans to Ireland, it 
seemed strange if, with all the exodus from that land of sorrow, so 
few should reach America. On careful examination of some original 
records these suspicions were strengthened into belief. It was found 
that a large number of the American colonists were of Irish descent. 
How large may be inferred from the personnel of the patriot armies 
of the Revolution. 

George W. Parke Custis, Washington's adopted son, in " Per- 
sonal Recollections," says : " Of the operations of the war, I mean 
the soldiers up to the coming of the French, Ireland had furnished in 
the ratio of one hundred for one of any other nation." 



14 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

At an investigation of the causes of defeat in the war with the 
colonies, held in the British House of Commons in 1779, Major 
General Roberston, who had served twenty-four years in America, 
was asked, " How are the provincial corps composed, mostly of 
native Americans, or from emigrants from various nations of 
Europe?" 

He answered: " Some of the corps consist mostly of natives; 
others, I believe the greatest number, are enlisted from such people 
that can be got in the country, and many of them may be emigrants. 
I remember General Lee telling me that he believed half the rebel 
army were from Ireland." l 

Joseph Galloway, a native of Pennsylvania, Speaker of the 
Assembly of the colony for twelve years, and a delegate to the first 
Continental Congress, who became a violent Tory in 1778, was ex- 
amined for several days by various members of the House of Com- 
mons. Among other questions he was asked, " That part of the 
rebel army that enlisted in the service of Congress, were they chiefly 
composed of natives of America, or were the greater part of them 
English, Scotch, and Irish ? " Galloway answered : " The names and 
places of their nativity being taken down, I can answer the question 
with precision. There were scarcely one-fourth natives of America, 
about one-half Irish, the other fourth English and Scotch." 2 

The fact that hardly any Irish Catholic is heard of as eminent 
among the early Bostonians is easily accounted for, if we remember 
the feeling almost universal against them, as well as the great dis- 
advantages pressing upon Catholics at the very outset of the struggle. 
Englishmen, and Americans as well, inherited a hearty hatred of the 
French, and everything belonging to them, due to a warfare con- 
tinuous through generations. Catholics were, therefore, apart from 
religious prejudice, looked upon as hostile, in that they had beliefs 
and principles in common with the French. In fact, almost all the 
Catholics heard of in the earlier days of Boston were straggling 
Frenchmen ; and the first priests to venture an establishment here 
were French. 

1 British House of Commons Reports, fifth session, fourteenth Parliament, vol. xiii., p. 303. 
* British Commons Reports, vol. xiii., p. 431. 




MICHAEL M. CUNNIFF. 



THE COLONIAL PERIOD. 15 

This view of the case is borne out by the fact that, when French 
alliance was assured, and her friendly vessels lay at anchor in the 
harbor, the selectmen of Boston so far forgot their fears as to march 
in a solemn religious procession headed by French priests with a 
crucifix borne in the van. 

Lest there should be any misunderstanding of the actual state 
of public opinion in Boston on the question of Catholics, the follow- 
ing declarations of the citizens of the town should be carefully con- 
sidered. 1 In the records of the town meeting, on Sept. 22, 1746, this 
entry appears : 

Whereas it is suggested that there are several persons Roman Catholicks 
that now dwell and reside in this Town and it may be very Dangerous to permit 
such persons to Reside here in Case we should be attack : d by an Enemy, There- 
fore Voted that M r . Jeremiah Allen M r . Nathaniel Gardner and Mr. Joseph 
Bradford be and hereby are appointed a Committee to take Care and prevent any 
Danger the Town may be in from Roman Catholicks residing here by making Strict 
Search and enquiry after all such and pursue such Methods relating to them as the 
Law directs. 

In the adjournment of this meeting, September 25, we find, the 
following : 

The Committee appointed the 22 d instant to take Care and prevent any- 
Danger the Town may be in by Roman Catholicks residing here, Reported that 
they had found the Laws now in force relating to such persons to be insufficient 
To Enable them to Effect the same and therefore could do nothing hereon altho 
they suspected a considerable number of Roman Catholicks to be now in Town, 
Whereupon it was moved & Voted that the Representatives of this Town be and 
hereby are desired to Endeavour at the next Session of the General Court to get a 
law pass'd that shall be effectual to Secure the Town from any Danger they may be 
in, by Roman Catholicks Dwelling here. 

The following extract is from the records of the town meeting 
held Nov. 20, 1/72, or rather from a pamphlet published by order of 
the town, containing the report of a committee of that meeting. 
This committee was appointed " to state the rights of the Colonists, 

'Town Rec., 1746, p. 103. 



16 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

and of this province in particular, as men, as Christians, and as 
subjects. . . . " : 

In regard to Religeon, mutual tolleration in the different professions thereof, is 
what all good and candid minds in all ages have ever practiced ; knd both by pre- 
cept and example inculcated on mankind. . . . Mr. Lock 'has asserted and 
proved . . . that such toleration ought to be extended to all those who.se 
doctrines are not subversive of society. The only Sects which he thinks ought to 
be, and which by all wise laws are excluded from such toleration are those who 
teach doctrines subversive of the Civil Government under which they live. The 
Roman C atholics or Papists are excluded by reason of such doctrines as these 
" that Princes excommunicated may be deposed, and those they call Hereticks 
may be destroyed without mercy ; besides their recognizing the Pope in so absolute 
a manner, in subversion of Government, by introducing as far as possible into the 
states, under whose protection they enjoy life, liberty and property, that solecism 
in politicks, Imperium in imperio leading directly to the worst anarchy and confu- 
sion, civil discord, war and bloodshed. 1 

After this, by way of justification, reference is made to the ex- 
ception of "Papists, etc.," from the benefits of the Toleration Act, 
and to the " liberty of conscience allowed in the worship of God to 
all Christians except Papists " granted in the charter of the Province. 

We find young Henry Knox, the future artillerist of the Ameri- 
can army, in an anti-popery procession, one "Pope's night," in 
Boston, and when a wagon broke a wheel, he supported it with his 
own tough-stringed muscles, lest the pageant should be eclipsed by 
that of a rival organization. His family was from near Belfast in 
Ireland. 

" Pope's night" was celebrated on November 5, each year, by 
processions of anti-popery exhibits, and ended by burning the pope 
in effigy. We find a reference to it in one of General Washington's 
orders to his army soon after taking command at Boston : 

November 5. As the Commander-in-Chief has been apprised of a design 
formed for the observance of that ridiculous and childish custom of burning the 
effigy of the Pope, he cannot help expressing his surprise that there should be offi- 
cers and soldiers in this army so void of common sense as not to see the impropriety 
of such a step at this juncture ; at a time when we are soliciting, and have really 

1 Town Rec., 1772, pp. 95-96. 



THE COLONIAL PERIOD. 17 

obtained, the friendship and alliance of the people of Canada, whom we ought to 
consider as brethren embarked in the same cause, the defence of the liberty of 
America ; at this juncture, and under such circumstances, to be insulting their re- 
ligion, is so monstrous as not to be suffered or excused ; indeed, instead of offering 
the most remote insult, it is our duty to address public thanks to these our brethern, 
as to them we are indebted for every late happy success over the common enemy in 
Canada. 

The conflict of rival processions for the custody of the pope and 
the devil, the two important features of each display, sometimes led 
to serious trouble. 1 The custom disappeared after the Revolution. 

In such dread 'was this religion held at Boston that even the 
dying were grudged the solace of the priest's last office. On the 
4th of February, 1789, a Frenchman named Louis Abraham 
Welsh, at point of death in the town of Dedham, begged to see a 
priest. His intimate friend and his landlord went together to Boston 
to bring the Abbe de la Poterie, the only Catholic clergyman in the 
vicinity ; but on arriving in the town they were dissuaded from their 
kindly enterprise, and the poor fellow died unshriven. 2 

It is to be remembered, too, that non-conforming Catholics in 
Ireland had small chance of retaining any property, and consequently 
came to this country in extreme distress. Probably most of them 
were sold into temporary slavery to pay for their passage over. 
Without doubt many came as transports under the penal laws against 
preaching or teaching their religion or harboring those who did. All 
education of whatever kind obtained by " papists " in Ireland must 
be obtained in secret, and in terror of the law. Even in manufactures, 
except in the case of linen, no more than two apprentices were 
allowed in any Catholic establishment. Neither are Irish apostates 
from Catholicity in America to be from any point of view seriously 
blamed ; they lived without religious instruction from the learned of 
their faith, in the midst of men who, while known and acknowledged 
as in most things wise and good, regarded theif condition as little 
better than paganism ; and they were subject to social and political 

1 Town Records, 1765, p. 158; 1767, p. 224; 1774, pp. 194-5. 

'This was the occasion of a small pamphlet (4 pp.), to be found in a miscellaneous 
volume called " Boston Scraps," in the Boston Public Library. 



18 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

cold-shouldering, which is always more effective than active perse- 
cution. The wonder is that any of that creed remained. They did, 
however, make some effort for conscience' sake. It is said that the 
French authorities in Canada had to send home for an Irish priest 
for the benefit of the Catholics at Boston. It was intended to station 
him at St. Johns. 1 

A large number of the Irish in America were Presbyterians, 
descendants of the planters of Ulster. It has come to be the fashion 
to call them Scotch-Irish, and the statement has been made that 
nothing could be more unjust and offensive than to call them Irish. 
Perhaps they might be excused for appealing to the nationality of their 
great-grandfathers, coming as they did from a land where alienation 
was considered the highest claim to worldly distinction. What was 
the test? How many generations, born and dead on Irish soil, could 
be accepted as enough to prove Irish nationality? Of course such a 
test was not applied with the same thoroughness to Scotchmen, be- 
cause they were not coming to live with oppressors, and to compete 
with them for the good things of the wilderness. 

Stress is laid upon the difference in race between the Scotch- 
Irish and the Catholic Irish ; but as Scotland was in early times colo- 
nized by the Irish, received from them the Gaelic tongue, the 
Christian religion, the laws and customs of early civilization, and even 
her very name, the difference in race-tendency between the Irish and 
even the bona-fide Scotch cannot be great. 

The condition of the " planters " and their descendants in Ireland 
was not, to be sure, so much like citizenship as that of their cousins 
in Scotland. They formed a separate community within the country, 
holding land by rental, bitterly hating the Catholics. But was the 
condition of the " wild Irish " any nearer to that of natives ? So far 
as hatred went, they had plenty of cause to hate their Presbyterian 
neighbors as well as their " natural lords " the English ; they held 
land on still more precarious tenure, if at all ; they were separate as 
the pariahs of the East, and not only without political organization, 
but even without any opportunity of religious communion ; they 

1 Rev. James Fitton : The Church in New England, p. 74. 



THE COLONIAL PERIOD. 19 

were regarded by the government as alien and hostile. Of course, 
they were more numerous than the " planters " of Ulster and Con- 
naught ; but this is not a question of majorities. 

Perhaps the most significant thing in this connection appears in 
the organization of the Charitable Irish Society. Without the slight- 
est equivocation they describe themselves as " of the Irish Nation," 
and, to make the matter plainer, select St. Patrick's day as the time 
of starting their work. A Scots' Charitable Society had been in 
existence some sixty years, and was then in a flourishing condition ; 
so if they were Scotchmen, they had no need to call themselves Irish- 
men, and leave it for modern historians to undo their work. If there 
is anything less dignified than a negro powdered white, or a Jew that 
hopes to conceal his race, it is an Irishman ashamed of his nation- 
ality. In view of the worry of later generations, it is refreshing to 
note that these Irishmen were not of the worrying class. They did, 
however, bar Catholics from all offices of honor or trust ; following 
is an order adopted on organization, and in force during the earlier 
years of the society : 

VIII. The Managers of this Society shall be a President, a Vice-President, a 
Treasurer, three Assistants, and three Key-keepers, with a Servitor to attend the 
Society's service, the Managers to be natives of Ireland, or Natives of any other 
Part of the British Dominions of Irish Extraction, being Protestants, and inhabi- 
tants of Boston. 

Under date of 1 764, a revised copy of the rules and orders is on 
record, and in the eighth article the qualification of Protestantism is 
omitted, all others being retained. In 1804, when the present 
constitution was drawn up, the religious limitation was formally 
abandoned. 

To the prejudice of the New England colonists against Irishmen 
is due much of the obscurity that now envelops the history of the 
Irish here in early times. In cases where the emigrant dared to 
place his own old home upon record, his connections neglected to 
record or publish the fact, and in the second generation there were 
few traces left of the nationality of the first. We have, in another 



20 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

place, adverted to the conjectured birthplace of Peter Pelham ; 
another and similar instance of mistaken history occurred among 
the Brecks, of Dorchester, a numerous and distinguished family, that 
have left their honorable mark on the whole of Boston's earlier life. 

The first of the family is Edward Brick, or Breck, who came to 
Dorchester in 1636 with his son Robert, and was admitted a freeman 
in 1639. He was chosen to run the boundary of the town in 1642, 
was on the board of selectmen in 1645, an ^ received many other 
tokens of the town's confidence. In 1653, when his wife's death was 
entered of record, he was described as " Edward Breecke of Dor- 
chester, servant to Mr. William Paddy" (after whom Paddy's alley, 
leading north-west from North street, was named). In Savage's 
Dictionary of Genealogy he is entered as "probably of Ashton in 
County Devon," England ; but it has recently been shown that this con- 
jecture was a mistaken one. There is, at present, in the possession of 
the Dorchester Antiquarian and Historical Society, a deed on parch- 
ment which has never been recorded. It recites that in consideration 
of 6$ Thos Hawkins has conveyed to Dan 1 Preston of Dorchester 
24 acres of land more or less, part upland and part marsh, in a place 
anciently called Captain's neck, bounded by the land late Edward 
Brick's on the north, by the mill creek on the south and west, by the 
creek in part and by the land of said Dan 1 Preston in part on the east, 
excepting about a quarter acre that belonged with the mill ; " which 
twenty-fower acres of land the said Thomas Hawkins had and 
purchased of Robert Breck of Galway in Ireland Merchant and Sarah 
his wife as by their general deed . . . bearing date the thirtieth 
of December 1663 more fully appeareth." 

This Thomas Hawkins was the only son of Captain Thomas 
Hawkins, one of the earliest ship-builders in Boston, and a man of 
some note in his time. 1 Robert Breck, named in the deed, was the 
son of Edward Breck, and had married Sarah, the daughter of the 
younger Thomas Hawkins. He removed to Boston, where he was 
admitted an inhabitant in 1655, and where his son Robert was born 
in 1658. From this family and its collateral branch, the Brecks of 

1 See Drake, pp. 271, 287. 



THE COLONIAL PERIOD. 21 

Medfield, come many of the most respected citizens of Boston, from 
that time to the present day. The name occurs frequently among 
the early graduates of Harvard College. 

Then there are two other families whose names are a pretty sure 
indication of Irish blood, although they are described as English when 
any description is ventured upon. Florence Maccarty l was in Bos- 
ton as early as 1686. He was a butcher, and one of the founders 
of the first society for Episcopal worship in New England. 2 He had 
two sons, Thomas, born 1689, and William, born 1691 ; and he had 
three daughters. He was elected constable for the year 1687-88. 
He built his slaughter-house on Peck's wharf, in 1693, in company 
with Samuel Bill and Henry Brightman. He died in 1712. His son 
William was on several occasions elected to office in Boston, but did 
not seem anxious to serve the town in that way. 

The estate of Florence Maccarty, at his death, was valued at 
2,922, including " land and housing on King Street," valued at 
;i,ooo, situated probably at the south-west corner of State and 
Congress streets, which was at that time known as Maccarty's corner. 
The Maccarty farm, near where the Marcella-street Home now is, was 
bought for use as a stock farm, in connection with his butcher busi- 
ness; it was broken up and sold in 1830. 

Thaddeus Maccarty had four sons and a daughter ; Charles died 
at the age of eighteen, in 1683 ; the others were: Francis, born in 
1667; Thaddeus, born in 1670; and Samuel, born in 1678. He was 
an officer of the town in 1674, and a member of the artillery company 
in 1 68 1. He was taxed for ^50 in 1686. This implies an estate of 
probably not less than ^250, actual value at that time; and this sum 
represents much more than the same amount now does. He died at 
the age of sixty-five, in Boston, in 1705. His son Thaddeus was 
elected constable in 1727, but showed the same disinclination to serve. 

Thomas Maccarty graduated from Harvard College in 1691, and 

1 There was an Irish chief of this name of some note about a century before (see 
Amory, Transfer of Erin, p. 522) : this man's name may be an indication of patriotism on 
the part of his parents, possibly of family pride. But the next generation did not inherit the 
father's significant name. 

Drake, p. 468. 



22 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

was dead in 1698. Charles Maccarty was badly wounded in the ex- 
pedition against Quebec in 1690. These last two are not known to 
belong to either of the two families mentioned above. 

David Kelly was a land-owner in Boston in i6?g. 1 His son David 
was born here in 1647, Edward in 1664. John Kelly lived here about 
the same time, and had sons John and Samuel. , 

Edward Mortimer was on one of the first fire-engine companies 
here organized. 2 He kept a public house, and was described as " an 
accomplished Merchant, a person of great modesty, and could answer 
the most abstruse points in algebra, navigation, dialling, etc." He 
was an Irishman. By his wife, Jane, he had three sons : Edward, born 
1676; Richard, born 1680; Robert, born 1688 ; and three daughters. 

In the register of births, marriages, and deaths in Boston, from 
1630 to 1700, there are over two hundred entries of names distinc- 
tively Irish, 3 and probably many others just as certainly Irish, but not 
so entered. In some cases, here and there, Scotch and Irish nation- 
ality is remarked upon in the register. We give a few instances of 
this : 

i 

1656. Edmond Coussins of Pulling Point and Margaret Bird an Irish maid 
servant to John Grover of Rumney Marsh were married. 

1658. Mary of John Bowhonno a Scotchman and Moer his wife & Irishwoman 
born May 9. 

James Webster a Scotishman & Mary Hay an Irish maid were married 14* 
Feb. 

1659. John Morrell an Irishman and Lysbell Morrell an Irishwoman were 
married 3ist August by John Endecott Gov. 

1661. John Reylean an Irishman & Margaret Brene an Irishwoman were 
married I5th March by John Endecott Governor. 

Bryan Morfrey an Irishman & Margaret Mayhoone widow were married 2oth 
July by John Endecott Governor. 

The Christian name Bridget occurs frequently in families whose 
names give no suggestion of Irish birth. The fact that these marriages 

1 Records, 1679, p. 129. 'Records, 1678, p. 125. 

. * Including Barry, Collins, Hay, Healy, Kelly, Kenny, McCarty, McCue, McLoughlin, 
Manning, Morfrey (Murphy?), Mulligan, Ockonnel (God save the mark!), Pateson, Rylee, 
Shannon. 



THE COLONIAL PERIOD. 23 

were solemnized by magistrates does not prove that the contracting 
parties were not Catholics, when we consider the necessities of the 
times. But their Catholicity was probably in most cases short-lived, 
as has been before remarked. 

Under Cromwell's government many Irish people were sent to 
New England. On their arrival they were sold as servants or slaves, 
by those at whose charge they were brought here. The slavery was 
only temporary, generally for four years, and was distinctly under- 
stood to be in direct payment for the trouble and expense of trans- 
porting them. 1 In 1654 the ship " Goodfellow," Capt. George Dell, 
arrived at Boston with a large number of Irish immigrants, that were 
sold into service to such of the inhabitants as needed them. It is 
possible that this is the episode to which Cotton Mather refers as one 
of the " formidable Attempts of Satan and his Sons to Unsettle us." 

After working out their service these immigrants had a tolerably 
even chance to succeed in life, especially if they joined some one of 
the churches here established and recognized. While many of them 
did not do so, it is very evident from the church records that some 
of them did. 

To this period belongs the fbllowing petition, addressed to the 
authorities of the province, the original of which is to be found in 
the Massachusetts archives : 

The petition of Ann Glyn and Jane Hunter Spinsters Humbly Sheweth : 
That your Peti lately arrived at Boston from Dublin in Ireland in the Brig- 
anteen Ann & Rebecca whereof Thomas Hendry is Master That in Dublin aforsd 
your Peti agreed to Serve the Said Hendry the Term of Four years he Transporting 
them to Boston and he also agreeing to provide for and give unto your Petitioners 
each of them a New Suit of Cloaths for all parts of their Bodys which were Accord- 
ingly provided in Dublin and brought over here and since your Peti are disposed of 
the said M r Hendry witholds from and refuses to deliver unto your Peti their 
Cloaths according to his promise & Agreement. 

Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray your honours Consideration of the 
premises and that the said Master Hendry may be Directed to deliver unto your 
Petitioners their Cloaths according to his promise and agreement. 

ANN GLYN X signum. 
JANE HUNTER X signum. 

1 Randolph's report in the Hutchinson papers. 



24 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Hendry was ordered to appear before the provincial authorities 
and show cause for his retention of the emigrants' property. 

It was also the practice for some daring pirates to kidnap men 
at the English, Scotch, or Irish ports, and sell them to the Americans. 
Some of these waifs may have found their way to Boston. Moreover, 
English criminals were systematically sold to the colonists. 1 As late 
as 1736 the brigantine " Bootle," Capt. Robert Boyd commanding, 
sailed from Cork for Virginia, with nineteen transports. He touched 
at Boston in August, but the selectmen promptly had him before 
them, and made him promise he would not let them " come on Shoar," 
but would keep a strict watch on board his vessel to prevent their 
escape. It was on this ship that William Stewart came, who is men- 
tioned as one of the early members of the Charitable Irish Society. 

1 Statute of the reign of George I. [4 Geo. I., c. xi.], referred to in Lecky's " Eng 
land in the XVIIIth Century," p. 12. 



THE IRISH WITCH. 25 



CHAPTER II. 

THE IRISH WITCH. 

THE saddest tale we find in all American history is that of the 
witchcraft delusion that prevailed in Massachusetts in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. The belief in the actual existence 
of imps, witches, and embodied devils, and of their power to influence, 
not only the mental, but also the bodily, sufferings of their victims, 
was as wide as Christianity itself." " The defenders of the belief, who 
were often men of great and distinguished talent, maintained that 
there was no fact in history more fully attested, and that to reject it 
would be to strike at the root of all historical evidence of the miracu- 
lous." 1 One Matthew Hopkins, in England, is to be credited with 
the invention of a system of "proving" witchcraft that was every- 
where approved and adopted by the prosecuting officers. Eminent 
counsel and learned divines gave attendance at trials of suspected 
witches to see that " no fraud or wrong " was done them. Accord- 
ing to the law-books of the time "these witches have, ordinarily, a 
familiar, or spirit, which appeareth to them in the shape of a man, 
woman, boy, dog, cat, foal, hare, rat, toad, etc. Their said familiar 
hath some big or little teat upon their (the witch's) body, and in some 
secret place,, where he sucketh them. And besides their sucking, 
the devil leaveth other marks upon their body, sometimes like a blue 
or red spot, like a flea-biting, sometimes the flesh sunk in and hollow, 
all which may for a time be covered, yea, taken away, but will come 
out again in their old form." Torture and indignity is not only 
hinted at, but even specifically enjoined. The justices of the peace 
are reminded that the devil's marks "being pricked will not bleed, and 
be often in their secretest parts, and therefore require diligent and 
careful search." 

1 W. E. H. Lecky, Hist, of Rationalism, p. 38. 



26 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

There was a set method of "watching" for the appearance of the 
witch's imp. " She is placed in the middle of a room upon a stool 
or table, cross-legged, or in some uneasy posture, to which, if she 
submits not, she is bound with cords. She is there watched, and kept 
without meat or sleep for the space of four and twenty hours, for they 
say within that time they shall see her imp come and suck. A little 
hole is likewise made in the door for the imps to come in at." To 
comfort the magistrate for any uncertainty, he is reminded that he 
" may not always expect direct evidence, seeing all their works are 
the works of darkness." 

Solely upon such evidence as could be obtained by these in- 
human practices, and without any of the fables as to actual injury of 
others, such as were common and accepted in later cases, Mrs. Mar- 
garet Jones, a kindly and sympathetic woman, was condemned, and, 
in spite of earnest appeals and avowals of innocence, was hanged on 
June 15, 1648. The second victim in Boston, Mary Parsons, con- 
fessed to the murder of her own child by witchcraft. She was un- 
doubtedly insane. 

The devil-fear that seized upon colonial society at this time 
spared nobody. Of course the ignorant and the poor, with small 
chance to hide their personal peculiarities, were most often victims ; 
but the upper ten furnished their quota too. Mrs. Ann Hibbins was 
one of these. Of excellent family herself, and wealthy, her husband 
had been one of the judges that sat at the condemnation of Mrs. 
Jones. She was widowed now, and had suffered many misfortunes ; 
her infirmities, and even her wit, were turned as evidence against her. 
She was executed June 5, 1656. 

The fourth victim was after the witch-hunter's own heart. She 
was old, and ignorant, and poor. She spoke a strange tongue, and 
in secret she practised the rites of her childhood's religion. She 
was superstitious herself, and in the crazy terror of the time she lost 
her poor old addled wits : she thought herself a witch, too. 

In the midsummer of 1688, four of the children of John Good- 
win, a mason living in Boston, began to be afflicted with unaccount- 
able pains. Martha, the eldest, was thirteen years old, John eleven, 



THE IRISH WITCH. 27 

Mercy. seven, and Benjamin five. These children were well brought 
up, and were " thought to be without guile." The exhibitions that 
they furnished to the wondering community would have delighted a 
medium or a "Christian scientist" of the present day. They had 
pain in their heads, teeth, eyes, tongue ; their necks were breaking, 
their backs, their knees, their toes ; their cries were piteous and 
shrill, and the shifting of the pain from one part to another was con- 
stant and inexplicable. The most curious feature of their symptoms 
was the fact that the same part was affected, in each of the party, at 
the same time, so that they changed their yells and gestures simul- 
taneously, like soldiers at drill. The pains lasted an hour or more, and 
when it was over the children acted naturally, as at other times. The 
family had physicians examine the children, but no reasonable cause 
could be found for their disease ; s"o witchcraft was suspected. The 
cause was then sought for, and it was remembered that some weeks 
before, Martha had missed some of the family linen, and had charged 
a certain laundress with taking it away. Governor Hutchinson says 
" the mother of the laundress was one of the wild Irish, of bad char- 
acter, and gave the girl harsh language." Soon after this the " dis- 
temper " came upon her, and extended to her sister and her two 
brothers. There was also an older brother, and a little baby at the 
breast, but these were not seriously affected. The only persons that 
had absolutely no sign of the disorder were the little baby and the 
father of the family. The ministers appointed a day of fasting and 
prayer with the Goodwin family, and after this the youngest recov- 
ered. But the others obtained no relief, and finally the magistrates 
apprehended the two women, the laundress and her mother. Their 
name was Glover. 

On being brought into court, Mrs. Glover spoke only Irish, so that 
her testimony may have been misunderstood ; and it is well to bear 
this fact in'mind. It was said, though, that she spoke English in her 
family, and was perfectly able to converse in that tongue ; her refus- 
ing to do so was regarded as an additional proof that she was under 
the devil's influence. During the confinement of these poor women, 
the Goodwin children remained well while out of their own house ; 



28 THE IRISH Iff BOSTON. 

but on returning to it they were vexed as before. They were therefore 
bestowed at the houses of neighbors. The good people of the time 
" could not but think the devil had a hand in it by some instrument." 

Goody Glover's house was searched while she was on trial, and 
several small " puppets or babies," made of rags and stuffed with 
goat's hair, were found and brought to the court. Through the " two 
honest men " that acted as her interpreters, she acknowledged that 
her way of tormenting the objects of her malice was to wet the top 
of her finger with spittle and stroke these little images. As she il- 
lustrated her method to the Court, a child in the room was taken 
with fits. On repeating the experiment, the same result followed. 
When she was asked if she had no one to stand by her, she replied 
in the affirmative; but looking up "very pertly," she cried out, "No, 
he's gone ! " She then confessed that there was one, her prince, 
whose relations to her do not clearly appear in the evidence. I* the 
night she was heard soundly rating one that she called a devil, for 
basely deserting her, and she said 'twas for that cause she had con- 
fessed all. 

Cotton Mather visited her twice as she lay in prison, and ex- 
horted her to abandon her covenant with hell. To him also she 
spoke only Irish. Her interpreters told him that the Irish word for 
spirits was the same as for saints. He understood her not to deny 
her guilt of witchcraft, but he got very little from her about her 
meetings with her confederates. She gave Mr. Mather the names of 
four persons who were associated with her in her uncanny dealings, 
but he kept them to himself, from a wholesome fear of " wronging 
the reputation of the innocent by stories not enough inquired into." 
She did not answer many of his questions, and she refused to pray or 
be prayed for, because her spirits or saints would not give her leave. 
In regard to abandoning her supposed bargain with the devil, she re- 
plied that he " spoke a very reasonable thing, but she could not do 
it" She could not repeat the Lord's Prayer in English, even when it 
was repeated to her line by line, but made ridiculous nonsense of 
it. She knew it in Latin, however, but there was one part of it that 
she could not say, for some reason or other 



THE IRISH WITCH. 29 

If it were not for the rag-babies and her tricks with them, it 
might be thought that her supposed confession was a gigantic mis- 
take, due to her testifying only through interpreters to prejudiced 
judges. But there was no other way of accounting for her use of 
the images than the way that all tradition justified. And again, there 
was a quantity of additional evidence, of an entirely different char- 
acter from that which caused the death of Mrs. Jones, the first Boston 
witch, forty years before. A woman named Hughes testified that 
Goody Glover had bewitched to death a Mrs. Howen about six years 
before ; and further, that when the Hughes woman was preparing to 
testify, her son was taken with the same disorders that afflicted the 
Goodwin children. She said that she remonstrated with the witch, 
who replied that the boy's suffering was in retaliation for what the 
Hughes woman had done to herself and daughter. Hughes denied 
having injured her, and she relented. She looked kindly on the lad as 
she passed him in the court-room, and he was never troubled there- 
after. The reliability of this witness may be estimated by her testi- 
mony, that in former times she had often seen Goody Glover come 
down the chimney. 

The witch was examined by several physicians, who kept her in 
conversation for five or six hours. Their conclusion was that she 
was sane. So she was sentenced to be hanged. On the i6th of 
November, 1688, she was drawn in a cart, a hated and dreaded 
figure, chief in importance, stared at and mocked at, through the 
principal streets from her prison to the gallows. As she went she 
prophesied the children should have no relief from her death. It 
was ten o'clock in the morning. The procession was marshalled in 
due form, with judges and constables, and as it passed the window of 
Judge Sewall he was attracted by the tumult, and after watching it 
pass he made an entry in his diary of the death of the Widow 
Glover. The people crowded to see the end, as always ; and when 
it was over they quietly dispersed, leaving the worn-out body hang- 
ing as a terror to evil-doers. 1 

1 The usual place of execution was in the easterly part of the South Burying-ground, a 
fragment of which is still in existence on Washington street The gallows was placed near 
the shore, not far from the present site of the City Hospital, and its gloomy presence gave to 
what is now known as the South Bay the name of Gallows Bay. 



30 THE IRISH Iff BOSTON. 

We can imagine the distress of the daughter, herself suspected 
of witchcraft, alone and friendless in the midst of a stern people. 
She thought her mother guilty ; she heard the voices of the imps as 
the November winds whistled through the trees, or saw them frisk 
in the lengthening shadow that swung slowly to and fro on the 
beach. The children, whose ailments and whose testimony had 
doomed the old woman that hung there dead, were to live each a 
long life ; did they ever in secret question their hearts for the truth 
of that sad history? If they did, no whisper of it reached the outer 
world, and they lived and died in the odor of sanctity. 

Cotton Mather has frequently been referred to as the chief 
agent in this ferocious persecution. On the contrary, it will appear 
to any fair-minded investigator that, though he fully believed in the 
reality of witches and witchcraft, he was always earnestly in favor of 
combating them, so far as possible, by prayer and fasting, and re- 
peatedly interfered to urge humane counsels. To his moderation 
and good sense it is undoubtedly due that the names mentioned by 
the crazed old woman whose troubles we have just sketched did not 
lead to further excitement and other judicial murders. His character 
is not such as the older narratives of the witchcraft period would 
have us believe ; his harshness was only toward the devils, but Tie 
tried at all times to show gentleness and compassion to those pos- 
sessed by them. 1 

1 See Mem. Hist. Bost. ii., 156. 



THE CHARITABLE IRISH SOCIETY. 31 



CHAPTER III. 

THE CHARITABLE IRISH SOCIETY. 

earliest association of Irishmen in Boston was the Charitable 
JL Irish Society, whose organization on St. Patrick's day, in 
1737, was mentioned above. The following extracts from the records 
of the Society at that time will serve to establish its character and that 
of its founders : 

Whereas ; Several Gentlemen, Merchants and Others, of the Irish Nation 
residing in Boston, in New England, from an Affectionate and Compassionate con- 
cern for their countrymen in these Parts, who may be reduced by Sickness, Ship- 
wrack, Old age and other Infirmities and unforeseen Accidents, Have thought fitt to 
form themselves into a Charitable Society, for the relief of such their poor and indi- 
gent Countrymen, without any Design of not contributing towards the Provision of 
the Town Poor in general as usual. And the said Society being now in its Minority, 
it is to be hoped and expected, that all Gentlemen, Merch* 8 and others of the Irish 
Nation, or Extraction, residing in, or trading to these Parts, who are lovers of 
Charity and their Countrymen, will readily come into and give their Assistance to so 
laudable an undertaking ; and for the due Regulation and Management of said in- 
tended Charity, the Society, on the I7th day of March, in the Year 1737, agreed on 
the following Rules and Orders. 

I. This Charity is intended and to be appropriated to and for the Relief of 
Poor, aged, and infirm Persons, and such as have been reduced by Sickness, Ship- 
wrack, and other accidental Misfortunes, Contributors, who may by such Misfortunes 
become Objects to be always first preferred. 

II. All persons of evil Fame or Repute, are to [be] excluded as unworthy 
this Charity, and also all Persons reduced in other Countries and having suffered no 
Misfortune in their Passage hither shall not be deemed Objects of this Charity ; and 
all Irish Men, or of Irish Extraction, being capable and invited to joyn in this 
Charitable undertaking, and refusing the same, are to be for ever excluded the Benefit 
thereof. 

The names of the twenty-six original members of this Society are 
as follows : Robert Duncan, Andrew Knox, Nathaniel Walsh, Joseph 



32 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

St. Lawrence, Daniel McFfall, Edward Allen, William Drummond, 
William Freeland, Daniel Gibbs, John Noble, Adam Boyd, William 
Stewart, Daniel Neal, James Mayes, Samuel Moor, Philip Mortimer, 
James Egart, George Glen, Peter Pelham, John Little, Archibald 
Thomas, Edward Alderchurch, James Clark, John Clark, Thomas 
Bennett, and Patrick Walker. 

Of some of these members nothing is known. Joseph St. Law- 
rence was only recently come into the town ; in the selectmen's record 
for Sept. 28, 1/37, appears the following note: 

"Mr. Joseph St. Lawrence from Ireland, Merchant, having im- 
ported upwards of Fifty Pounds Sterling, Prays he maybe Allow'd to 
Carry on his Business in this Town." Nothing further is said, and it 
is presumed he was admitted. 

There was an Edward Allen, a builder, living in Marshall's lane 
in 1 789 ; a healthy old man, if he was the same one that was present 
at this meeting. 

William Freeland may possibly have been the same as William 
Fryland, a joiner from Ireland, who was admitted as inhabitant of the 
town September 9, 1730, although the spelling is not quite near 
enough _to warrant certainty. Spelling even of proper names at that 
time was in a chaotic state. Achmody passed for a fair spelling of 
Auchmuty, while Breck, Bricke, and Brick were equivalent forms, and 
Mccarty was current as the correct thing for the classic McCarty. 

James Mayes was accepted as bondsman for Robert Henry, a 
blacksmith from Ireland, who was admitted as inhabitant of the 
town August 5, 1741. The selectmen were very cautious about new 
arrivals, lest they should turn out to be of no account, and become 
an expense to the town. The law of the Province on this point was 
very strict, and forbade a citizen of the town to receive strangers " as 
inmates, boarders, or tenants ... in any house of his whatsoever 
within this Province . . . for more than the space of twenty days," 
without giving an account thereof to the town authorities, describing 
the immigrants and their circumstances as fully as possible. Then 
no persons, except those holding property sufficient to ensure free- 
dom from want, were admitted without the bond of some inhabitant 



THE CHARITABLE IRISH SOCIETY. 33 

to secure the town from expense if the new-comer should ever be 
a charge on it. 

Daniel Gibbs was probably Captain Daniel Gibbs, of the ship 
" Sagamore," who brought four hundred and eight passengers from 
Ireland in this same year, arriving at Boston Sept. 7, 1737. It was 
doubtless in consequence of his membership that the qualification 
" or trading to these parts " was introduced into the requirements for 
membership, as stated in the preamble to the " Rules and Orders." 

John Noble is on record on the 1 5th of October, 1740, as giving 
bond with Arthur Noble for the latter's wife and two children in the 
sum of 200. This family came from the colony of Georgetown, in 
Virginia. Arthur Noble was elected a member of the Charitable 
Irish Society in July of this same year. In 1796 he lived on Han- 
over street, corner Friend street. 

William Stewart was a cooper, who came from Ireland with his 
wife and two children in 1736. Joshua Winslow had engaged to be 
responsible for him, but finally he got Peter Curtice, a teamster, and 
Robert Dunlop, a laborer, to be his bondsmen. 

Thomas Bennett was a " retaylor of strong drink." 

John Little came here in 1722, and was so little known or ap- 
preciated that the selectmen warned him to " depart out of this 
town," as was the custom in cases where a new-comer had not much 
property nor any friends to pledge themselves for him. But he 
seems to have satisfied their doubts, for we soon after find them 
urging him to serve the town in one way and another, while he was 
trying in every way to get rid of it. He was chosen constable in 
1731, and excused by the town-meeting; again in 1732, and he 
asked to be relieved. In 1733 he was chosen hogreeve, and he paid 
to be let off, in accordance with the custom still prevailing in town 
governments, to accept money as an equivalent for public service. 
It is evident that his prosperity was no longer open to question. 

William Hall was president of the Society in 1766, and was the 
first to have his name on the records in that capacity. He served 
the town as constable in 1730. With John Carr and Capt. James 
Finney he " executed a bond of the penalty of six hundred pounds 



34 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

to indemnify the town on account of one hundred and sixty-two 
passengers imported by the said Finney in the Snow a Charming 
Molly, November 7, 1737." 

George Glen was a tailor. He had come from South Carolina 
in 1718, and was also warned to depart the town by the selectmen; 
but he did not go, for we find him in 1 742 in trouble for having in 
his house David Watts, his wife and two children, " from Topsham at 
the Eastward." They had been there about a month, and were like 
to become a town charge. It was voted by the selectmen to prose- 
cute Glen for not having informed of his receiving them into his 
house, according to law. 

Robert Duncan was a constable in 1740 and 1741. With 
two others he was on a bond for one hundred and fifty pounds 
in 1745. 

The Clark family were numerous and prominent in Boston, but 
the John and James here mentioned were probably of different 
stock. There was a James Clark in 1736 belonging to the engine 
company in the building next to the old North Church. 

Peter Pelham was a painter and engraver, and the father of fine 
arts in New England. He was in London in 1722; in 1727 he en- 
graved a portrait of Cotton Mather from a painting by himself. In 
1734 he had already commenced a school; but in 1737, fearing 
probably to incur somebody's displeasure by the teaching of such 
vanity as dancing, he applied to the selectmen for " Liberty to Open 
a School in this Town for the Education of children in Reading, 
Writing, Needlework, Dancing, and the Art of Painting upon Glass, 
&c." The petition was read and granted " While he continues to 
regulate the same in Conformity to the Laws of this Province, and 
has the Approbation of the Select men of the Town for the time 
being." With this authoritative license he felt safe to advertise his 
accomplishments to all " Gentlemen and Ladies in Town and 
Country." 

His places of abode were various ; he seems to have led a very 

1 A " snow " was a vessel having main and foremasts like a ship, and a smaller mast aft 
carrying a trysail. 



THE CHARITABLE IRISH SOCIETY. 35 

unsettled life. In 1734 he lived near the Town Dock; 1 here he ad- 
vertised his household goods for sale, as he was about to break up 
housekeeping. In February, 1/38, he lived on Summer street. In 
1742 he lived in Leverett's lane (now Congress street). In 1747 he 
kept his school on Queen (now Court street). Finally, after his 
second marriage, in 1748, he lived in " Lindel's row," 2 till his death, 
in 1751. 

As to his origin, there is nothing outside of his own description 
of himself, in the Rules and Orders of the Charitable Irish Society, as 
" of the Irish Nation residing in Boston." It has been conjectured 
that his father was Peter Pelham, an English engraver, born about 
1684. But the father of the New England artist had sat for his pict- 
ure at eighty, and " there never was so handsome, so charming a 
man at that age as he was ; " and he must have died before March 
13, 1761, because a letter from his daughter Helen, to Charles Pel- 
ham, a son by the first wife, mentions the death of the grandfather 
as a fact already known, and also that the date given above was that 
of her last previous letter. Besides the fact of Peter Pelham's mem- 
bership in that famous first meeting of the Charitable Irish Society, 
the family interest in Irish affairs is noteworthy. Henry Pelham, the 
son of Peter by his second wife, and half-brother to Copley, the 
famous artist, engraved a mezzotint of the Countess of Desmond, and 
was very much interested in the antiquities of Kerry. He intended 
to publish a history of that county, but was cut off by accidental 
death. 

But by far the most striking circumstance in this connection is 
the marriage of Peter Pelham, the founder of the Irish Society, with 
the widow of Richard Copley. She was the daughter of Squire 
Singleton, of Ireland, and had been married in Limerick. They 
came to Boston, and John Singleton Copley was born to them July 
3, 1737. Richard Copley died, and his widow for some time kept a 
tobacco store on Long Wharf, " selling the best Virginia Tobacco, 
Cut, Pigtail, and Spun, of all sorts, by Wholesale and Retail, at the 

1 Where Faneuil Hall now stands; Dock square was at the head of it. 
* Properly Lindall's lane, now Exchange place. 



36 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

cheapest rates." In 1 748 Pelham, who had probably lost his wife in 
1734, when he "broke up housekeeping," married the widow Copley. 
He continued his school-teaching and she her shop. 

John Singleton Copley, the future artist, probably learned as 
much from his step-father as his time would permit We may well 
guess, that between the teaching and the engraving and painting of 
pictures, little was told of the secrets of art in the three and a half 
years that Pelham lived, and Copley afterwards vainly regretted the 
lack of proper instruction in his early years. But in 1753 he engraved 
a portrait of Rev. Wm. Welsteed that is said to show traces of Pel- 
ham's teaching. His masterpiece was a portrait of his half-brother 
Henry Pelham, whose death in Ireland is mentioned above. The 
picture is called the " Boy and the Squirrel." 1 It was sent to Eng- 
land in 1774, and, owing to the miscarriage of an accompanying 
letter, its author was for a time unknown ; but it was received enthu- 
siastically by the best judges of art in England, and its phenomenal 
success finally drew the young artist to that country, where he was 
joined in a few years by his family. He never returned to America. 
His best pictures were painted here. One of his later paintings, 
executed in England, that of " King Charles I. demanding in the 
House of Commons the five impeached members, 1641," is in the 
Boston Public Library. 

Robert Auchmuty, father and son, members of the Charitable 
Irish Society in the years that preceded the Revolution, were learned 
lawyers, and their influence was felt in the progressive tendency of 
the town. The elder Robert was instrumental in bringing about the 
expedition for the capture of Louisburg. The house is still standing 
which was built about 1761 by the younger Auchmuty, and where 
the secret council of British officers Bernard, Hutchinson, Hallow- 
ell, and the rest of them met to discuss the inconvenient privileges 
granted by the provincial charter, and the feasibility of frightening 
the colonists into submission. The father was distinguished for 
wit and learning ; he was short in stature, of crabbed manner, and 
with a squeaky voice. The son rose into prominence in his profes- 

1 This picture is now in Boston. 



THE CHARITABLE IRISH SOCIETY. 37 

sion, but died an exile in London, in 1788. The family were tories. 
They are called Scotch by the cyclopaedias, but the elder Robert was 
for three years president of the Society, and its rule as to nationality 
has already been mentioned. 

Capt. William Mackay described as "gentleman" (i.e., not 
engaged in business), in the Directory of 1789 lived on Fish street, 1 
and was appointed in 1772 on a committee to draw up a statement of 
the colony's rights and grievances. He succeeded Robert Auchmuty 
in the presidency of the Society, and continued to hold that office till 
succeeded by Simon Elliot, in 1788. During the revolutionary 
period he enjoyed to the fullest extent the confidence of his towns- 
people, serving on many committees for various purposes. Among 
other things he was a member of the " Committee of correspondence, 
safety, and inspection," appointed by the town in 1776. 

At a meeting of the Society held in October, 1784, the first after 
the Revolutionary war, the president, William Mackay, made an 
address, which was placed on the records, and is as follows : 

Gent m Members of the Charitable Irish Society I congratulate you on this 
Joyful Occasion, that we are assembled again after Ten years absence occasioned by 
a Dreadful and Ruinous war of near Eight years ; also that we have Conquered One 
of the greatest and most potent Nations in on the Globe so far as to have peace and 
Independency. May our friends, Countrymen in Ireland, Behave like the Brave 
Americans till they recover their Liberties. 

It is to be remembered that the tory members of the Society 
and they were neither few nor petty had been weeded out, and 
the president was speaking to loyal citizens of the new republic. 
The Scots' Charitable Society had absconded in a body at the be- 
ginning of the Revolution, carrying off their Society records to 
Halifax. They reorganized in Boston, and were incorporated with 
eleven members, in 1786. Mr. William Mackay was dead in 1801. 

Capt. John Mackay was master of the schooner "Margaret;" 
he was elected into the Society in 1791. On the way home from 
Amsterdam, in 1 796, with a valuable cargo, he was wrecked in Salem 

1 Now North street, between Cross and Fleet streets. 



38 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

harbor, during a blinding snow-storm, and perished, with three of 
his crew. 

Capt. Robert Gardner furnished the town of Boston a ship to 
take home "a true account of the horred Massacre" of Nov. 5, 
1770. This gentleman's interest in his fellow-countrymen appears 
from the records of the Charitable Irish Society. At his instance, 
the Society voted, in 1794, a sum not exceeding 3 to purchase 
school-books for poor children of Irish extraction. Again, in 1801 
he advanced money from his own purse to the distressed emigrants 
on the brigantine " Albicore," trusting to the Society to repay him. 
The last record we have of him is 1812, when he held the office of 
treasurer of the Society. 

James Downing (1737) kept a lodging-house in Wing's lane; 
in 1740 an Irish woman, named Abigail Richardson, was lying there, 
friendless and destitute, and near her time of travail, and from there 
she was taken to the poorhouse. Thomas Lawlor (1739) was an 
innholder or retailer of spirits. He served on a fire-engine in 1741* 
and as constable in 1749. Rev. William McClennehan (1741) 
was not of Irish birth. He was a colleague of Rev. Thomas Cheever 
in the meeting-house at Rumney Marsh (Chelsea), and was said to 
rival Whitefield for eloquence. In 1754 he joined the Episcopal 
Church, and soon went to England. William Moore (1743) was a 
distiller; he served the town as fence-viewer for ten years (1745 
I 75S) ^ n J 74 2 h e P a id f r release from the duty of constable. 
Benjamin Thompson (1757) was a coppersmith of some means, and 
lived on Orange street. Patrick Tracy (1737) was of Newburyport, 
and quite successful. John McLane (1768) was a slater on Orange 
street. In 1 766 he presented a bill of 82 to the town for repairs 
made by him on Faneuil Hall. He was a secretary of the Society. 
Capt. Alexander Wilson (1768) was appointed on a committee of 
merchants in 1779, whose duty it was to fix prices o*n different 
commodities, and thus relieve the distress due to a debased cur- 
rency. Patrick Conner kept a livery stable and boarding-house at 
38 Marlboro* street. Henry Pelham (1774) has been spoken of 
before. He made a plan of Boston in 1775, a tracing of which is 



THE CHARITABLE IRISH SOCIETY. 39 

reproduced in the Evacuation Memorial, 1876. Gen. Simon Elliot, 
Jr. (1791), was a good soldier, and for a long time prominent in the 
town. Thomas McDonough, Esq., was the English consul, and 
lived in Oliver's lane. Andrew Campbell (1797) was a school- 
master in Leverett's lane, afterwards on Common street. Rev. John 
Murray (1797) was born in England, and is regarded as one of the 
founders of the Universalist movement in America. His preaching 
excited considerable interest, some of it unfavorable in the extreme; 
but he lived to enjoy the highest esteem of all. He died in Boston, 
in 1815. 

Samuel Bangs (1769) was appointed sealer of leather by the 
town in the year 1769-70. In 1789 he appears in the Directory as 
a cordwainer (shoemaker) on Kilby street. Hugh McDaniel (1739) 
in 1758 was a lessee of one of the town's buildings, and paid an an- 
nual rent of about 1$. 

Some of the members of the Society, as has been said before, 
sided with the British-; but it is more than probable that these lists 
of the proscribed were not very carefully made, and that on general 
principles the name of a man would be inserted if he had simply not 
been active in the colonial cause. At any rate, names of members 
of this Society are to be found in the lists of loyalists, that, after the 
Revolution, turn up in Boston citizens in good and regular standing. 
Two or three such names, that happen to be easily reached, are here 
given; they occur in the Directories of 1789 and 1796, after having 
been classed with the refugees : 1 John Bryant was a trader and inh- 
holder on Eliot street, and on Exchange lane ; John Magner was a 
smith and farrier, first on Oliver's dock, afterwards on Lindell's row ; 
William McNeil had a rope-walk (William McNeil & Son) in Cow 
lane, on Fort Hill. 

An important part of the membership of the Charitable Irish 
Society was the Irish Presbyterian Church, established in Boston in 
1727. They first worshipped in a building which had been a barn 
on the corner of Berry street and Long lane (now Channing and 
Federal streets) ; and this unpretentious building served them, with 

1 Mem. Hist. Bost., iii., 176-177. 



40 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

the addition of a couple of wings, till 1744, when a comfortable 
church l was erected that bore a conspicuous part in the history of 
the town, and indeed of the nation, for it was here that the Massa- 
chusetts Convention met to debate the Federal Constitution, and 
finally to accept it, Feb. 7, 1 788 ; and to this fact Federal street owes 
its name. Governor Hancock presented to the new building the bell 
and vane of the old Brattle-street meeting-house. Their first pastor 
was John Moorhead, who was born near Belfast, in Ireland, in 1703, 
and was educated at one of the Scotch universities'. He was 
described as a forcible preacher, honest and blunt, and an " earnest 
and enthusiastic young Irishman." He published nothing, but 
maintained his connection with the church till his death, which 
occurred just at the beginning of the struggle for American Indepen- 
dence. He was elected a member of the Charitable Irish Society in 
1739, and gave them sound advice upon occasion. 2 He held -no 
office in the Society. Among his effects at his death was " a likely 
negro lad," to be sold by his executor. 

Another colony of the same class of Irish immigrants had ar- 
rived in 1717, with Capt. Robert Temple. He settled at Noddle's 
Island, 3 where he had a mansion-house that " contained elegant 
rooms suitable for the reception of persons of the first condition." 
These immigrants were not very cordially received. The Know- 
nothing spirit was already abroad ; or, rather, the English hatred for 
the nation they had so long trodden under foot followed the emi- 
grants that fled from them across the water. But when the Revolu- 
tion was at hand such an unhesitating stand was taken by the 
members of the Irish Presbyterian Church, and by other prominent 
Irishmen, that the coldness disappeared, and a cordial regard sprang 
up for Irish valor and patriotism that found its reward on many 
battle-fields. 

The charitable work of the Society is made up of small donations 
to tide over special emergencies, and is not, in general, of such a sort 

1 For the curious inscription on its columns, see Snow, " History of Boston," p. 222 ; 
for Dr. Channing's intelligible arrangement of it, see Drake, p. 576. 

8 Extracts from the Records, p. 27. 3 East Boston. 




JAMES BOYD. 



THE CHARITABLE IRISH SOCIETY. 41 

that any display could be made of it ; still there are occasional con- 
tributions of five hundred or a thousand dollars at a time. The 
Society is not rich. If it had been wisely managed at its origin, its 
age would, by this time, have made it wealthy. A very large fraction 
of the annual income goes towards celebrating the anniversary of St. 
Patrick, and satisfying the natural longing of Irishmen for the society 
of their countrymen. 

One of the most notable events in the history of the Society 
was its visit, in a body, to Andrew Jackson, President of the United 
States, at the Tremont House, June 22, 1833. In reply to an address 
of welcome by Mr. James Boyd, on behalf of the Society, Jackson 
said : 

I feel much gratified, sir, at this testimony of respect shown me by the Chari- 
table Irish Society of this city. It is with great pleasure that I see so many of the 
countrymen of my father assembled on this occasion. I have always been proud of 
my ancestry, and of being descended from that noble race, and rejoice that I am so 
nearly allied to a country which has so much to recommend it to the good wishes of 
the world. Would to God, sir, that Irishmen on the other side of the great water 
enjoyed the comforts, happiness, contentment, and liberty that we enjoy here ! I am 
well aware, sir, that Irishmen have never been backward in giving their support to 
the cause of liberty. 

They have fought, sir, for this country valiantly, and, I have no doubt, would 
fight again were it necessary'; but I hope it will be long before the institutions 
of our country need support of that kind. Accept my best wishes for the happi- 
ness of you all. 

The members of the Society were about to withdraw when 
President Jackson took Mr. Boyd by the hand, and said : 

I am somewhat fatigued, sir, as you may notice ; but I cannot allow you to 
part with me until I again shake hands with you, which I do for yourself and the 
whole Society. I assure you, sir, there are few circumstances that have given me 
more heart-felt satisfaction than this visit. I shall remember it with pleasure, and, 
I hope you, sir, and all your Society will long enjoy health and happiness. 

On September 6, 1834, the Society joined in a procession in 
honor of Lafayette, " with a standard bearer and ten marshals, who 
decorated themselves with the medals of the Society, and a special 



42 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

badge provided for the occasion in honor of General Lafayette, and 
bearing his likeness." 

The centennial celebration was held on March 17, 1837, an ^ the 
Society entertained as guests, Governor Edward Everett, Mayor 
Samuel A. Eliot, Hon. Stephen Fairbanks, President of the Massa- 
chusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, the Rev. Mr. John Pier- 
pont, Hon. John P. Bigelow, Hon. Josiah Quincy, Jr., and others. 

Among the remarks of the President of the Charitable Mechanics 
Association, we find the following : 

The relation which you yourself, Mr. President, as well as some others whom I 
have now the honor to address, sustain to that institution is some indication of the 
readiness of its members to avail themselves at all times of 'the friendly aid and co- 
operation of the intelligent and scientific, to whatever nation they may belong, and 
more especially of the natives of that country from which we have derived some of 
our earliest impressions of the importance of cultivating the arts. The liberal policy 
of that institution in regard to the admission of members is worthy of all praise, and 
the great accession of members, from time to time, is the best proof of the wisdom 
of this course, and I trust it will never subject itself to the imputation of rejecting 
any high-minded, intelligent mechanic, who has complied with the conditions of the 
constitution, whether a native or adopted citizen. 

Just fifty years later, Hugh O'Brien, the Mayor of the city, and 
one of the foremost Irishmen in Boston, well known for his active 
business interest in matters of practical science, was successfully 
opposed for admission to this association by a Mr. Henry N. Sawyer, 
on the ground that he was a Jesuit! 

The Society marched in the funeral processions of President 
Harrison in 1841, and of Andrew Jackson in 1845. In 1847 the 
famine, then destroying their countrymen in Ireland, moved them to 
give up their annual celebration, and strain every nerve to relieve 
their suffering fatherland. 

In 1860, at the December quarterly meeting, held at the Parker 
House, Hugh O'Brien, the president, called the attention of the 
Society to the danger our country was in, and said " it would be well 
for this time-honored Society to express its deep feeling on this occa- 
sion." A committee was appointed to prepare resolutions, and, after 



THE CHARITABLE IRISH SOCIETY. 43 

brief consideration, submitted the following draft, which was unani- 
mously adopted : 

Whereas, The chronicles of the day show the lamentable fact that these 
beloved United States are passing through a crisis that portends ruin to the integ- 
rity of this fair Republic and its institutions, and, 

Whereat, Our venerable Society preceded the foundation of the Confederacy 
and of the Constitution, guarded its infancy, and is identified with the existence and 
prosperity of the Union, and most sensitively feels the shock to the national body 
politic, therefore, 

Resolved, That the Charitable Irish Society of Boston condemns and abhors 
every principle or movement that would dissever these United States, and we now 
solemnly renew our vows of fealty and love for the Union and the Constitution, and 
emulating the example and glorious achievements of our predecessors of '76 and '89, 
we pledge our efforts and our influence for the vindication and maintenance, "pure 
and undefiled," of this most perfect form of civil and religious liberty. 

Resolved, That we invoke our brethren and fellow-citizens throughout the 
Union, by the memories of our past united career, to lay aside all sectional or 
partisan animosities, and devote themselves to the cause of our endangered common 
country. 

From the report of the secretary at the one hundred and twenty- 
fifth anniversary, March 17, 1862, we clip the following: 

A good many of our members have gone to the war to fight for the restoration 
of the glorious Constitution and Union of the States. Several of them, we can 
mention with pride, have already obtained a position in the army of the Union, 
which has redounded to the honor of their nationality. Thomas Cass and Patrick 
R. Guiney may be named in this record. The former, Colonel, and the latter, 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the gth Massachusetts Volunteers, which regiment, we are 
proud to say, composed entirely of Irish and Irish extraction, is to-day one of the 
best and bravest on the soil of deluded Virginia. 

The Society took part in the procession to celebrate the centen- 
nial anniversary of the battle of Bunker Hill. They formed part of 
the third division, composed of historic societies and civic associa- 
tions. 



44 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CAPTAIN DANIEL MALCOM AND THE REVENUE ACTS. 




DANIEL MALCOM was a citizen of Boston of con- 
siderable prominence in the exciting times that immediately 
preceded the Revolution. In the town records the name first occurs 
in the meeting of loth March, 1766, where he is appointed on a com- 
mittee to regulate the sale of lambs, probably to prevent the sale of 

unhealthy meat. He had good 
company on the committee, and 
his appointment thereon is a 
voucher of his high standing in 
the community. Soon the atten- 

tion of the town was attracted to an event of no common im- 
portance, in which Captain Malcom was the principal figure. The 
revenue officers, suspecting contraband goods to be on his prem- 
ises, began a search without due warrant. The sturdy captain 
stopped them at the door of a room that he had his own reasons 
for protecting, and so stubborn and defiant was he that they were 
glad to postpone the affair. But when they returned their reception 
was even worse. Captain Malcom had his Irish temper stirred, and 
would not suffer them to cross his threshold. Gathering his friends 
about him, he showed fight, and for a moment it looked as if 
bloodshed would follow. Fortunately, however, for the British offi- 
cers, at least, they consulted their better part of valor, and let the 
contraband goods remain under their very safe guardianship. It 
may well be imagined that no love was lost on either side. 

This occurrence was of itself important, as showing the strength 
of public sentiment backing Malcom in his resistance to the obnox- 
ious revenue laws ; but it was made still more so by the attitude taken 
by the Crown officials. The governor of the province summoned 



DANIEL MALCOM AND THE REVENUE ACTS. 45 

before him in council the sheriff, the deputy collector, -and the comp- 
troller of customs, with other citizens, and took their depositions in 
writing in regard to the raid. It reached the ears of the people that 
these depositions contained matter that if transmitted home, without 
a fuller and more impartial account, would greatly prejudice the 
interests of the colony. The testimony so taken was not recorded, 
nor open to inspection of any of the town's representatives. Under 
these circumstances the town-meeting appointed a committee of eight 
of the foremost citizens, including Otis, Hancock, and Adams, to ask 
the Governor for copies of the testimony, so that the town might be 
able to rectify mistakes, " and counterwork the designs of any who 
would represent them in a disadvantageous light." The committee 
was successful, and the suspicions of the town were confirmed when 
the depositions were read to them. At their bidding/the committee 
drew up a long letter of instructions l to their agent in London, Mr. 
Denis Deberdt, referring to the Stamp riots of the previous year, 
and giving a full, but not too highly colored, account of the " late 
occurrances in this town which is the particular occasion of our 
troubling you with this letter." 

The town apprehended that the government depositions " con- 
tained a partial account of the behavior of the people who from mere 
curiosity had got together, that they tended to corroborate the de- 
signs of our enemies," and so enclosed, not only the government 
depositions, but also a mass of testimony collected on the town's 
side, together with instructions that the agent should take every 
measure to prevent false views of the trouble gaining credence with 
the Ministry. This interesting letter closes by rebuking " a set of 
men in America who are continually transmitting to the mother 
country odious and false accounts of the collonys," and with a scath- 
ing denunciation of " an infamous character whose name is Richard- 
son," who seems to have made his living as an informer. The agent's 
replies were received and read at the May meeting of the next year, 
and with the reading of them the matter rested ; but it was not for- 
gotten, for when the town was asked to grant the use of Faneuil 

'Town Rec., 1766, pp. 191-194. 



46 THE IRISH IN BOSTON* 

Hall for the state dinner of the governor and his council on election 
day, permission was refused, except with the understanding that the 
revenue officers " are not to be Invited to dine there on said Day." 
At the request of the town nearly all the merchants signed an agree- 
ment not to purchase after the 3ist of December any of a list of 
about thirty different kinds of merchandise, if such merchandise was 
to be imported from England. Captain Malcom's signature to this 
list is given in this chapter. 

The revenue officers began to complain to England, and bitterly 
inveighed against the license of the press, the power and stubbornness 
of the town-meetings, and the "boycott" of imported articles. They 
asked for a firmer support, and broadly hinted that troops in the town 
and war-ships in the harbor would be very convenient. They got 
them. Gage stationed a regiment in Boston ; Castle William was 
prepared for active service ; a frigate, the " Romney," and four other 
vessels of war were stationed in Boston harbor. The irritation of the 
people was now further heightened by the arbitrary acts of Captain 
Comer, commanding this frigate ; she lay at anchor in the harbor, and 
received valuable additions to her crew from the fishermen of New 
England. Not enlistments : they were kidnapped by the press-gang, 
and even substitutes were refused. " Rebel " and " tyrant " were 
words freely bandied. The excitement finally culminated in the 
seizure of the sloop " Liberty." This vessel belonged to John Han- 
cock, who was a large ship-owner. She arrived from Madeira, in 
June, 1768, and made fast to Hancock's wharf (now Lewis wharf) 
The cargo was wine, and it is said part of it was consigned to Malcom. 
Thomas Kirk, the tidewaiter, 1 went aboard heron Friday, June 10, 
and was followed by Captain John Marshall, the commander of Han- 
cock's London packet-ship, with some others. They fastened Kirk 
below, and kept him there some hours, while they removed part of 
the cargo. During the night they went on with the good work, and, 
though the rumbling of the carts and the wakefulness of those troubled 
times made concealment impossible, the removal was not interfered 
with. A guard of thirty or forty strapping fellows bearing clubs 

1 Inspector of customs. 



DANIEL MALCOM AND THE REVENUE ACTS. 47 

marched with the loaded carts, and may have had something to do 
with the forbearance of the officials. The next day Captain Barnard, 
master of the sloop, made entry of five pipes of wine as his whole 
cargo ; and then there was trouble. The collector, Joseph Harrison, 
and the comptroller, Benjamin Hallowell, repaired to the wharf with 
the declared intention of seizing the ship for evasion of the revenue 
laws. Harrison hesitated, but Hallowell went ahead, made the seizure, 
marked the vessel with the broad arrow, and signalled to the " Rom- 
ney " as she lay anchored in the stream. Captain Comer sent his boats 
to bring her out under the guns of the ship. Meanwhile the streets 
in the neighborhood were filling with an excited crowd. Wild rumors 
spread abroad, and the sight of the war-ship bustling her boats out 
gave color to the idea that another impressment, or some similar act 
of oppression, was being carried out with the high hand of arbitrary 
power. Malcom stood at the head of his friends on the wharf and 
protested against the removal ; the vessel, they said, was safe where 
she was, and no officer nor anybody else had a right to remove her. 
The boats arrived, and the excitement increased. Malcolm and the 
other leaders of the populace threatened to go on board and throw 
the frigate's people into the sea. Suddenly the sloop's moorings were 
cut, and before anything could be done to prevent it she was gone 
from the wharf. The customs-officers, who were there in a body, 
now repented of their hasty action ; for the people before them, only 
half understanding the affair, knowing the bitterness of the govern- 
ment party, and suspecting the worst, seeing the vessel of one whom 
they knew and respected in the hands of the tyrant frigate-captain, 
and the protests and warnings of their leaders disregarded, became 
utterly furious. They attacked the officials, broke their swords, and 
handled them without much mercy. It speaks well for the respect- 
ability of that excited crowd that no one was killed. They smashed 
the windows in the houses of Hallowell and of his chief, the inspector- 
general. They seized the collector's boat, dragged it to the Common, 
smashed it into fragments, and made a bonfire with it. 

The next night was the eve of the Puritan Sabbath, and quiet 
reigned throughout the city. The widespread disorder of Friday, 



48 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

the consciousness that the fire was only smouldering that might at 
any time break out and wrap the land in the flames of revolution, 
and, more than all, the sudden death of John Marshall, a universal 
favorite, the captain of the London packet, threw a cloud of sadness 
over the staid, church-going town, and brought to its people a just 
and solemn resolution that carried them in soberness and safety 
through the trials of the following week. 

On Monday there were a few unauthorized attempts to organize 
the troubled spirit of the time ; but the steadier citizens took charge 
of the affair by calling a meeting at Liberty Hall l the next morning. 
Many answered the call, but the weather was threatening, so that 
they adjourned to Faneuil Hall. Here it was decided to call a town- 
meeting for the same afternoon, that the acts of the assembled citi- 
zens might be ensured recognition at the hands of the Crown. So it 
happened that the first popular assembly after the riot was a legal 
town-meeting. 

" After very cool and deliberate Debates upon the distressed 
Circumstances of the town," it was unanimously voted to send a com- 
mittee of twenty-one prominent citizens, of whom were Otis, Hancock, 
Adams, and our friend Captain Malcom, to wait upon the governor 
with a petition. This petition recites the fundamental doctrine of 
representative self-government, recalls the dutiful remonstrances of 
the colony, and the oppressive and unjust treatment that had followed, 
and in guarded terms reminds the king's representative that there is 
a limit to the patience of " this distressed and justly incensed People." 
They went on to say that, inasmuch as the Board of Customs had 
retreated to the castle, it was to be hoped they would never reassume 
their office ; and the petitioners " flattered themselves " that the 
governor would immediately order the " Romney " out of the har- 
bor till the town was assured of relief from its grievances. The 

1 The ground about Liberty Tree was called Liberty Hall. This tree was the largest 
of a group of majestic elms that stood at the corner of Essex and Washington streets, a spot 
commemorated by a brown-stone tablet at the present day. It was christened amid much 
rejoicing at the time of the Stamp riots, and its name, " The Tree of Liberty," stamped on a 
copper plate, was nailed to it. This tree was cut down by the British in 1775, and in falling 
slew one of its destroyers. 



DANIEL MALCOM AND THE REVENUE ACTS. 



49 



governor received the committee hospitably, and replied the next 
day in a conciliatory tone, but disclaimed all authority to do as he 
was asked by the town. At this meeting Otis spoke of armed resist- 
ance as the last re- 
sort, but one for 
which all should be 
ready. The town 
feared a repetition of 
the governor's tactics 
in the matter of the 
raid on Captain Mal- 
com, and appointed 
the same committee 
of twenty-one, of 
which Captain Mal- 
com was a member, 
to draw up an ac- 
count of the " true 
state of some late 
Occurrances," to be 
sent to Mr. Deberdt, 
in London, so that 
he could protect the 
colony from slander- 
ous attacks. 

The following 
Friday a third town- 
meeting formulated 



^tone ravfe 10 fep (Jeep 



IPMWfil : 




This cut of Captain Malcom's gravestone we owe to 
the courtesy of Mr. Edward Macdonald, Superintendent of 
Copp's Hill. The tomb is of brick. (See Shurtleff, p. 209.) 



instructions to the 

representatives, and ominously resolved " at all times to assert 
and vindicate our dear and invaluable Rights and Libertys, at the 
utmost hazard of our lives and fortunes." The next town-meet- 
ing was held on the I2th of September. A committee of sixteen, 
among whom again we find Captain Malcom, was appointed to report 
on the best course for the town to adopt " in the present emergency." 



50 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

With the recording of the report of this committee Captain Malcom 
passes out of history. He died in October of the following year. 

Captain Malcom was an Irishman, 1 and at the time of which we 
write had only recently come to Boston. He was elected a member 
of the Charitable Irish Society in 1766, elected on the board of 
managers in 1 767, and vice-president the next year, a position which 
he held till his death. It is to be remembered that these offices were 
not open except to men of Irish blood. He was one of the respon- 
sible representatives of the Society in money matters. His store, on 
Fleet street, was the resort of many of the more energetic of the 
revenue haters, and a constant menace to the peace of the king's 
officers. Ireland could not have presented to the colony a better 
man for the times, and if he had lived to hear the guns of Bunker 
Hill it needs no prophet to say he would have won renown for him- 
self and his race and shared gloriously in the triumph of his adopted 
country. 

His fellow-citizens appreciated him, and showed their confidence 
by selecting him as their representative in the troublesome and dan- 
gerous crises in which he was an actor ; but there is every reason to 
believe that his proper sphere was not diplomacy, but active and 
aggressive resistance. 

His grave is on Copp's Hill, in the oldest of Boston burial- 
grounds. The stone over it, shown in the accompanying cut, is of 
hard blue slate, two inches thick, and showing about a yard above 
the ground. The inscription is a just statement of his merits and 
reputation ; but an additional wreath is added to his laurels by the 
vindictive bullet-marks of the British soldiery, who used this stone as 
a target, and peppered the gravestone of the man who feared nothing 
less than a British " bloody-back." 

1 Drake, p. 737, note. 



THE IMMIGRANT. 51 



CHAPTER V. 

THE IMMIGRANT. 

THE first considerable influx of Irish immigrants began about 
1717. Casual mention is made on September 28, 1717, 
when the selectmen warned James Goodwin to depart the town, that 
he had arrived from Ireland about two months before with Captain 
Douglis. In the same year came Captain Robert Temple with a 
number of Irish Protestants. He commanded a company with credit 
in campaigns against the Indians, and very soon conquered the 
esteem of his fellow-citizens. He was the first to live on Noddle's 
Island (now East Boston), was a member of the Episcopal Church, 
and was elected to the Charitable Irish Society in 1740. On August 
4, 1718, arrived five ships in the harbor bearing Irish immigrants. 
These settled in different parts of the province, mainly in New 
Hampshire ; among them was Thomas Bell, subsequently a lessee 
of Noddle's Island. To this company, probably, belonged Thomas 
Walker, John Rodgers, James, Elizabeth, and Rachel Blare, who 
were warned to depart October 22, " having arrived from Ireland 
about two months before." The records of these warnings furnish, in 
many instances, the only clue we have to the extent and character 
of immigration. April 17, 1719, Alexander Macgrigory, "who with 
his family came lately from Ireland into this town," was warned to 
depart. On June 9, 1719, arrived a colony of Irish, from whom 
Andrew Pernis, a cooper ; John Macannis and wife and four children ; 
John Henderson, his wife and five children ; William Miller, his wife 
and four children ; John Criton and one maid ; John Severwrit ; Fran- 
cis Gray and wife and three children, were, on June 13, warned to 
depart. September 23, Martha Newell is recorded as having arrived 
from Ireland about seven weeks before, and on December 5, John 
Walker, wife and three children, as having arrived from Iceland 



52 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

about one month before. After this, for a while, either the 
stream of immigration was almost entirely diverted from Boston 
to enrich the surrounding territory, or the authorities found reason 
not to record so many Irish warnings. The fact that the Irish were 
still coming, and were not very welcome, is seen in the order of the 
town-meeting, in May, 1723, mentioned in another chapter, which 
states that " great numbers of Persons have very lately bin Trans- 
ported from Ireland into this Province, " and were driven by the 
Indian troubles to reside in the town. About the same time Gov- 
ernor Wentworth was in receipt of friendly warnings that the Irish 
were settling in the valley of the Merrimack, and that he had better 
take what precautions seemed best to him under the circumstances 
for the safety of the community. 

At a meeting of the selectmen, September 12, 1724, Captain 
Philip Bass appeared before them, " and it appearing to them that 
he had the measels (an Infectious Sickness) among his passengers 
in his vessel lately come from Ireland into this Harbor," he was or- 
dered to collect what passengers and goods he had allowed to get 
ashore, and go down to Spectacle Island till further order. 

Two of the most honored of Boston's early families were at- 
tracted to this city, after making a trial of other parts of America. 
They have had much influence on the course of events in Massa- 
chusetts, and especially in Boston. The more prominent of these 
was the family of John Sullivan, the Limerick schoolmaster, who 
settled in Berwick, Me., in 1730. From him descended James Sul- 
livan, 1 twice governor of the State ; John Sullivan, 2 the Revolutionary 
general ; William Sullivan, the lawyer, the interesting chronicler, the 
genial and accomplished gentleman. The memorial tablet of the 
last-named is in King's Chapel; it bears a Latin inscription, 3 and 

1 Autograph in Mem. Hist. Best., iii., 208. 

'Autograph in Mem. Hist. Bost., iii., 104. 

3 GUILIELMO SULLIVAN' JACOBI MASSACHUSETTENSIUM BIS GUBERNATOR1S FILIO. 
JOHANNIS IN BELLO LIBERTATIS VINDICE DUCIS NEPOTI' VIRO SOLERTI BENIGNO INTEGERR1MO- 
SUMMA DIGNITATE ET COMITATE PR/EDITO' REBUS ET CIVILIBUS ET M1LTTARIBUS CUM LAUDE 
VERSATO- JURISCONSULTO PRJESTANTI CAUSIDICO FACUNDO' SCRIPTORI JUCUNDO SUBTILl' IN 
SERMONE SUAVISSIMO- OMNIUM QUIBUS HOMO' NOBILIOR HUMANIOR ATQUE BEATIOR FIERI 



THE IMMIGRANT. 53 

the arms, crest, and motto of the O'Sullivan More. 1 The family 
is probably a connection of the Sullivans of Chesterfield; the 
prefix O' was not dropped by the Irish heads of the family till after 
the American Revolution. 

The Amorys were another important family. The first of the 
name here, Thomas Amory, went from Limerick to South Carolina, 
but in 1721 removed to Boston. The family was active on the 
Tory side at the time of the American Revolution, but have in 
every way identified themselves with the prosperity of the city since. 
" The Transfer of Erin," from the pen of Thomas Coffin Amory, in 
our own generation, shows that the tradition of Irish descent is 
neither forgotten nor dishonored. 

It is to the Irish immigrants of this time that New England 
owes the introduction of the potato and the old-fashioned spinning- 
wheel. 2 The potato, it is true, is an indigenous American product, 
and was unknown in Europe before Sir Francis Drake brought it 
from Virginia, in 1573; but it had been domesticated in Ireland, 
and from there first came to New England, where it has since been 
a staple. The other gifts of Ireland to the Yankees the old- 
fashioned foot- wheel and hand- loom came with the Irish spinners and 
weavers that landed in Boston in the earlier part of the eighteenth 
century. These acquisitions came in a good time. The town was 
much worried to provide suitable help for the poor, and to promote 
industry among the inhabitants. In 1720, when the appropriation 
for the poor reached eighteen hundred pounds, the town authorized 
a committee to consider and report on the establishment of a public 
spinning-school. They reported it expedient either to build or hire 
a house for the purpose, and to employ " some suitable person that is 
a weaver, having a wife that can instruct children in spinning flax, the 
town supplying them with money for a time on good security." Regu- 

POSSIT PERSTUDIOSO' FILIA AMANTISSIMA ET AMICUS PIMJCIPUE DEVINCTUS' UT CONTEMPLATIO 
V1RTUTUM PERMANEAT HOC MARMOR LUGENTES POSUERUNT NATUS XII NOV. MDCCLXXIV 
EXCESSIT III SEPT. MDCCCXXXIX. 

1 For the arms and crest see " Burke's Landed Gentry," The Sullivans of Wilmington. 
The motto is " LAMM FOISDIN EACH AN UACHTAR" (What we gain by conquest we secure 
by clemency). 

2 Drake, p. 560. 



54 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

lations for such a school were proposed, and a premium for good 
results suggested. 1 .In 1749 a society was established for encour- 
aging industry and helping the poor by spreading the knowledge 
of the linen manufacture. This was a revival of the enthusiasm for 
spinning, and went to much greater lengths. It was probably the 
basis of the effort to encourage Irish immigration, to which we shall 
shortly refer. The society was known as the Society for Encouraging 
Industry, and .held an anniversary meeting on the 8th of August 
each year, where a sermon was preached and a collection made 2 for 
the benefit of the enterprise. On the Common there was held 
a public spinning match; the women gathered by hundreds, each 
with her wheel and distaff, and sat in rows spinning, rich and poor 
together, vying with each other in dexterity and grace for the ap- 
proval of a large company of the sterner sex. Weavers also appeared, 
in garments woven by themselves, working at a loom on a movable 
stage, carried on men's shoulders, and attended by music. Jt was 
due to the efforts of this society that the so-called Manufactory 
House was erected, which stood, till 1806, in Long Acre street (now 
Tremont), nearly opposite where Park-street Church now is. 

On June 10, 1727, George Steward, of Ireland, was admitted an 
inhabitant. Five Irishmen were among the refugees from surround- 
ing towns that were warned out of Boston, July 24 of the same year. 
September 9, 1730, William Fryland and Francis Clinton, joiners 
from Ireland, were admitted inhabitants. December 1 1 of the same 
year Dennis Cramy, a wig-maker from Ireland, was admitted. In Au- 
gust of 1736 appeared the brigantine " Bootle," with nineteen trans- 
ports, as mentioned in a previous chapter, together with other pas- 
sengers ; in September of the same year a shoemaker named James 
White gives notice that he has taken as journeyman into his family 
one John Wallace, " who was lately imported by Captain Beard, from 
Ireland, " on this same transport ship. 

During the two years 1736-38 ten ships are on record coming 
to Boston from Ireland, bringing a total of nearly one thousand pas- 

1 " 5 for the first piece of linen spun and wove here, provided it be worth 43. per yd." 
1 453 i* 1754- 



THE IMMIGRANT. 55 

sengers. It was on the occasion of this influx of Irishmen that the 
Charitable Irish Society was organized. Among these vessels were the 
sloop "Hannah," with thirty-seven pasengers, and the sloop "Two 
Mollys," with forty-three passengers, which arrived in November, 1 736. 
In September of the next year, came the ship " Sagamore," with the 
heaviest load of passengers on record. They had been afflicted with 
measles on the passage, and it was only with great trouble they secured 
permission to land. The captain and a Mr. Hugh Ramsey, who had 
chartered the ship, were examined at some length by some of the 
physicians of the town, whose opinion was, that it would be very 
dangerous to the inhabitants if the passengers or the ship's company 
were allowed to land before they had " aired themselves and cleansed 
the ship." The immigrants were accordingly ordered to Spectacle 
Island for that purpose. To secure the town against loss, in case 
any of these immigrants became a public charge, two separate bonds 
were executed, one for three hundred and eighty-one passengers, of 
the penalty of one thousand pounds, and one for twenty-seven pas- 
sengers, of the penalty of two hundred pounds. On the same day 
was filed a bond of six hundred pounds, for one hundred and sixty-two 
passengers imported from Ireland in the snow " Charming Molly," 
Captain James Finney. A couple of weeks before, a bond 1 of five 
hundred pounds had been filed for passengers (number not given) 
in the brigantine " Elizabeth," Captain William Mills. 

In May of the next year came the ship " Eagle," Captain William 
Acton, with eighty-two passengers ; and the year after arrived the ship 
Barwick, Captain Ephraim Jackson, from Ireland, with forty-six 
passengers. Several other ships are incidentally mentioned ; among 
others the ship " Catharine," Captain Robert Waters, from which, in 
June, 1737, a transport named Bryan Karrick and a " spinster " named 
Catharine Driscoll landed and dwelt in the town; the brigantine 
"Salutation," Captain John Carall (spelled also Carrell), arrived in 
September, 1737, with passengers, among whom were twelve that the 

1 The names of Robert Auchmuty, William Hall, and William Moore, early members of 
the Charitable Irish Society, appear on these bonds; and Daniel Gibbs, master of the 
Sagamore," was one of its orginal members. 



56 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

town formally admitted as inhabitants. These twelve were with one 
exception (Mary Burton, a " single woman ") the families of Irish- 
men already here, who had sufficiently prospered in their new home 
to be enabled to send to the old country for their wives, their sisters, 
and their children. There came also in the same ship George 
Lucas, his wife and child, and in all probability other passengers 
who did not happen to be mentioned in the selectmen's records. 
The time of passage appears in one or two cases : the ship " Sarah 
Galley," Captain Samuel Waterhouse, that was quarantined in April, 
1737, for small-pox, had taken seven weeks to come to Boston from 
Cork. The three passengers in this vessel came from London. In, 
August of the previous year Captain Benedict Arnold touched at 
Boston in the " Prudent Hannah," with one hundred and twenty pas- 
sengers, bound to Philadelphia ; and although he promised to take 
them all on board again, Mr. John Savell took a servant from among 
them. The passage from Ireland had occupied twelve weeks. The ship 
"Sally," in 1763, came in fifty-nine days from Kingsgate, Ireland; 
this vessel also was brought upon the record by being quarantined for 
small-pox. 

The Irish settler in America turned up occasionally in unhappy 
straits, and at Boston always received kindly treatment in his distress. 
It is said that the suggestion of " Gulliver's Travels " came to Swift from 
a returned Irish emigrant named Gulliver, whom James Boies had found 
sitting in tears on the road to Milton, and had helped to return to 
his native land. In 1736, at a meeting of the selectmen of Boston, 
Dennis Sullivant appeared, and upon examination said that he, with 
his wife, were lately come to Boston from South Carolina by land ; 
that he had been in town about five weeks, and wanted to return to 
England or Ireland as soon as he could conveniently obtain a passage 
for himself and his wife. Of the same tenor is the following letter, 
which quaintly tells its own pathetic story : 

DONNOUGHADEE, March ii, 1755. 
DEAR SON 

I Received Several Letters from you this while, which I am very much Grieved 
and in great Sorrow and trouble, about your poor and Melancholly Condition, I 



THE IMMIGRANT. 57 

have wrot and sent 5 or 6 Letters to you within this 12 Months past whether you 
have received any of them I doe not know, pray use or take all the Pains or opper- 
tunity you Can get to come home, through God 8 assistance we shall doe what Lyes 
in my power for you while I Live, pray neglect noe opportunity in Comeing home 
as soon as Lyes in your power, your Mother has her Love to you and She is very 
Desireous and fond that you make the best Indeavour you can to gett home pray 
Delay not as soon is possible in Comeing home y r Brothers and Sister* has theire 
Love to you, and they are also very Desireous of y r Comeing home. Your Mother 
and I, joyne with our Blessing to you. 

all at present from y r Loving Father 

ALEXD B McNEILY. 

I also pray God to bless these Good Chris- 
tians which has been pleased to take Notice of 
you in your poor afflicted State and Condition. 



The province appropriated fourteen pounds for the purpose of 
sending the poor fellow to his friends in Ireland. 

On October 31, 1741, appeared in the harbor a sloop from 
Ireland with sixty-five passengers, bringing a dreadful story of 
distress and starvation. A meeting of the selectmen was imme- 
diately called, and steps were taken to investigate the matter. It 
was found that the unfortunate sloop was called the " Seaflower," and 
had sailed from Belfast, with Ebenezer Clark as captain, on July 10. 
She was bound for Philadelphia. Her original complement of 
passengers was one hundred and six. On July 25 the captain died, 
and soon after the mate fell sick. They encountered heavy weather 
and sprung their mast. They lost all the ship's officers, and partly 
because they were now under no proper discipline, perhaps also 
because the original stock of provisions was so small as only to 
suffice by the most careful allowancing, they soon exhausted their 
supplies, and began to suffer the horrors of starvation. The water 
also failed ; and the tortures of the ship's company aptly fitted the 
tale of the Ancient Mariner. In the extremity of their misery they 
resorted to cannibalism. Though our well-fed humanity sickens at 
the thought of it, it is more than probable that no assembly of men, 
in such a time of despair, would hesitate long between the sweetness 



58 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

of life and the sacredness of death. Let us remember that that 
company of heroes who suffered with Greely in the Arctic winters, 
and came home to tell the tale, owed their wrecked existence to this 
ghastly expedient. It is one comfort, that the lottery was not called 
upon to pick out a victim for sacrifice : they fell from exhaustion 
or disease in sufficient numbers to ensure a plentiful supply. Six 
successive bodies were divided among their surviving shipmates, 
and they were already cutting up a seventh when they espied the 
British man-of-war " Success." They were supplied with men and 
provisions sufficient to bring them to Boston, where they arrived 
after a passage of sixteen weeks, and with a loss of all their officers 
and about forty passengers. Of the sixty-five people surviving when 
they entered Boston harbor, as many as thirty were so weak as to be 
incapable of helping themselves, and required the speediest care to 
preserve their lives. The day of arrival was Saturday ; on the fol- 
lowing Monday the Governor and his Council, acting on information 
received from the selectmen, ordered them to secure the vessel's 
papers and cargo, to " dispose of the Servants and Passengers " in 
the hospital on Rainsford's Island, to support, nurse, and recover 
them to health, and also to secure them for the use and service of 
the owners of the sloop. The owners were to be notified immedi- 
ately to repair to Boston to pay all charges, and to take all further care 
that might be necessary of the ship and her unlucky freight. Upon 
the refusal or neglect of the owners, the charges were to be demanded 
of the passengers, and exacted, if necessary, by the sale of their 
services " for a reasonable time." Accordingly, on Tuesday morning, 
the vessel was taken down to Rainsford's Island, and the passengers 
carried on shore and lodged in several rooms in the hospital. A 
messenger was despatched to New Haven for the owner, Mr. Joseph 
Thompson ; two weeks later he appeared, and with Capt. John Steel, 
one of the selectmen of Boston, gave surety to cover the town's 
expenses in their benevolent work. Notwithstanding this little for- 
mality, we find the next February that the town pays ten pounds 
eight shillings for nursing and burials. One of the passengers, 
named Carr, was so far recovered by November 18 that he was 



THE IMMIGRANT. 59 

employed as journeyman in the shop of Mr. Samuel Butler, the 
saddler, at No. 2 Dock square. 

The sensation which this tale of suffering created could hardly 
have died away when the Governor received the following communi- 
cation. The spelling shows a trace of the brogue. 

The humble supplication of us his Majesties Subjects Late from Urope 
Humbly Showeth 

That y e Suppliants together with upwards of one hundred & sixty more ship' d 
aboard Martha and Eliz : Matth w Rowing Comander Bound f ra Londonderry in the 
North of Ireland to New Castle in pensilvania and after being upwards of seventeen 
weeks at Sea, tossed and Exposed to Extrame hardships wee were cast upon the Shore 
at the Bay of Funday as we are told forty Eight Lagues East of St Georges River 
where we have Been Living poorly on Clames and other Eatibles we picked upon the 

shore to preserve our Lives, these Seven weeks past Cap" Rowing hurrying us 

ashore to shift for ourselves there Left us ; and he with some of the hands fittest for 
his purpose went of from us and soon after came in y e Long bote to Frederick's fort : 
and thence they brought a Little Scooner and Small Sloop for the movible goods 
that came with us and all such of y e passingers as was found alive on the Shore 
Before the Sloop and Scooner got to us, about thirty of the strongest & most 
Healthy, being In Extrame want ; went to y 6 woods designing to travel as fare as 
possible for Inhabitants. Of these we can give no farther account Eight or Nine 
more of our Number went off along Shore seeking somewhat to support nature at 
the time the Sloop and Scooner came for us, the hands abord (our mate and others) 
for Reasons best known to themselves, was quite unwilling to send or sarch for 
these : though we had seen them that very day on the shore sarching for food and 
Eating Rockweed and so Left them & of these we can give no farther account. Now 
besides these already Mentioned of all that Came first abord the vessel at London- 
derry there is but forty Eight of us now in being, many died at sea and many after 
we came to Land the corps of w ch Lie many of them yet on the Shore through wake- 
ness we were not able to Interr them. The Sloop and Scooner aforesd took in as 
much as possible of y e goods that came alongst with us : and the Forty Eight Souls 
they found alive and handy for them on the Shore but unwilliug to stay for the 
other Eight or Nine already mentioned that had just gone out from us, they got of 
(with us) for St. Georges. Monday Last the forty Eight got safe to pleasent point 
at the mouth of St. Georges River where our mate with the Rest of our Crew 
Nowithstanding all they had brough from the vessel with them w* was more then 
Enough for them Charged us to pay twinty Shillings tarling Each for our passige 
from y e Shore where our Captain Left us to pleasent point where they Landed us. 
and for payment they Took and Stripted us of our Coats and Gowens we brough 
from Ireland with us, making all at their own price from soom they Have took fifty 



60 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Pounds worth for fifteen pounds of this money we are after all our hardships to pay 
according to y* unreasonable Charge : we hope y Excellency (seeing there is no 
officers here that can come at these Goods In the Sloop & Scooner as yet or can do 
us any Great Sarvice In this affair) will advise us who are but poor men simple 
women and See justice done us In this Strange Land. . . . they 
think it not too Hard as we find after all to strip the Living and Lave us 
almost Naked. . . . y place is not able to support such a Number of us and 
away we can not get where provisions are more plenty no Sloop being Ready or 
willing this time of y 8 Year to take us off: and the most of us scarse able to walk 
through wakeness of Body & poverty the generality are women or small children 

ST GEORGES ALECK CAMPBELL I 

Nov. 20, 1741 # WILL" LUNNEN $ 

Governor Shirley promptly communicated this case to the 
General Court, saying that " as Strangers and as they are in a very 
Calamitous and helpless Condition they are proper objects of our 
Christian Compassion." On the report of a committee appointed 
to investigate the matter, two days later it was voted to direct the 
government officials at St. Georges to " use all proper methods for 
recovering thirty-nine persons missing and enquiring into the abuses 
complained of." And within three weeks from the date of writing 
of the petition, Sanders's sloop was loading " two hundred and fifty 
pounds old tenor " in provisions, for the benefit of the unhappy Irish. 

It was during this same year that a famine, second only to that 
dreadful one within our own memory, spread death and terror over 
unhappy Ireland. Hard was the fate of emigrants such as these, 
facing a long and dangerous voyage, in a crowded ship, to a savage 
land ; fleeing from starvation at home, only to meet it in even more 
merciless severity on a wild sea or a wilder coast. 

There were other dangers attending the passage over. Piracy, 
pure and simple, was then an every-day story ; but whatever ships 
were lost in that way would hardly appear in the Boston records. 
Piracy, legalized by a declaration of war, and directed against the 
commerce of one of the belligerents, in other words, privateering, 
was also a constant danger. The result of a privateering exploit 
turned up in Boston in 1744. On the i8th of September arrived 
sixteen girls and three boys from Cape Breton; they had left 



THE IMMIGRANT. 61 

Ireland for Philadelphia in July, were taken prisoners by a French 
privateer and brought to Louisburg. A number of prisoners taken 
at Canseau by the French earlier in the year, before tidings of the 
war had reached the colonies, were sent to Boston, and it is probable 
that this collection of Irish non-combatants reached Boston with the 
same party. They were sent to the almshouse. 

At this time the people of Boston reversed their judgment of 
the Irish, although they still stuck at the Catholic. Emigration of 
Irish was actively encouraged, agents being sent to Ireland, and the 
grant of a ship being (as narrated below) obtained for the purpose. 
The Irish penal code was then in operation, and the law did not 
suppose any such person to exist as the Irish Roman Catholic. 

In the winter of 1749-50 the Province granted to Mr. Joshua 
Winslow, Mr. Thomas Gunter, and Mr. Samuel Wentworth the loan 
of the frigate " Massachusetts " for a voyage to Ireland and back, with 
the design of importing Irish Protestants. It appears that in some 
way this enterprise was counted as an exceedingly profitable one, for 
one of the citizens said he would have given " a thousand pounds 
Old Tenor " for the grant of the ship, and another offered deeds of 
a hundred acres (probably virgin forest) to any family intending to 
settle on the land so conveyed. " When the Grant of the Ship was 
first made us the news of it spread among the Irish in a surprising 
and quick manner into all parts of the government. My house soon 
after was daily filld with Numbers, and they seemed so Elated and 
Joyous that the Governm* had so taken notice of them, that they 
would encourage people enough to come, and no doubt But the Ship 
would be as full as she could stow. 

" Most of them that came wanted to send for some Relations or 
other. Others wanted to go as procurers, one saying he could Engage 
to procure Twenty, others thirty and forty and so on. Mr. More- 
head was also very kind in assisting to write Circular Letters to all 
his Friends far and near, Recommending this ship as the best oppor- 
tunity that could offer for transporting themselves." l 

1 Letter of Thos. Gunter to the Ho. of Rep., 16 April, 1754. Mass. Arch. v. 15 A, 
PP- 235-9- 



62 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Colonel Wendell, who was one of the committee appointed by the 
General Court to manage the business on the part of the Province, 
was so exasperated at not being admitted to a share in the enterprise 
that he threw all possible obstacles in the way of its execution. He 
finally succeeded in making it so profitless that the grantees, after 
being at considerable expense in repairing the ship and obtaining 
freight, finally threw up the project in disgust, and the frigate was 
shortly afterward sold. 

At the time that this grant was made James Boies was in Cork 
on similar business, and wrote the following letter to Samuel 
Waldo : 

MR. WALDO 
Sh- 
in acquiescence w th y e Desire of m r Winslow that upon my arrival in 
Ireland i should inform you therewith as I've y e managem* of two Vessels of m r W m 
Bowdoin's & shou'd be glad if y u or friends in Irel d did intend to carry familys from 
thence do believe I should be Enabled to treat w th you & Sooner than any other. 
I Shall be ready to Sail from thence ab* y 20 th of March next & if you have any 
comm 40 shall gladly Execute them. 

I am S r 

Your most humble serv* &c 

JAMES BOIES 

(PS) My business here is to carry Passengers & Servants please to direct my 
lett T to y* care of m r W ra Winthrop merch 1 in Cork. 

CORK y 2 d February 1749/50. 
To SAM" WALDO Esq r . 

The dangers due to overcrowding, though not so prominent in 
the case of Irish ships as with the German immigrants of 1750 or 
thereabouts, undoubtedly prevailed to a great extent on all classes 
of passenger vessels. The following act, passed by the General 
Court in February, 1750, shows the dangers that forced themselves 
upon the attention of the people. A penalty of five pounds per pas- 
senger was incurred by violation of the provisions here quoted. Full 
authority was given to the customs officials to make needful exam- 
inations. The heartless and criminal parsimony that led to such 



THE IMMIGRANT. 63 

horrors as that of the sloop " Seaflower " is also borne in mind by 
the legislators. 

An act to regulate the Importation of Germans and other Passengers coming 
to settle in this Province : 

Whereas Germans and other Foreigners may be Imported in so great Num- 
bers in one Vessel that through want of necessary room and Accommodations they 
may often Contract Mortal and Contagious Distempers & thereby occasion not only 
the death of great Numbers of such Foreigners in their passage but also by such 
means on their arrival in this Province those who may arrive may be so Infected as 
to spread the Contagion and be the cause of the death of many others. To the 
end therefore that such an evil Practice may be prevented and Inconveniences 
thence arising avoided, as much as may be ; 

Be it therefore Enacted by the Lieut Gov r Council and House of Representa- 
tives, that from and after the publication of this Act no Master or Cornander of any 
Ship or other Vessel whatsoever bound to the Port of Boston or elsewhere within 
this Province shall Import into said Port of Boston or into any other Port within 
this Province any greater number of Passengers in any one Ship or other Vessel 
than such only as shall be well provided with good and wholesome Meat, Drink and 
other Necessaries for Passengers and others during the whole Voyage ; and shall 
have room therein to contain for single Freight or Passengers of The age of 
Fourteen years or upwards at least six feet in length and one foot six inches in 
breadth. 

The modern emigrant ship, with its vast storage capacity and 
swift trips, is free from many of the dangers attending the slower and 
less commodious vessels of earlier times. But even now the immense 
crowd of people, twelve or fifteen hundred in a single ship, with ar- 
rangements made rather for sociability than for isolation, and to a 
certain extent subject to the authority and even caprice of stewards 
and of petty officers generally, have been exposed to considerable 
danger of social corruption, a danger which has been only recently, 
to a certain extent, eliminated. For what reform has been accom- 
plished in this direction the world owes its thanks to Miss Charoltte 
G. O'Brien, daughter of William Smith O'Brien (the Irish rebel of 
'48, who is said to trace his descent from Brian Boru), who entered 
single-handed upon the task of investigating the conditions attending 
the passage and arrival of Irish immigrants in America. At a meet- 



64 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

ing of the Charitable Irish Society, Nov. 9, 1882, she gave an account 
of her efforts and results. Though there still remains work to be 
done in this direction, the friendless young Irishwoman in one of 
these floating cities has much to be thankful for, and far less diffi- 
culty in avoiding the snares that are ever spread for youth and 
chastity. 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT. 65 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT. 

THE Know-nothing movement, so called, though nominally di- 
rected against all foreigners, arose in the deep hatred that the 
English and their descendants bear against the Irish. Its cause is to 
be sought deep in the roots of Irish history. Like the Greeks and 
Persians, these islanders, that should be allies and friends, as well as 
neighbors, have stood always with daggers lifted to perpetuate the 
shame of a faithless wife, the beautiful Devorgilla, of Brefny. No 
soft-voiced, effeminate Paris, however, was Dermot McMurrough, the 
betrayer of the Irish matron. Hoarse, gigantic, bloodthirsty, and ty- 
rannical, he was dearer to her than her own true lord, O'Rorke, and 
the joy of home and kindred. She fled with him, and pursued by 
her husband and by the king, who actively espoused the cause of the 
O'Rorke, they embarked for Aquitaine, where they' found Henry 
II. of England. By his permission Dermot prepared and launched 
upon his native land Strongbow's army of Normans; and in this 
treachery began the fight that has lasted without rest or reason for 
seven centuries. The Norman arms and discipline were everywhere 
victorious. They built great castles and lived by plunder. In 
the course of time they began to assimilate with the native Irish, a 
process which was much hastened by the neglect or inability of 
England to protect the loyal Anglo-Irish in times of rebellion. 

The faithlessness of Devorgilla bore fruit two centuries later in 
the infamous statute of Kilkenny, 1 which separated the body of Ire- 
land into two parts, the English Ireland being the head, entitled to 
reasonable consideration ; and the Irish Ireland, the tail, which existed 
only for the sake of the head, and had of itself no claim to any kind 
of consideration. The separation was rigid. Intermarriage and fos- 

1 40 Edward III., Irish Stat. 



66 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

terage were high treason. English ecclesiastical preferments, monas- 
teries, horses, weapons, and any supplies, were forbidden to pass 
from English to Irish ; the Irish dress, their native manner of riding, 
their Irish language, or any mixing with the English, was forbidden. 
The murder of an Irishman or the violation of an Irishwoman was no 
crime, and war upon the Irish was the sacred duty of the English of 
the Pale. It is true that these enactments were not enforced, and 
that their very ferocity is an index of the weakness of the dominant 
body ; but one can see " that such as had the government of Ireland 
did indeed intend to make a perpetual enmity between the English 
and the Irish, pretending that the English should in the end root out 
the Irish." Although the rooting out is not yet completed, the 
hatred which inspired this spiteful statute has grown by exercise 
through centuries ; and the spectacle that Ireland furnishes in history 
is not unlike the condition of some households in the South before 
" the Institution " disappeared, where of the daughters of one father 
one served the other early and late with all self-sacrifice and devotion, 
and for return had contempt and cruel abuse. 

When the Reformation came, Ireland's condition took the one 
possible increase of misery. Religious animosity was added to the 
race-hatred that had embittered her servitude ; and from that time 
forward the Engli Jiman has known no honest faith, no Christian 
charity, no human mercy, for the " wild Irish " of Ireland's native 
race. 

To that inherited hate, fostered by a careful silence of English 
historians on the merits and grievances of the Irish, and by a not less 
careful emphasis on her religion, her wild and desperate struggles 
for relief or vengeance, her physical, mental, and moral starvation, 
America owes the mis-named " American " movement. It has sunk 
to sleep in times of danger, and the universally acknowledged superi- 
ority of Irish soldiers has never gone begging. Irishmen signed the 
Declaration of Independence. Irishmen like " saucy Jack Barry " in 
the navy, like John Sullivan in the army, like Charles Carroll in the 
halls of state-craft, have not been heedlessly thrown away. 

It is in the piping times of peace, when the natural activity and 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT. 67 

enterprise of Irishmen makes them formidable competitors for leader- 
ship, that the narrow-minded, the cowardly, and the ignorant fear to 
put " aliens " in command of a nation whose victories were in great 
part paid for by the blood of the alien race. 

Probably the first recorded symptom of this distemper is the 
utterance of Cotton Mather, in a sermon entitled "A Pillar of Grati- 
tude," delivered in 1700, in honor of the arrival of Governor Bello- 
mont, and containing a good deal of rather unnecessary praise of 
that functionary. The passage referred to says : " There has been 
formidable Attempts of Satan and his Sons to Unsettle us: But 
what an overwhelming blast from Heaven has defeated all those 
Attempts? ... At length it was proposed that a Colony 
of Irish might be sent over to check the growth of this Coun- 
trey : An Happy Revolution spoil'd that Plot : and many an one 
of more general consequence than That!" It seems as if the 
reverend gentleman did not quite understand the characteristics of 
the Irish ; certainly, if he were alive now, the most cursory inspection 
of the registry of births would convince him that if any one is 
" checking the growth of this Countrey " it is not the Irish. 

A dozen years or so afterward, when Irish began to come in 
considerable numbers to the shores of Massachusetts Bay, Boston 
trembled again for the purity of her English stock, and finally took 
heart to impose regulations upon the march of colonization. The 
town-meeting of May 4, 1723, passed the following order: 1 

Whereas great numbers of Persons have very lately bin Transported from 
Ireland into this Province, many of which by Reason of the Present Indian war and 
other Accedents befalling them, Are now Resident in this Town whose Circum- 
stances and Condition are not known, Some of which if due care be not taken may 
become a Town Charge or be otherwise prejuditial to the well fair & Prosperity of 
the Place.. 

For Remedy whereof Ordered That Every Person now Resident here, that 
hath within the space of three years last past bin brought from Ireland, or for the 
future shal come from thence hither, Shal come and Enter his name and Occu- 
pation with the Town Clerk and if marryed the number and Age of his Children 
and Servants, within the space of five dayes, on pain of forfeiting and paying the 

'Records, 1723, p. 177. 



68 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Sum of twenty Shillings for each offence, And the Sum of ten Shillings for Every 
one that Shal Continue in the neglect or non-Observance of this Order, for and 
During the term of forty-Eight hours after the expiration of the fiue dayes afore- 
said So often as the Person offending Shal be complained of and Convict before 
any Justice of the Peace within the Said County. 

And be it further Ordered that whoever Shall Receive and Entertain and keep 
in his family any Person or Persons Transported from Ireland as aforesaid, Shal 
within the Space of forty-Eight hours after Such Receipt and Entertainment Return 
the Names of all Such Persons with their Circomstances as far as they are able to 
the Town Clerk. On Penalty of Twenty Shillings fine for the first forty-Eight 
hours and Ten Shillings for Every twenty-four houres he Shal be convict after the first 
forty-Eight hours and so toties quoties. 

And yet it is to these very immigrants, who are thus inveighed 
against here, that New England owes what she now prizes as the 
most precious relic of her grandmothers, the spinning-wheel of 
the past, now rising from garret-graves throughout the breadth of 
the land, to bless with its shadowy memories the hearthstones of the 
present. 

At the time of the Revolution there were many Irishmen in 
Boston; enough to form a Tory company, the Loyal Irish Vol- 
unteers, and to send many recruits into the patriot ranks as well. 
Individuals, like Knox, Cargill, and Malcom, rose into public notice 
as representatives of their race; others, like Crean Brush, and the 
" mean-looking Irishman," mentioned in connection with the " horred 
Massacre " of March 5, 1 770,* were so rare as to prove the rule of Irish 
worth by forming the needful though unwelcome exceptions. Catho- 
lics then began to avow themselves, and to claim the right to worship. 

Immediately after the war was over Irishmen appeared and took 
their share in the liberty and prosperity of the town. In the Boston 
Directories for 1789 and 1796, the only ones extant bearing an earlier 
date than 1800, occur many names that must be readily recognized 
as Irish. Some of the more noticeable are Thomas and John Barry, 
Michael Burns, John and Owen Callahan, Daniel Carney, Patrick 
Connor, Jeremiah Driscoll, Patrick Duggan, Patrick Lyons, Michale 
Mahoney, Patrick O'Brien, Patrick Welch, Flynn, Foley, Hurly, 

1 See Drake, p. 779. 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT. 69 

Kelly, Lynch, McGee, McCarthy, Murphy. Here and there a name 
like Patience Callahan shows a curious mixture of Puritan and Irish. 
Sarah Malcom, the widow of Captain Daniel Malcom, kept a board- 
ing-house on Ship (now North) street. Claude de la Poterie, Roman 
Catholic priest, vice-prefect, and missionary apostolic, rector- of the 
church in South Latin School street, lived in Oliver's lane. Crowley 
& Clark were tobacconists in Market square (now Faneuil Hall 
square). John Boyle and his son were booksellers. Christian 
Gullagher was a " limner," i.e. a portrait painter. Patrick Kenny 
was a comedian. Anna McClure was a schoolmistress. Neil & 
Getty kept an Irish linen store on Hanover street. James Sullivan 
was attorney-general, and his son William, then twenty-two years 
old, was in practice as a lawyer. Thomas Welsh, the patriotic physi- 
cian, was at this time a member of the school committee. 

No sooner did Irish citizenship thus fairly appear and claim an 
independent existence of equal rank with the other nationalities in 
a country which has ever styled itself, and with truth, as the asylum 
of the oppressed of all lands, than the old British instinct began to 
assert itself in the form of a persistent denial of the fitness of Irishmen 
for political activity of any kind. 

In the wars between England and France, our commerce suf- 
fered impartially at the hands of either ; and the exasperated state 
of public feeling was gradually overcoming the horror of war from 
which the surrender of Yorktown had relieved us. The war party in 
the national councils was divided into two hostile camps : one was 
for war with Great Britain, and these were called Democrats ; the 
others, the Federalists, were for war with France. 

Now, the immigrants of this time were, with very few and insig- 
nificant exceptions, exiles from Great Britain. The unsuccessful 
rising in Ireland in 1798, the rigid censorship of speech and press 
that preceded and followed it, the vengeful memory of civil war and 
conquest on the one hand, and among the insurgents the bitterness 
of defeat, furnished weighty reasons for many an exodus from the 
land of sorrow. Such immigrants naturally took the Democratic 
side, and the rapid increase of that party, due to such accessions, 



70 . THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

formed the basis for active anti-alien action on the part of the 
Federalists. In 1795 the period of residence prerequisite to citizen- 
ship, which by the first naturalization act was only two years, was 
extended to five; and in 1798, taking advantage of the strong war 
feeling against France and the apparently unassailable supremacy of 
their party, the Federalists pushed the residence-period to fourteen 
years. This policy was not, of course, likely to attract many immi- 
grants to the Federalists' side ; the foreign-born citizens, with natural 
unanimity, took refuge in the ranks of the Democrats ; and as their 
political existence depended on their activity, they turned out to be 
valuable recruits to the party of which they are to-day no incon- 
siderable portion. The accession to the presidency of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, in 1800, paved the way to the naturalization act of 1802, 
which reduced the period of residence to five years, insured fresh 
reinforcements of aliens, and formed the Democratic policy in regard 
to naturalization. 

It is to her alien party, and especially to her Irish foster-sons, 
that America owes the glorious history of the War of 1812. Foster, 
who had been the British Minister at Washington, and who had done 
his best to avert hostilities, on his return testified ^n Parliament that 
the war with America had been kindled by the Irish exiles; and 
that among the members of Congress who voted for war were six 
who had been known as members of the Society of United Irishmen. 

This war was very unpopular at the North, and particularly so 
in New England. Toward the end of the year 1814, representatives 
of the anti-war feeling met in convention at Hartford, Conn., and 
passed a series of resolutions full of the most ominous resentment 
at the national government, and almost threatening secession. They 
recommended that " naturalized foreigners should be debarred from 
membership in Congress and from all civil offices under the United 
States." 

After their adjournment, however, the brilliant close of the war 
so overwhelmed all opposition and seized upon the hearts of the 
people, that the delegates to the convention were most heartily 
ashamed of their work, and dropped the rebellious agitation like a 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT. 71 

hot potato. So it has been nearly always in the history of our 
country thus far: whenever the storm of hatred and prejudice 
seemed almost ready to drive back into the sea the foreigners that 
sought refuge on our shores, some great national crisis has arisen 
that has given them, strangers and frie'ndless as they were, an oppor- 
tunity to show how stubbornly they can fight and how bravely they 
can die for a flag that is ready to protect them in freedom. 

The hostility to the Irish sometimes took a religious phase, 
but it is undeniable that no very bitter or long-continued opposition 
has been manifested against, say, the French; while against the 
Irish the excitement has run so high that on more than one occa- 
sion the peace of the city has been seriously threatened by it. 
Curiously enough this rancorous feeling culminated in open outrage 
just about one hundred years after the earlier Irish immigrants, 
finding themselves rather coolly received in Boston, formed a society 
for their own enjoyment, and for the succor of unfortunate kindred. 

On Sunday, June II, 1837, occurred the famous Broad-street 
riot. An Irish funeral procession, going along East street, met a 
fire company returning from a fire in Roxbury. A contest began 
about the right of way, in which, at first, the funeral people had the 
best of it, and took possession of the engine-house. The firemen 
went to the churches and sounded an alarm of fire, to which the 
other companies responded', and now drove the Irish through to 
Purchase and Broad streets. They sought refuge in their houses, 
but their assailants followed them, breaking their windows and 
smashing furniture. The air was full of flying feathers and straw 
from the beds which had been ripped up and emptied into the street. 
Some of the tenement-houses were completely sacked, the occupants 
fleeing for their lives. The mayor of the city, Samuel A. Eliot, was 
early on the scene, but with the scanty police at his disposal could 
do little to control the disturbance. He took immediate steps to call 
out the military. The National Lancers, a cavalry company recently 
organized, were all well known and easily reached, and in about two 
hours after the beginning of the riot the mayor entered Broad 
street with about eight hundred men, the Lancers heading the 



72 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

column. The riot was speedily quelled ; but the people were so 
excited that a military patrol was maintained all night, and sentinels 
were posted at the churches to prevent false alarms. 

At the official investigation, the blame for beginning the disturb- 
ance was equally divided between the firemen and the Irishmen. 
It was estimated that over fifteen thousand persons were concerned 
in the disturbance. No lives were lost, but there was a great deal 
of pretty tough fighting, and a considerable amount of property 
destroyed. One fireman was stretched senseless near Liverpool 
wharf, and the rumor that he had been killed added fury to the riot. 
Several of the " native Americans " were brought before the court 
and held in three or four hundred dollars. The forbearance of the 
Irish on previous occasions, as, for example, on the occasion of the 
burning of the Catholic convent at Charlestown, had led the people 
to look to them for unusual self-control in such matters ; though few 
men of any nation could be expected to look with calmness on the 
desolation of a not too comfortable home and the reckless and 
causeless abuse of countrymen and friends. ,' 

Similar mob violence occurred at other periods in the history of 
the city. These outrages were not countenanced by the better class 
of Bostonians, but, unfortunately, they were so fierce in design and 
so relentless in execution that their traces will always remain as 
blemishes in the city's bright record. About the year 1837 a com- 
pany of naturalized Irishmen, and men of Irish descent, organized a 
militia company, and took to themselves the name of " The Mont- 
gomery Guards," after the famous Revolutionary general of that name, 
whose Irish blood did not bar him from the friendship of Washington 
nor from the devotion of American soldiers and people. On Septem- 
ber 12, 1837, a brigade inspection was held on Boston Common, under 
Gen. J. L. C. Amee. The brigade comprised Major Hoppin's bat- 
talion of artillery, in three companies ; the National Lancers, attached 
to the Second Regiment of Infantry ; the Pulaski Guards, attached to 
the Third ; and the ten companies of Colonel Smith's regiment of light 
infantry. One of these ten companies was the Montgomery Guards. 
Prejudice and race antipathy had risen to such a height that the mem- 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT. 73 

bers of many of the other companies of the regiment had deliberately 
planned to march off the field if the Irish company appeared on 
parade. They did, of course, appear ; and, in accordance with the 
agreement, no sooner had the regiment formed upon the parade- 
ground than the privates and non-commissioned officers of one of 
the anti-Irish companies, called the City Guards, left the field, under 
the leadership of a sergeant, in disobedience to the commands of 
their officers and in gross violation of military discipline. This dis- 
graceful example was followed by other companies, the Lafayette 
Guards, the Washington Light Infantry, and a large portion of the 
Fusileers, and of the Mechanic Riflemen. The commissioned 
officers, and in some cases a part of the warrant officers and privates, 
stood to their posts ; but three companies entire and portions of the 
others were sufficient to give to the mutiny an aspect of previous 
concert and of determined insubordination not at all reassuring to 
the friends of good order. The deserting companies marched 
through the streets to their quarters with drum and fife, playing 
" Yankee Doodle," and company standards flying beside the United 
States flag. 

In the afternoon, when the companies were dismissed, the Mont- 
gomery Guards with the others left the Common and proceeded to- 
wards their armory near Faneuil Hall. They were followed by a 
mob who pelted them with stones, coal, and sticks of wood all along 
their line of march. Not the least reprisal was attempted by the 
Guards, but keeping their ranks and marching steadily through the 
spiteful shower of missiles, they reached their armory, and from there 
quietly dispersed to their homes, having set an example for self- 
restraint and devotion to duty that put the " natives " to shame. 

Governor Everett, who on the preceding St. Patrick's day had 
attended the centennial of the Charitable Irish Society, and knew 
some little of the worth and antiquity' of Irish citizens' service, issued a 
proclamation denouncing in strong terms the conduct of the City 
Guards and their imitators, and expressing warm approval " of the 
exemplary behavior of the Montgomery Guards under the trying cir- 
cumstances in which they were placed in the course of the day." 



74 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Of the forty members of this company, thirty-two were native- 
born, and only eight were naturalized. It is more than probable that 
it contained the sons of Irishmen whose fathers had fought in the 
battles of the Revolution. The Lafayette Guards and the Columbian 
Artillery Company afterwards became known as Irish organizations ; 
and the latter, after its disbandment, formed an association which 
was the nucleus of Company A of the Irish Ninth. Such is the 
irony of history. 

The organization of nativism in America was un-American in 
every particular. Nominations were made by secret meetings of per- 
sons unknown to the great majority of the members, and voted for on 
pain of expulsion. It was a secret, oath-bound fraternity, whose real 
objects and even whose name were not revealed to its own members 
till they had reached the higher degrees of initiation. During a cer- 
tain investigation this regulation caused witnesses who were members 
to reply constantly " I don't know," and suggested the name by which 
the movement has since been called. The name of the association 
was said to be " The Sons of '76 ; or, the Order of the Star-Spangled 
Banner." At first, selections of the best candidates were made from 
either party, and as they were secretly communicated to the members 
and universally balloted for by them, the results were the despair of 
the political calculator. In New York City the election of 1843 
had gone to the Democrats, and the fight had been for years so close, 
so desperately contested, and so various in result, that the feeling 
between partisans was exasperated and bitter ; and the victors, as a 
home-thrust to the vanquished, gave the lion's share of the city patron- 
age to foreigners. The next year brought an " American " victory, in 
which the vote stood 24,510 "American," 20,538 Democratic, 5,297 
Whig. In Philadelphia riots between the natives and the Irish led to the 
burning of two Catholic churches and the cracking of the Liberty bell. 
In 1845 New York and Philadelphia gave native majorities. In 1847 
the American party in New York City was invisible. In the same 
year, in Boston, an assembly of all the lodges in the neighborhood 
was arranged to meet, on the anniversary of the battle of Bunker Hill, 
in the midst of a crowded settlement of Irish on Fort Hill. Warned 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT, 75 

and exhorted by their clergy, " followers of an Italian prince" though 
they were, the Irish remained that day within their humble homes, 
and allowed the insulting procession to have its unpatriotic holiday, 
without furnishing them the opportunity they sought for marring the 
peace of the city. 

The spirit of the leaders of this movement, many of whom were 
in other things worthy of all respect, is well shown by the following 
" Address " to the native Americans of New York, signed " J. T. B.," 
and printed in the editorial columns of the Boston " Courier," Oct. 
31, 1844. The author was Joseph T. Buckingham. Extracts only 
are here given : 

. . . In the plentitude of that generosity which has induced us to feed 
the hungry, clothe the naked, ... we have wanned into life the torpid viper 
and the fanged adder, that already begin to show their teeth and spit their venom 
upon our dear and blood-bought privileges, our sacred and most cherished insti- 
tutions. Already the foreigners . . . attempt to control our legislators, to 
nominate our magistrates, and to brow-beat our voters at the ballot-box ; and if 
any of them are too diffident or too ignorant to talk to us in the tone of defiance 
and domination, they sell their votes to the more enlightened and crafty demagogue, 
and perjure their souls at the command of profligate leaders. Give to them freely 
all the advantages which your children enjoy pay them liberally for their labor 
help them to acquire property by enterprise and industry and when, like your 
children, they have lived among you twenty-one years, let them exercise your common 
privilege of admission to the ballot-boxes. 

The unsuccessful risings and the dreadful famine in Ireland, 
between 1846 and 1850, sent crowds of emigrants to America, and 
politics soon began to feel the impetus of their addition to Demo- 
cratic ranks. Much was said in nativist circles about " the greed 
and incapacity of foreign-born citizens for office." The periodic 
Catholic scare reached one of its maxima. On the crest of this rose 
another wave of the anti-Irish excitement, which Boston felt severely. 
Political associates were taunted with the alliance of " Irishmen 
fresh from the bogs of Ireland," who were " led up to the desk like 
dumb brutes, their hands guided to make a straight mark," and to 
"vote down intelligent, honest native citizens." In 1851, under 



76 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Mayor John P. Bigelow, the Charitable Irish Society respectfully de- 
clined an invitation to participate in the Railroad jubilee procession, 
"for causes and from feelings best known to themselves," most 
probably on account of the disagreeable position that they would be 
placed in if they accepted and appeared in the parade. 

The next year Benjamin Seaver was elected mayor, and the 
" Traveller " shortly afterward contained an announcement that the 
Catholic priesthood, on the ground that the Irish had put him in 
office, would shortly demand, among other revolutionary and 
dangerous things, that the Catholic priests should visit the city in- 
stitutions at South Boston and Deer Island. Mild as that measure 
seems to us to-day, it was undoubtedly dangerous and revolution- 
ary in the eyes of the ill-balanced cranks of the time. One 
of the especial bugbears of the Know-nothings was the project 
of selling the jail lands on Leverett street to the Catholics : prop- 
erty was to be run down by the building of a Catholic church in 
that locality, and possibly there were other dangers ; at any rate, 
it was as effective for the Know-nothing politician as a red rag 
for a bull. 

After two terms of Mayor Seaver came two terms of Jerome 
Van Crowninshield Smith, 1 a Know-nothing sachem, whose adminis- 
tration wore out the patiences of the city. The expenses of the ten 
months, January-October, 1855, were $12,586, including over 
$2, 5 oo for carriage-hire and refreshments; and in addition a little item 
labelled " Probable amount due at Young's Hotel," amounting to 
$1,500. The expenses for this single year were greater than for both 
of Seaver's administrations, and the city debt was increased nearly one 
million of dollars. The people were justly incensed at the abuse of 
a government which made such great pretensions as to " morality, 
temperance, and religion : " a large meeting was held in Faneuil Hall, 
and from this agitation sprang- the citizens' movement, which has 
since taken a very important part in our political history. 

The American faction nominated Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, a good 

1 His initials used to be translated Jerome Vaccinating the Children Smith, on account 
of an unpopular regulation as to vaccination in the schools. 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT. 11 

man in a bad cause, and resorted to the old-fashioned tricks, and 
falsehoods, and insults to bring contempt upon their opponents. 
The Boston " Bee " was perhaps the most virulent. November 28 it 
contained this editorial : " It is currently reported that the self-con- 
stituted, dark-lantern clique of sixty, in making up their ticket for 
Mayor and Aldermen, waited upon f John, Bishop of Boston, 1 
and consulted His Holiness. . . . f John urged the claims of 
two or more on the Aldermen list, remarking that if they were 
upon the ticket he would pledge the entire Catholic vote of Boston 
for the Committee's tickets. . . . This is nothing new. 
Some few years since during the season of the Whig ward and city 
committee ... a committee was appointed to wait upon f John 
and get him to suggest some names that would be acceptable to the 
Irish voters. . . . This is the manner in which the American 
citizens of Boston have been treated by the Whig party and [the 
citizens' committee] are now endeavoring to gain the ascendancy by 
the same contemptible means." 

On the same day the " Post," a Democratic paper, contained the 
following in regard to the citizens' ticket : " This will be opposed by 
the Protestant Jesuits, a thoroughly drilled phalanx which a Loyola 
could./ have gloried in ; bound together by oaths ; working by politi- 
cal machinery the most perfect ever worked ; and which, however 
much shattered in other States, remains tight and strong and in 
sound order in Massachusetts. This fact should be looked full in 
the face. It counsels thorough organized effort on the part of those 
in favor of the citizens' ticket." 

The contest was close and exciting, the undeniable worth of the 
Know-nothing candidate making the defeat of his party difficult; 
but the result was the election of Alexander H. Rice, one of the best 
mayors Boston ever had. 

It was in this year that the Columbian Artillery, an Irish com- 
pany, voluntarily disbanded to escape persecution at the hands of 
the State Government ; they subsequently organized as the Colum- 

1 Rt. Rev. John Bernard Fitzpatrick, died 1866; son of Bernard Fitzpatrick, one of the 
early members of the Charitable Irish Society. 



78 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

bian Associates, and, as mentioned elsewhere in this chapter, formed 
a point of beginning for the Ninth Regiment. 

The anti-slavery contest now rose into prominence and ensured 
the total wreck of the so-called American party. In the national 
election they were almost completely buried, receiving as their share 
of the two hundred and ninety-six electoral votes only the eight 
votes of Maryland. Their strength in New Hampshire sank from 
thirty-two thousand in March to a little over four hundred in No- 
vember. Popular attention was soon turned towards the restive 
South, and in the tornado of civil strife which soon burst upon our 
distracted country, many Irishmen won citizenship on the field of 
battle, rallying and falling around the green flag that, alas ! can 
never wave but in a foreign fight. No five years' probation then 
only the bloody ordeal of the cannon, the rifle, and the bayonet ; 
and not a few of Erin's sons entered upon citizenship and immor- 
tality together. Let us hope that in that fierce flame the Know- 
nothing stubble was totally consumed. 



There are other pages to which we would gladly turn, glimpses 
of neighborly kindness " good deeds in a naughty world," shining 
encouragingly from salient points in Irish and American history. 
But such occurrences, overbalancing as they do the most disheartening 
items of the preceding account, are not in the same sense exclu- 
sively a portion of Boston's history. The most recent and most 
valuable token of this generosity is the noble support which America 
is giving to the Home Rule agitation, not only in money, which is 
of course indispensable, but also in moral encouragement, where 
Boston's influence is freely and effectively bestowed. One cannot 
but remember the earnest sympathy of Ireland with the American 
colonies in the darkest hour of their need ; we venture to add an 
instance of this mutual regard immediately connected with the pre- 
revolutionary excitement in Boston. 

At the town-meeting of March 12, 1771, about a year after 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT. 79 

the " massacre " in State street, a letter " from that celebrated 
Patriot, Dr. Lucas, of Ireland, 1 owning the Receipt of one transmitted 
him by a Committee of this Town together with the Pamphlet rela- 
tive to the horred Massacre in Boston March 5, 1770 was read 
and attended to with the highest satisfaction." Dr. Joseph Warren, 
Samuel Adams, and two others were appointed a committee to reply 
to this letter. This distinguished Irishman was a physician of high 
professional standing, and a patriot whose services to Ireland and to 
liberty everywhere will make him long remembered. His opinions 
were so radical that he was twice exiled by the English government, 
and his writings were burned by the common hangman. He repre- 
sented Dublin in Parliament from 1761 till his death, November 
4, 1771. He established the " Freeman's Journal," which has ren- 
dered, and still renders, yeoman's service to the cause of Irish 
liberty. 

His personal appearance was very striking ; it is said that all 
visitors to Parliament were curious to know his name. Dr. Johnson 
wrote of him, " Let the man thus driven into exile for having been 
the friend of his country, be received in every place as a confessor 
of liberty." There is a statue of him in the Dublin City Hall. It 
must ever be regretted that his death, at the age of fifty-eight, pre- 
vented him from seeing the triumph of the struggle in whose birth 
he had been so warmly interested. 

Another token of America's bounty to Ireland was the famine 
contribution of 1 847. Of the one hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
received by the New England committee, over fifty thousand dollars 
was the gift of Boston ; and on the departure of the expedition bear- 
ing this charity to the wards of step-motherly England, it was rec- 
ollected that Ireland had anticipated the idea one hundred and 
seventy years before. In 1677, after the close of King Philip's War, 
the Massachusetts colonies were in great distress. Out of a popu- 
lation of perhaps twenty-five thousand, five or six hundred, fully 
one-tenth of her fighting men, fell in battle with the savages. Very 
opportunely at this time came the famous " Irish donation," a whole 

'Charles Lucas, M.D., born Sept. 16, 1713. 



80 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

shipload of provisions from some friends of the Boston churches in 
Dublin. The immediate occasion of this expedition was the appeal 
of Dr. Increase Mather to his friends in Ireland ; the effectiveness of 
the appeal being probably due, at least in part, to the active sym- 
pathy of Nathaniel Mather, who was then in London, for the home 
of his family and the scene of his earliest labors. 

The supplies came in " the good ship called the Katherine of 
Dublin," consigned to William Ting, James Oliver, and John Hull, 
who were authorized to sell enough of the cargo to pay the freight, 
amounting to four hundred and fifty pounds, and then to distribute 
the remainder to the poor. The directions as to this distribution 
furnish a touching commentary on the religious intolerance of the 
Massachusetts people : 

Wee desire that an equall respect bee had to all godly psons agreeing in 
fundamentals . . . though differing about the subject of some ordinances, & 
pticularly that godly Anti-peodobaptists bee not excluded : w 6 * 1 wee the rather thus 
perticularly insert because sundry reports have come hither suggesting that godly 
psons of that pswasion have been severely dealt withall in New England & also 
because divers of that pswasion in this Citty have freely & very Considerably con- 
curred in advancing this releife. 

That if any of y* Indians in New England who have adhered to the English 
in the present Warr bee bro't to distress by their barbrous Countrymen they bee by 
no means forgotten, . . . Especially that those of them that are of the house- 
hold of faith . . . may be singularly regarded. 

The proportion of this town was fifteen pounds six shillings, 
distributed among twenty-nine families, comprising one hundred and 
two persons. The distribution was made in March, 1677, and went 
to show that Boston had suffered nearly five times as much by the 
war as any other place ; but we must note that the Boston troops 
were not in any one of the great massacres, and that the presence 
of many of the distressed in Boston must be due to its being resorted 
to as an asylum by the hardy settlers whose homes had been scattered 
here and there in the unprotected country. 

In an account of this occurrence Mr. Charles Deane gives us a 
little foot-note, saying, " Respecting this Irish charity, we must not 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT. 81 

indulge in the pleasing reflection that our fathers were indebted for 
its bestowment to the warm sympathies and generous impulses of the 
Irish Catholic. I intend nothing by the remark, but to make a state- 
ment of the fact." 

This statement is undoubtedly true ; because under the rule of 
Charles I., the Catholics were deprived of their property with a view 
to winning them into the Established Church, and under Parliament's 
rule they were banished in shiploads. When the king " got his own 
again," the change of masters gave no relief, and the Irish Catholics, 
who had fought not for their religion, 1 but for their property, for 
their means of living, and for the homes of their ancestors, were left 
with little to live on, far less to give away. It seems hardly neces- 
sary for a man learned in the history of the world to say that the 
" Irish charity " must have come from those who alone had the 
means to be generous. Yet if it were not for the possessions that 
Irish Catholics once had, and had with little grace yielded, the warm 
heart of the Irish Protestant would have had to give from his own 
hard earnings, if he gave at all. 

1 Clogy, " Life of Bedell," quoted in Lecky's "England in the XVIIIth Century," p. 185. 



82 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE IRISH SOLDIER. 

IRISH valor, Irish decision, Irish perseverance, have filled the 
pages of American history with a story which has an intense 
interest for the people of Irish blood in the United States. From 
the early period, when the yoke of unjust taxation became unbearable, 
down to the casting aside of that other yoke, of unbearable human 
servitude, Irish thought as well as Irish heroes have come forth to 
take their places in the annals of this great nation. There are 
individual incidents when credit is accorded a brave man of French, 
Danish, or other foreign extraction, but none seem to have so firmly 
fixed themselves in a rightful demand for due credit in making and 
sustaining this republic as the Americans of Irish blood. To obtain 
this place, too, they had to overcome religious, social, and commercial 
obstructions raised by the very men by whose side they have stood 
now for over a century. They backed Col. James Barrett at Concord 
Bridge, and joined in that shot that awakened the world. They saw 
the great war-ships of a great nation humbled by Commodore Barry 
on Lake Erie. They helped to hunt Mexico, and were in at the 
death. They flocked by thousands to Lincoln's call in the sixties, 
fought to end the war, and have since fought in politics to bury the 
sectional strife engendered by it. The renown of their deeds is left 
to their descendants to record and boast of. There is no apology to 
make, no shame to veil. Properly to digest their military history 
alone, would require years of patient labor. The purpose of this 
chapter is to briefly present that part of it which relates to Boston. 
It has not been an easy task. The writers of the Irish-American 
people have left very imperfect records where they have left any, 
and the other historians have not cared, seemingly, to note the 
nationality of the people of whom they wrote. 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 83 



I. Concord and Lexington. 

They came into the full light of colonial history at Lexington 
and Concord. The cry of Paul Revere roused them to take their 
share in the defence of the common cause. They responded 
promptly. Among them was Hugh Cargill, the Ballyshannon man, 
formerly belonging to Boston, but now of Concord. To his prompt* 
response Concord owed the safety of her records. Among them 
also was Col. James Barrett, who was the commander of the minute- 
men of the town. Hardly had he left his bed when he heard of the 
murderous work of the regulars at Lexington. He removed, as was 
his first duty, a part of the colonial stores which had been hidden in 
his town, and then, with his command, fought the intruders at the 
North Bridge. The news of the dire work spread ; the minute-men 
gathered. No more beautiful picture of united patriotism adorns 
history. They left their wives and children, their workshops and 
farms, to gather for the fight. They came in scattered groups, 
dressed as they happened to be when the tidings of the fight came 
to them, only stopping long enough to snatch up their flintlocks, 
examine the priming, belt on the powder-horn and bullet-pouch. 
All the roads centring towards the main one along which the 
English must retreat presented these groups. At every cross-road 
their numbers increased. In the hurrying knots of men were 
citizens of all the surrounding towns, who had been gathering since 
four o'clock that morning. Some were led by their preachers, others 
by chosen captains, while still others went into the fray without a 
leader. Young and old cheered one another on for the conflict. 
Along the line of their march, patriotic mothers, wives, sweet- 
hearts, and daughters bade them " God-speed." " Impossible to 
have conquered such a people " was the comment of a great 
British statesman. " The only way for Great Britain to regain 
her hold would have been to exterminate them, men and women 
alike." 

When they reached the main road their first question was : 



84 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Have the red-coats passed? Where are they? Then the hurrying 
to give them battle. 

" You know the rest In the books you have read 
How the British regulars fired and fled, 
How the farmers gave them ball for ball 
From behind each fence and farmyard wall, 
Chasing the red-coats down the lane, 
Then crossing the fields to emerge again 
Under the trees at the turn of the road, 
And only pausing to fire and load." 

They awoke the English to a true realization of the manhood 
of the new country. They were compelled to fly before the very 
men whom they had taunted with cowardice. The " battle of the 
minute-men " is without a parallel in history. Only another hour's 
delay, and the whole command that had gone forth in such martial 
splendor would have been compelled to lay down their arms to the 
unorganized, undisciplined farmer. The Yankees were marksmen. 
Every crack of their old flintlocks meant one red-coat less. They 
fired from behind the walls ; they chased the British till the ree'n- 
forcing column received them into their midst; and the fugitives, 
their limbs powerless and their tongues hanging out with utter 
distress, dropped on the road from exhaustion. 

To trace many of these marksmen back to the " old sod " would 
be an impossibility ; but the list presented below, of Irish-American 
minute-men, is as complete and accurate as careful investigation and 
inquiry can make it. Names of an undoubted Irish origin are taken 
as substantial evidence of the nationality of the bearers themselves, 
or of their ancestors. Many others there were, of Irish birth or blood, 
whose identification is lost by intermarriage ^nd the carelessness of 
historians. Of Col. James Barrett, who commanded at Concord, it 
is said that he was an Irish- American. 

Hugh Cargill, to whom reference is made above, was a liquor 
dealer on Cambridge street, which at that time began at Sudbury 
street, and reached the edge of the water at about the line of West 
Cedar street He was a member of Engine Company No. 6. He 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 85 

moved to Concord before 1796, and died there in 1799. He 
bequeathed to the town of Concord the Stratton Farm, valued in 
1800 at $1,300, to be improved as a poor-house for which pur- 
pose it is still used. He also gave several other parcels of real estate, 
valued at $3,720, the income of which is solely to be applied for the 
benefit of the poor. At the time of the Concord fight, Cargill was 
on hand, and assisted in removing the Concord town-records to a 
place of safety. He served at Bunker Hill as sergeant in Alisha 
Brown's company, in the regiment of Colonel Nixon. His tomb 
is marked by a plain slab : at the top is carved an urn, bearing his 
initials ; below is this epitaph : 

Here lies interred the remains of Hugh Cargill, late of Boston, who died in 
Concord, January 12, 1799, in the sixtieth year of his age. Mr. Cargill was born in 
Ballyshannon, in Ireland ; came to this country in the year 1774, destitute of the 
comforts of life ; but by his industry and good economy, he acquired a good 
estate ; [demised] to his wife, Rebecca Cargill ; likewise a large and generous 
donation to the town of Concord for benevolent purposes. 

How strange, O God, that reigns on high, 

That I should come so far to die ! 

And leave my friends, where I was bred, 

To lay my bones with strangers dead I 

But I have hopes, when I arise, 

To dwell with them in yonder skies. 1 

Another prominent name in the accounts of Concord and Lex- 
ington is Dr. Thomas Welsh, who was army surgeon to the patriots. 
He it was who met brave Dr. Joseph Warren, the hero of Bunker 
Hill, as he rode through Charlestown, at about ten, o'clock on the 
morning of that memorable April day. The news of the firing had 
been brought to Dr. Warren by messenger, and he informed Dr. 
Welsh that the reports of the murderous work of the regulars 
were true. 

"Well," said Dr. Welsh, "they are gone out." 

"Yes," replied Dr. Warren, " and we'll be up with them before 
night." How true this prophecy was history tells. 

1 Thomas D'Arcy McGee : Hist, of the Irish Settlers in America, p. 34. 



86 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Dr. Welsh was born at Charlestown, June I, 1754. He married 
Mary Kent of that town. He performed great service for his coun- 
trymen in attending to the dying and the wounded at Lexington and 
Bunker Hill. He was at Winter Hill, by which the troops that went 
to Cambridge retreated. He, with Samuel Blodgett, assisted in 
arresting the retreat of the New Hampshire troops flying from the re- 
doubt on Bunker Hill. He was surgeon at Castle Island in 1799, 
hospital physician at Rainsford's for many years, a member of the 
Boston Board of Health, vice-president of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society in 1814, and a member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences. He died at Boston in February, 1831. He was the 
last of the orators on the " horred massacre" of 1770. The oration 
was delivered in the Old Brick Church on Chauncey place, off Summer 
street, March 5, 1783, the year peace was declared and the colonies 
were united in a growing republic. In his peroration he said : 

At length independence is ours. The halcyon day appears. Lo ! from the 
east I see the harbinger, and from the train 'tis Peace herself, and, as attendants, 
all the gentle arts of life. Commerce displays her snow-white navies, fraught with 
the wealth of kingdoms. Plenty from her copious horn pours forth her richest 
gifts. Heaven commands ! The east and the west give up, and the north keeps 
not back. All nations meet and beat their swords into ploughshares and their 
spears into pruning-hooks, and resolve to learn war no more. Henceforth shall the 
American wilderness blossom as the rose, and every man shall sit under his fig-tree, 
and none shall make him afraid. 

Below is given a list of Irish names from the rolls of the Lex- 
ington minute-men : 

Daniel Bagley, Wait Burke, Joseph Carroll, 

John Barrett, Daniel Carey, Cornelius Cochran, 

John Boyd, Joseph Carey, William Cochran, 

Daniel Bradlee, Peter Carey, Henry Cogen, 

John Bradlee, William Carey, John Collins, 

William Bradley, Silas Carty, Jeremiah Collins, 

Edward Breck, John Carrell, Mark Collins, 

Joseph Burke, Patrick Carrell, Nathaniel Collins, 

Richard Burke, Jonathan Carroll, Samuel Collins, 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 



87 



Daniel Connors, 
William Connors, 
John Crehore, 
Timothy Crehore, 
William Crehore, 
James Dempsey, 
Philip Donehue, 
Benjamin Donnell, 
James Donnell, 
Joseph Donnell, 
John Donnelly, 
John Downing, 
Andrew Duningan, 
John Fadden, 
Thomas Fanning, 
William Fanning, 
John Farley, 
Michael Farley, 
John Fay, 
Thomas Fay, 
Timothy Fay, 
William Fay, 
John .Fife, 
Robert Fife, 
John' Flood, 
William Flood, 
John-Foley, 
Mathew Gilligen, 
Richard Gilpatrick, 
James. Gleason, 
John Gleason, 
Thomas Gleason, 
John Golden, 
Joseph Golden, 
James Gooly, 
John Grace, 
Daniel Griffin, 
Joseph Griffin, 
John Racket, 
Joseph Racket, 



Richard Racket, 
Thomas Racket, 
William Racket, 
Joel Hogan, 
John Haley, 
Thomas Haley, 
William Haley, 
John Healy, 
John Holland, 
John Hugh, 
David Kelly, 
George Kelly, 
John Kelly, 
Patrick Kelly, 
Peter Kelly, 
Richard Kelly, 
Samuel Kelly, 
Stephen Kelly, 
David Kenny, 
James Kenny, 
John Kenny, 
Nathaniel Kenny, 
Thomas Kenny, 
William Kenny, 
Jeremiah Kinney, 
Daniel Lary, 
Samuel Lauchlin, 
James Logan, 
Joseph McAnnell, . 
Thomas McBride, 
John McCarty, 
Andrew McCauseland, 
John McCullin, 
Michael McDonnell, 
James McFadden, 
Ebenezer McFarley, 
Thomas McFarley, 
Henry McGonegal, 
John McGrah, 
Daniel McGuire, 



John Mack, 
Patrick McKeen, 
James McKenny, 
Joseph McKenny, 
John McLeary, 
David McLeary, 
John McMullen, 
Thomas McMullen, 
John Madden, 
Daniel Mahon, 
James Mallone, 
John Manning, 
Robert Manning, 
Samuel Manning, 
Thomas Manning, 
Timothy Manning, 
William Manning, 
Benjamin Maxy, 
James Magoone, 
John Mehoney, 
Daniel Mullikin, 
Ebenezer Mullikin, 
John Murphy, 
Patrick Newjent, 
Patrick O'Brien, 
Richard O'Brien, 
Daniel Shay, 
John Shea, 
Edward Tappan, 
Michael Tappan, 
John Walsh, 
Joseph Walsh, 
Benjamin Welsh, 
Edward Welsh, 
John Welsh, 
Joseph Welsh, 
Samuel Welsh, 
Thomas Welsh, 
Walter Welsh, 
William Welsh. 



88 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

II. Bunker Hill. 

War alone could subdue the angry passions engendered by the 
fight at Lexington. English power needed more humble subjects, 
and the colonists had decided not only to avenge their injuries, but 
to fight for absolute freedom. The expedition to Lexington and 
Concord was the last the English soldiers made from Boston into the 
interior of the colony. 

The commands of Colonel Smith and Major Pitcairn finally 
eluded destruction at the hands of the sharpshooters, who had made 
their return to camp a trail of blood. They were destined in a few 
months to be compelled to move again, and to be kept moving until 
they finally departed from the country forever. Lexington had 
cured British conceit. Bunker Hill Would amaze and alarm them. 
Farmers whom recklessness had driven into revolt acquired the art 
and science of war as if by intuition ; and the fearlessness, stability, 
and discipline of veterans came to them as the need for it grew. 
They proclaimed rebellion, and cooped the ruling power of the whole 
colony within the narrow confines of the city. The patriots hovered 
about, zealous to drive them into the sea. They taunted General 
Gage. They harassed him by small raids and seizures of supplies. 
They knew that he had been reenforced by Howe, Burgoyne, and 
Clinton, and by thousands of recruits. They were not terrified by 
the odds against them. They waited a month for the great generals 
to come out and crush them, and then, evidently tired of waiting, 
they started in to crush the great generals. 

When the sun rose on the morning of June 17, 1775, the inhab- 
itants of the town of Boston saw a wonderful sight. There were 
breastworks on the top of " Breed's Hill," * manned by New England 
yeomen. It was a challenge to battle which could not be disre- 
garded. The English did succeed in driving the brave fellows from 
their works, but that victory only lent new lustre to the American arms. 
The soldiers who had planted St. George's cross on many heights in 

1 Historically known as Bunker Hill. 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. . 89 

the face of a desperate foe, who had made it respected the world 
over, found behind those humble breastworks an untrained militia 
that had the grit to withstand their best generals, and that hurled 
them back again and again. The fight of Bunker Hill made the 
reputation of the Continental troops, and inspired a confidence that 
never forsook them. 

There were many on that famous height who had their first 
opportunity then to strike a blow for liberty, and another in revenge 
for the dreadful oppression of their forefathers in Ireland. The first 
spadeful of earth on Breed's Hill was turned just before midnight 
on the night of the i6th of June, 1775. There were one thousand 
men at the work, under command of Col. William Prescott, of 
Pepperell, Mass. They worked all through the night under the veil 
of darkness. When the sun lit up their works to the astonished 
British on the morning of June 17, they greeted the sight with a 
fierce cannonade from the war-ship " Lively," which was anchored 
off what is now the Navy Yard. Tired and hungry, the patriots 
worked on, exposed to that fire, awaiting reinforcements calmly, 
determined to defend those works with the last drop of blood. 

Through General Ward's doubt of what the English generals 
would do, he delayed sending reinforcements to Breed's Hill. He 
feared to weaken his force in Cambridge, for the English might 
make that the point of attack rather than the breastwork on the hill. 
This doubt could not restrain the brave men of his army. They saw 
their countrymen under the fire of the English war-ships, and groups 
of them, all the morning long, crossed the neck, and entered the 
redoubt. They sought only a place in the fight, without regard to 
the commands in which they served. Such were Generals Warren 
and Pomeroy. When General Ward became satisfied that the 
English would undertake to dislodge the patriots, reinforcements 
were immediately ordered over. They came across the neck, which 
was made a perfect death-hole by the concentrated fire of the 
English guns. 

Among them was the regiment of Col. John Stark, an Irish- 
American, whose bravery and devotion had put him at the head of 



90 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

his New Hampshire troops, and afterwards made him one of the 
most famous commanders of the Revolution. His career in the 
cause of liberty is full of that dash and spirit which crowds the rec- 
ord of the late General Sheridan. Mr. Bagenal, in a book on the 
American Irish, published a few years ago in New York, says of 
Colonel Stark : " He was the son of an Irish farmer of New 
Hampshire. He inherited a good fund of mother-wit, and a brogue 
as mellifluous as if he was born and reared on the banks of the 
Inchigeelah, in the County Cork." A number of the men in his 
regiment came from Londonderry and Derryfield (now Manchester), 
both in New Hampshire, and both settled by emigrants from Ireland. 
He had the love, not of his own troops only, but of the whole army. 
He was hardy, independent, and brave, a fit associate for the 
fearless Putnam, the energetic Pomeroy, and the veterans Prescott 
and Ward. 

The character of Colonel Stark may be shown by an incident at 
the^ crossing of the neck. From one till half-past three o'clock on 
that bloody afternoon, the Americans continued to cross. They 
were enfiladed by a galling fire from the ships and batteries. When 
Colonel Stark arrived, about two o'clock, it seemed a perfect hell of 
hissing shot and fire. Captain Dearborn, who was by his side, 
suggested to him the expediency of quickening his steps across ; but 
Stark replied, " One fresh man in action is worth ten fatigued ones," 
and, with the same deliberation, he continued his march. When he 
arrived at the fortifications, the English troops had already landed 
on the beach. He made one of his fiery addresses to his men, 
pointed out their red-coated foes, and then led them to the rail-fence. 
This fence had just previously been manned by Captain Knowlton, 
by orders of Colonel Prescott, to prevent the English from flanking 
the Americans. It was near the base of Bunker Hill, six hundred 
feet in the rear of the redoubt ; one-half of it was stone, with two 
rails of wood. A little distance in front of this rail was another 
parallel line of fence, and the space between the fences was filled 
with newly cut grass. There Stark and his brave Paddies fought for 
hours. It was a strategic point, and General Howe, in person, led 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 91 

the attack upon it. The English generals and soldiers underrated 
their opponents. That they would drive them from the redoubt was 
never questioned. They had only to move, and the Yankees would 
run. It was a trying time for the brave bands of men who were 
waiting for the attack, ignorant yet of the power of their own stern 
purpose. Charlestown was blazing ; shots from ships and batteries 
were hissing around them ; many had never been in battle before ; 
very many had worked all night long, and were almost ready to sink 
to the ground with exhaustion. Twice they hurled back from their 
defences the flower of the English army, and when they did retire, 
it was when their powder had given out, and they were overwhelmed 
by the superior force of their foes. 

At the rail-fence they successfully resisted every attempt to 
turn their flank. Stark's men, like most of the other patriots, were 
marksmen. They used the rails of the fence to rest their flintlocks. 
They were intent on cutting down the British officers. When one 
was in sight, that is, when they " could see the white of his eye," 
they exclaimed, " There, see that officer ! Let's have a shot at 
him ! " and two or three would fire at the same moment. They cut 
up the companies with terrible severity, and so great was the car- 
nage that the English columns, a few moments before so proud and 
firm, were disconcerted and broken to pieces. Colonel Stark was 
everywhere among his men ; he led their cheers when their foes fell 
back, and was among the last to leave the works. Near him was a 
company of Charlestown volunteers, a portion of Colonel Gardner's 
regiment from Middlesex, under Capt. Joseph Harris. Their hearts 
were filled with a wilder hate, for they could see their homes blazing, 
and they thought of the dear ones left behind. They fought fiercely, 
never for a moment thinking of giving ground. Colonel Swett says 
of this company, " They were fighting at their own doors, on their 
own natal soil. They stood like the Greeks of Thermopylae, and 
they kept the pass till the enemy had discovered another." 

One of the bravest men of Colonel Stark's command was his 
major, Andrew McClary, an Irishman, nearly six and one-half feet 
in height, and of athletic frame. During the action he, like his 



92 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

colonel, fought among his men with great bravery. After the action 
he rode to Medford to procure bandages for the wounded, and on 
his return went with a few of his comrades to reconnoitre the British, 
then on Bunker Hill. As he was on his way to rejoin his men, a 
shot from a frigate lying where Craigie's Bridge now is, passed through 
his body. He leaped a few feet from the ground, pitched forward, 
and fell on his face dead. 

In 1781 a poem on the battle was published, bearing the signa- 
ture of John Boyle, the well-known bookseller of Boston. His Irish 
name adds significance to his words. The following is an extract: 

" Again the conflict glows with rage severe, 
And fearless ranks in Combat mixt appear. 
Victory uncertain ! fierce contention reigns, 
And purple rivers drench the slippery plains. 
Column to column, host to host oppose, 
And rush impetuous on their adverse foes. 
When, lo ! the hero Warren from afar 
Sought for the battle and the field of war." 

Many other Irish names shared the renown of this combat. 
Laurence Sullivan and John Dillon were among the dead upon the 
field ; Daniel McGrath was taken prisoner, and died in captivity. 

The following names are found among those on the rolls of 
Bunker Hill, as given in the Massachusetts Archives : 

ad-Lieut. Chas. Dougherty, Richard Burk, John Bryan, 

Capt. Samuel Dunn, Michael Berry, Arthur Collamore, 

Col. John Patterson, William Burk, Samuel Carr, 

Ebenezer Sullivan, Josiah Burk, John Collins, 

Lieut. Joseph Welsh, Edward Burk, Edward Connor, 

John Burk, Thomas Burn, David Collins, 

John Barry, John Bogan, Peter Collins, 

Joseph Barry, William Bogan, Daniel Collins, 

Wait Burk, James Barry, Sergt. Hugh Cargill, 

Tilly Burk, Joseph Burne, Col. John Nixon. 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 



93 



William Conner, 
John Cronyn, 
John Connor, 
David Connor, 
Isaac Collins, 
Stephen Collins, 
Aaron Carey, 
Demerel Collins, 
John Coy, 

Lieut. Daniel Collins, 
Daniel Callahan, 
Joseph Cavenaugh, 
Robert Callaghan, 
Lemuel Collins, 
Josiah Cummings, 
Charles Casity, 
Ambrose Collins, 
David Coye, 
Richard Collins, 
Henry Collins, 
John Cummings, 
James Conner, 
John Collins, 
Arthur Carey, 
Ambrose Craggin, 
Joshua Carey, 
Josiah Carey, 
Edward Casey, 
Jesse Gary, 
Michael Clary, 
Jeremiah Cady, 
Jeremiah Collins, 
Ebenezer Craggen, 
Samuel Craggen, 
John Coner, 
Daniel Carmical, 
John Carrel, 
Caleb Comings, 
John Calahan, 
Solomon Collins, 
Edward Conner, 
Luther Carey, 



Daniel Collins, 
William Carrall, 
James Carrall, 
Caleb Carey, 
William Casey, 
Laurence Carrol, 
John Connelly, 
Daniel Collins, 
Timothy Carny, 
Patrick Connelly, 
Francis Crowley, 
John Cummings, 
Charles Doroughty, 
John Dougarty, 
Elijah Doyle, 
William Dougherty, 
Thomas Dougherty, 
Lieut. Charles Dougherty, 
William Dun, 
William Dunn, 
John Dougherty, 
John Dun, 
James Dunn, 
James Dounell, 
Jotham Donnel, 
Thomas Doyl, 
Patrick Doyle, 
Edwark Finiken, 
John Flyn, 
John Foye, 
Thomas Finn, 
Edward Fogerty, 
David Fling, 
James Fitzgerald, 
John Foy, 
Jacob Flyn, 
John Fitchjeril, 
Kendel Farley, 
Thomas Gleason, 
Daniel Griffin, 
Joseph Griffin, 
Nathaniel Griffin, 



Mathew Gilligan, 
John Gleason, 
William Gilman, 
William Gilmore, 
Joseph Griffin, 
Richard Gilpatrick, 
Joshua Gilpatrick, 
James Gilpatrick, 
John Gilmor, 
Joseph Griffin, 
Joseph Gleason, 
Daniel Lomasney, 
William Linnehan, 
Daniel Leary, 
Capt. Timothy Carey, 
John Laughton, 
Capt. Michael Gleason, 
Bartholomew Lynch, 
James Milliken, 
Joseph Manning, 
Peter Martin, 
Hugh McCarthy, 
Capt. Nathaniel Healy, 
James McGraw, 
William M'Cleary, 
Richard Murphy, 
Edward Madden, 
Michael McDonald, 
Daniel Murphy, 
David McCleary, 
James McConner, 
Morris M'Cleary, 
John Manning, 
William McClure, 
Robert McCormick, 
John McDonald, 
John McLarty, 
Daniel Moore, 
William Murphy, 
Daniel Maley, 
Hugh Morrison, 
John Meacham, 



94 



THE IRISH Iff BOSTON. 



John McCartney, 
John McCoy, 
Thomas Mclaughlin, 
Thomas McCullough, 
George McCleary, 
Robert McCleary, 
Daniel Maguire, 
John Morrison, 
Israel Murphy, 
Pierce Murphy, 
Peter McGee, 
Terrance McMahon, 
James McCormich, 
Daniel McNamara, 
Thomas Mahoney, 
William Murphy, 
Daniel Morrison, 
John McDonald, 
Joseph McDonnell, 
Joseph McLallin, 
William McKenney, 
James Milliken, 
John McCullough, 
John McGrath, 
John McGuire, 
John Mitchell, 
James MTadden, 
John Madden, 
Michael Minihan, 
Lawrence McLaughlin, 
David McElroy, 
William McCleary, 
James McCoy, 
Edward Manning, 



James McCullough, 
Daniel McCarty, 
Peter Martin, 
Patrick Mahoney, 
Eben Sullivan, 
John Noonan, 
John O'Conner, 
Dennis O'Brien, 
Capt. Jeremiah Gilman, 
Bryant Ryan, 
Cornelius Ryan, 
John Ryan, 
Thomas Ryan, 
Martin Rourke, 
Dennis Ryan, 
Daniel Rioden, 
John Rogers, 
James Ryan, 
John Roach, 
Timothy Roach, 
Capt. Daniel Gallusha, 
Capt. John Ford, 
James Ryan, 
Thomas Roach, 
James Richey, 
Fred Roach, 
John Rannor, 
John Rickey, 
Augustus Ryan, 
Oliver Sullivan, 
Patrick Shea, 
Richard Shea, 
Michael Stewart, 
John Shield, 



John Savage, _, 
Jeremiah Scanlan, 
John Sullivan, 
Timothy Sullivan, 
Robert Steel, 
John Shanahan, 
James Shay, 
Patrick Scandalin, 
Thomas Savage, 
Ebenezer Sullivan, 
Daniel Shay, 
John Shay, 
Patrick Tracey, 
Thomas Tobin, 
Mathew Tobin, 
Mathias Welch, 
Benjamin Welch, 
John Welch, 
William Welsh, 
Peter Welch, 
James Welch, 
James Wall, 
Jonas Welch, 
Silas Welch, 
John Wolley, 
Joseph Welch, 
Walter Welch, 
Isaac Welch, 
Richard Welch, 
John Welch, 
William Welch, 
Edmund Welch, 
Joseph Welch, 
William Welch. 



III. The Siege of Boston. 

After the battle of Bunker Hill the Americans settled down to 
drive the English out of Boston. The town was surrounded and 
placed in a state of siege. The battle of Bunker Hill had inspired 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 95 

the whole country, and daily reinforcements came from the other 
colonies to join the men of New England. Washington came from 
Virginia and made an army out of what had been merely armed 
bands. At the head of one of his brigades, in which was Stark's 
regiment, he placed Gen. John Sullivan. 

Many of the settlements along the South Atlantic coast had been 
made by emigrants from Ireland, and those settlements sent forth 
their men as patriotically as Puritan New England. The reports of 
the fight of that June day had not ceased to travel when Daniel 
Morgan, the son of a County Derry man, marched into Cambridge 
at the head of five hundred sharpshooters. These men were dressed 
in buckskin uniforms, and their unerring aim became a terror to the 
English. 

The American army wanted artillery to enforce the siege. 
Under date of Dec. 17, 1775, Washington received from Col. Henry 
Knox, who had been sent on a mission to Ethan Allen, at Crown 
Point, Ticonderoga, a letter, saying, " I hope in sixteen or seventeen 
days to present to your Excellency a noble train of artillery, the 
inventory of which I have enclosed." Colonel Knox kept his word. 
With an enterprise and perseverance that elicited the warmest com- 
mendations, he brought, over frozen lakes and almost impassable 
snows, more than fifty cannon, mortars, and howitzers. With this 
train Washington was enabled to strengthen his position, and to 
make a* more decisive move against the enemy. Colonel Knox 
was of a family that originally came from near Belfast. His career 
was a brilliant one. He commanded the artillery corps, and the 
effective work of his guns at Trenton, Princeton, Germantown, and 
Monmouth made him distinguished among the American generals. 
He was born in Boston, July 25, 1750. His wife was the daughter 
of a British official. She forsook her relatives, however, and ac- 
companied him in his flight, concealing on her person the sword 
which he used at Bunker Hill. Washington made him a major- 
general after the surrender of Cornwallis. From 1785 to 1794 he 
was Secretary of War. He died in 1806. 



96 THE IRISH fJV OS TOM 

Gen. William Sullivan has left the following reminiscence of 
our dashing artilleryman : 

" Generals Knox, Lincoln, and Jackson had been companions in 
the Revolution, had laughed, eaten and drunk, fought and lived 
together, and were on the most intimate terms. They loved each 
other to a degree but little known among the men of the present 
day. After the struggle of the war they retired to their homes, and 
were all comfortable in their worldly circumstances, if not rich ; but 
Knox possessed large tracts of land in the State of Maine, upon the 
rapid sales of which he confidently relied ; imagined himself more 
wealthy than he was ; and lived in luxurious style. He built himself 
a superb mansion at Thomaston, Me., where all his friends met with 
a cordial welcome and enjoyed the most liberal hospitality. It was 
not an unusual thing for Knox to kill, in summer, when great num- 
bers of friends visited him, an ox and twenty sheep on every 
Monday morning, and to make up one hundred beds daily in his 
house. He kept for his own use and that of his friends twenty 
saddle-horses and several carriages in his stables. This expensive 
style of living was too much for his means, as he was disappointed 
in the sale of his lands, and he was forced to borrow sums of money 
on the credit of his friends, Generals Lincoln and Jackson. He soon 
found himself involved to a large amount, and was obliged to acquaint 
his friends of the embarrassments into which he had unfortunately 
drawn them. Lincoln was at that time Collector of the port of 
Boston, and occupied a house in State street, now torn down, part 
of which he used for the Custom House and part he occupied as 
his dwelling. It was agreed that the three should meet there, and a 
full exposition of Knox's affairs be made known. I was applied to 
as counsel on the occasion, and was the first one who came at the 
time appointed. Jackson soon entered ; after him, Knox ; and 
almost immediately Lincoln came in. They seated .themselves in a 
semicircle, whilst I took my place at the table for the purpose of 
drawing up the necessary papers and taking the notes of this melan- 
choly disclosure. These men had often met before, but never in a 
moment of such sorrow. Both Lincoln and Jackson knew and felt 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 97 

that Knox, the kindest heart in the world, had unwittingly involved 
them. They were all too full to speak, and maintained for some 
minutes a sorrowful silence. At last, as if moved by the same im- 
pulse, they raised their eyes. Their glances met, and Knox burst 
into tears. Soon, however, Lincoln rose, brushed a tear from his 
eye, and exclaimed, ' Gentlemen, this will never do ! We come hither 
to transact business ; let us attend to it.' This aroused the others, 
and Knox made a full disclosure of his affairs. Although Lincoln 
and Jackson suffered severe losses, it never disturbed the feelings of 
friendship and intimacy which had existed between these generous- 
hearted men." 1 Such thoughtless extravagance is one of the well- 
known characteristics of our race, and was especially noticeable in 
Irish society of the eighteenth century. Extravagance ran riot, and 
excess in hospitality was the principal virtue of the host. "Nine 
gentlemen in ten in Ireland are impoverished by the great quantity 
of claret which, from mistaken notions of hospitality and dignity, 
they think it necessary should be drunk in their houses." It is 
natural that traces of this tendency should occasionally appear 
among the Irish in America. 

Another distinguished officer of those gathered about Washing- 
ton during the siege of Boston was Stephen Moylan, colonel of 
Moylan's dragoons. He was born in Cork, and was the brother of 
the Roman Catholic bishop of that city. From the American camp 
in January, 1 776, he writes : " Everything thaws here except old 
Put. He is still as hard as ever crying out for powder powder 
ye gods, give us powder ! " Moylan street at the Highlands obscurely 
keeps his memory among us. 

General Sullivan was the son of John Sullivan, the emigrant, who 
settled in Maine in 1730. He was born in Berwick, Me., in 1741 ; 
at the outset of the war he at once rose into prominence. The fortifi- 
cations on Ploughed Hill, upon which afterwards the Benedictine con- 
vent stood, that was burnt in 1837, were his work. He commanded 
with distinction at Germantown and Brandywine, finally retiring from 

'William Sullivan's "Public Men of the Revolution." 



98 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

the army on account of disabilities. Afterwards he was a member 
of Congress, and was made a judge in New Hampshire. He died in 
1795. Sullivan, Morgan, Knox, Stark, and Moylan were instant in 
well-doing during the entire eight months of the siege, until Howe with 
his troops and his toadies was driven from the town. The evacuation 
occurred on St. Patrick's day, 1776. Gen. John Sullivan was made 
officer of the day, and it is said that the countersign, authorized by 
Washington's order, was " St. Patrick." Thus, on the most eventful 
day in the history of our city did the Commander-in-Chief of the 
American army pay a graceful compliment to the Irish people. 

We hear of Irish Tories that showed their heads from time to 
time during the siege. Thus "Draper's Gazette," Sept. 21, 1775, 
had the following : 

Tuesday a snow arrived from Cork laden with Claret, pork, and butter. She 
brings advices of great armaments fitting out in England which may be expected 
here in the course of next month. A brigade of Irish Roman Catholics is forming 
in Munster and Connaught in order to be sent to Boston to act against the rebels. 

Whether the editor of the " Gazette " had positive information 
when he wrote as above, or whether his intention was to furnish un- 
pleasant news for the " rebels " to read, has never been ascertained. 
It is known, however, that neither the great armament nor the Roman 
Catholic brigade ever arrived in Boston. In fact, the English gov- 
ernment found the greatest difficulties in enlisting Irishmen to fight 
against the Americans. The sympathies of the Irish people were 
with the cause. Arthur Lee, among others, vouches for this. In 
a letter written to General Washington he said : 

The resources of the country that is to say, England are almost annihilated 
in Germany, and their last resource is to the Roman Catholics of Ireland ; and they 
have already experienced their unwillingness to go, every man of a regiment raised 
there last year having obliged them to ship him off tied and bound. And most 
certainly the Irish Catholics will desert more than any other troops whatever. 

Again, we are told that General Howe, in an order issued 
Dec. 7, 1775, said: "Some Irish merchants residing in town, with 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 99 

their adherents, having offered their services for the defence of 
the place, they have armed and formed into a company called the 
Loyal Irish Volunteers, and distinguished by a white cockade." 
James Forrest was appointed captain of this company, and the duty 
of its members was to mount guard every evening. Forrest was a 
member of the Charitable Irish Society, and in 1772 and 1773 he 
was " keeper of the silver key." 

Among the most notorious characters of the time was an 
Irishman by the name of Crean Brush. He was a scoundrel, 
apparently without a single redeeming quality. His career, as 
found in history, is the career of a thief and most mercenary vil- 
lain. He seemed to have great influence with the rulers of the 
town of Boston. They invested him with extraordinary power, and 
winked at his crimes. He was a terror to both loyalists and patriots, 
and his thievings amounted to thousands of dollars. He may be 
traced in Dr. O'Callaghan's Documentary History of New York. He 
was born in Dublin, trained to the law, and admitted to practice in 
New York, where he held office under the Provincial Secretary. He 
appears as a violent actor in the controversies and hostilities between 
the authorities of New York and the settlers in the so-called 
"Hampshire grants" (now Vermont), who held titles from the 
Governor of New Hampshire that were disputed by New York. In 
those controversies the famous Ethan Allen appears conspicuously 
as one of the settlers. His wife was a step-daughter of Crean Brush. 
The exciting events in Boston had an attraction for the adventurous 
spirit of Brush, and he found his way to the town in the autumn of 
1775. He came highly recommended by the English authorities 
of New York, and jumped into favor immediately with General Gage. 
The closing-in of the town by the patriots led many Tories to seek 
flight either to England or Canada to await the cessation of hostilities. 
They had many valuables which they were unable to take with them. 
In October, 1775, Brush was delegated by Gage to receive such 
goods for safe-keeping. In the following March he was authorized 
by General Howe to secure all woollen and linen goods, to keep 
them from the " rebels." General Howe proclaimed : " If, after this 



100 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

notice, any person secretes or keeps in his possession such articles, 
he will be treated as favoring the rebels." General Howe's commission 
to Brush went further. It stated that there was in the town a large 
quantity of goods which, " in the possession of the rebels, would 
enable them to carry on the war; " and authorized him to take 
possession of all such goods as answered this description, and put 
them on board the ship " Minerva" and the brigantine " Elizabeth." 
This was a sweeping permission for Brush to rob, and he immediately 
took advantage of it. Early in the year 1776 he had secured 
permission from General Howe to raise a body of three hundred 
" loyal volunteers," who were to serve like the corps of Royal 
Fencible Americans, already organized. Under cover of his 
commission, and with the aid of his three hundred loyal brigands, 
he broke open stores, stripped them of their goods, and carried them 
on board the ships. Thieves and cut-throats, seeing him at this 
work, assumed authority to do likewise, and despoiled all those whom 
Brush permitted to escape while hunting for better prey. On the 
day of the evacuation he put off in the brigantine " Elizabeth," 
which was heavily laden with goods valued at one hundred thousand 
dollars at least. He had, however, delayed his departure too long. 
The fleet was down at the roads when the " Elizabeth " was trying 
to get out of the harbor. She was captured and brought back to 
Boston. The goods were confiscated, and Brush was put in the 
Boston jail heavily ironed. He was kept under rigid restrictions 
marked by merited indignities, though, it would seem, he found 
opportunity for gross intemperance. In 1777 he was joined by his 
wife, who contrived, after he had been in prison more than nineteen 
months, to disguise him in her own clothing, so as to enable him, on 
the night of Nov. 5, 1777, to get out of jail and away to New York. 
He went afterwards to Vermont, to look after his fifty thousand acres 
of land, which he had seized upon as his share during the land 
controversy. He fell into further trouble, and his estate was, for the 
most part, confiscated. In May, 1778, weighed down by grief and 
remorse, he blew out his brains with a pistol. 



THE IRISH SOLDIER.. 



101 



Turning from this Firbolg l to the more deserving of our race, 
we find in the Continental army besieging Boston the following 
significant names : 



Henry Adams (enrolled 


Solomon Hurley, 


Michael Neagles, 


as an Irishman), 


John Kneeland, 


James Neil, 


Patrick Brezland, 


David Kelley, 


John Noonan, 


Charles Briant, 


Matthew Casey, 


James Newland. 


Michael Bailey, 


Elijah Kelley, 


Thomas O'Bryan, 


Charles O'Brien, 


Michael Kirland, 


John O'Brian, 


William Boyed, 


William Kelly, 


Charles O'Brian, 


Richard Burk, 


William Lackey, 


Gregory O'Brian, 


John McClary, 


Philip Laraway, 


Thomas O'Brian, 


Maurice Conner, 


Wm. Love (entered 


John O'Hara, 


Cornelius Corbitt, 


from Ireland), 


John Ray, 


John Conway, 


Robt. Morrison, 


James Riley, 


Richard Colbert, 


Daniel McCarty, 


Michael Rockford, 


William Connelly, 


Dominick Murray, 


Thomas Riley, 


Timothy Dwyer, 


Hugh McKowen, 


Thomas Sharidan, 


Daniel Driskill, 


John Mitchell, 


Maurice Shehay, 


John Dorin, 


Wm. Murphy, 


Edmund Sculley, 


Wm. Doyle, 


John McDonald, 


Jeremiah Shea, 


Michael Edwards, 


John McGee, 


William Sullivan, 


Thomas Eagin, 


Jeremiah Mahoney, 


Elijah T. Tinvey, 


John Flynn, 


John McClarry, 


Cornelius Teigh, 


Thorn. Gurney, 


Francis McNeal, 


James Welsh, 


Michael Grant, 


John Maloney, 


Samuel Welsh, 


John Gillen, 


Andrew Meguire, 


James Kennedy, 


Robert Hughes, 


Phil Mahone, 


William Ryan, 


William Hurly, 


Barney McCormick,' 


John Welch, 


John Houlding, 


John O'Connel, 


Morris Welsh, 


Dennis Hogan, 


James Magee, 


Barnabus Ryan, 


Bartholomew Hurley, 


James Nagle, 


Simeon Riley. 



1 Every one who is black-haired, who is a tattler, guileful, tale-bearing, noisy, con- 
temptible; every wretched, mean, strolling, unsteady, harsh, and inhospitable person; every 
slave, every mean thief, every churl, every one who loves not to listen to music and enter- 
tainment, the disturbers of every council and every assembly, and the promoters of discord 
among peopte, these are the descendants of the Firbolgs in Erinn. Charles De Kay, in. 
The Century, January, 1889. 



102 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



IV. The War of 1812 and the Mexican War. 

The War of 1812 contains very little that concerns us. It was 
not popular in the East. The Federal party, that at that time domi- 
nated nearly all the New England States, was opposed to the war. 
When the news was received in Massachusetts that President Madi- 
son had declared war on the British, there was intense opposition. 
The feeling of opposition to the war was especially bitter in Boston. 
Boston people were largely engaged in commerce, and feared the 
prowling war-ships of Great Britain. President Madison and his 
administration were loudly denounced. The Federalists charged that 
the war was simply a political move to retain the Democracy in 
power. The English spirit seemed to have revived with new strength 
among the Eastern traders. They refused assistance to the general 
government, and did nothing whatever to promote the success of the 
war. 

Probably it was on the war issue that the Democracy of the State 
swung into power, for in 1812 their candidate for governor was elected. 
Both branches of the Legislature were also Democratic. Gover- 
nor Gerry openly accused the Federal party " of being anti-repub- 
lican in its principles, and opposed to the measures of the general 
government. Are we not called upon," said he, " to decide whether 
we will commit the liberty and independence of ourselves and pos- 
terity to the fidelity and protection of a national administration, at 
the head of which is a Madison, supported by an Executive Depart- 
ment, a Senate and House of Representatives abounding with Revolu- 
tionary and other meritorious patriots, or to a British administration, 
the disciples of Bute, who was the author of a plan to enslave these 
States, and to American royalists who cooperated with that govern- 
ment to bind us in chains while colonists? Is it not morally and 
politically impossible that a doubt can exist in regard to the choice ? " 

The Federalists succeeded in electing Caleb Stro'ng as Governor 
Gerry's successor. Boston was the seat of discontent and turbulence. 
Public passion was inflamed ; and from the moment war was declared, 




HENRY A. McGLENEN. 



THE IRISH SOLDTER. 103 

Boston clamored for peace and reprobated the war as wicked and 
unjust. 

The State Senate was Democratic, while the House was controlled 
by the Federalists. The House issued an address containing these 
words : " If your sons must be torn from you by conscription, con- 
sign them to the care of God, but let there be no volunteers except 
for defensive war." 

The address issued by the Senate contained the following : " Let 
your young men who compose the militia be ready to march at a 
moment's warning to any part of our shores in defence of our coast." 

Notwithstanding the English spirit which seemed to dominate 
the majority of Massachusetts citizens, and which led to acts border- 
ing on secession, there were still several companies raised in the State 
for its defence. The records of these companies are in the archives 
at Washington, and consequently not available for this work. There 
were the New England Guards, the Rangers, and the Boston and 
Charlestown Sea Fencibles, all Boston companies, and containing on 
their rolls many Irish names. 

New England was opposed to the Mexican War also. The Whig 
party of Massachusetts deemed it a war to extend the Southern slave 
power, and were inclined to refuse all assistance to it. The third 
party, which was destined to supplant the Whig party, and which was 
to be known as the Republican, was at that time making itself felt, 
and its members were unalterably opposed to the war. At the 
request of the Secretary of War, Governor Briggs called upon the 
citizen soldiery to enlist. This was in May, 1846, and in November 
of the same year a regiment was raised, with Caleb Gushing of New- 
buryport as colonel, Isaac H. Wright of Roxbury, lieutenant-colonel, 
and Edward W. Abbott of Andover as major. It is understood that 
this regiment never went into action in whole or in part. They 
left Boston in February, 1847; and June 21, 1848, they departed 
from Vera Cruz for home. The rolls of this regiment, preserved in 
the Adjutant-General's office, show that at least two-fifths of the en- 
listed men in the regiment were Irish-Americans, among them being 
Henry A. McGlenen, the popular manager of the Boston Theatre. 



104 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



V. The War of Secession. 

EVERY regiment in the Army of the North had in it soldiers 
who were Irishmen or Irishmen's sons. A mere list of these soldiers 
would make a volume of this size. They were not confined to 
the ranks. They furnished types of heroism in the navy, as well 
ao in the army, and in all grades, even to the highest. The daring 
and romantic figure of Sheridan, unique in our history, is a fitting 
crown to the valor of Irishmen everywhere. They have fought on 
every field but Ireland's successfully; and the culmination of their 
labors is the salvation of the American Union. 

As for Massachusetts, the army rolls at the adjutant-general's 
office in Boston furnish a striking revelation. Two of the regiments 
were so distinctively Irish that the State permitted them to carry the 
flag of their mother-country. Thus it was that the "sunburst" 
floated in companionship with the stars and stripes above the bay- 
onets of the famous Ninth Massachusetts Volunteers and the equally 
famous Twenty-eighth, the " Faugh-a-Ballaughs." Other regiments 
from the State might also have carried the green flag so far as the na- 
tionality of their membership was concerned. These long lists of 
brave men suggest to the imagination pictures of the martial possi- 
bilities of the Irish people. The thought comes of having them mar- 
shalled in one grand host. They would not lack for leaders. Sheridan 
first, and about him Shields, Meagher, Kearny, and the rest, would 
-make the blows of such an army effective and lasting. 

The two Irish regiments mentioned above are always referred to 
with high commendation in all the reports made to the adjutant-gen- 
eral during the four years of the war. 1 Their record is as clear as 
the work of brave men can make it. No regiment should have a 
warmer place in the hearts of the citizens of Boston than the Ninth, 
for no regiment came closer to her people. Officers and men, the 
great majority of them, were her citizens. 

1 " The Ninth was one of the best regiments that ever left the State." Adjutant- 
GcncraFs Report. 




PATRICK R. GUINEY. 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 



105 



Among the first to proffer his services to Governor Andrew at 
the outbreak of the war was Thomas Cass. His idea was to organize 
a regiment of Irishmen, who should be permitted to carry the Irish 
flag, and, with the governor's hearty approval, he perfected such an 
organization. It may be said that Colonel Cass made the regiment's 
renown. His officers partook of his spirit, his untiring devotion, his 
unfaltering belief in the ultimate triumph of the cause ; so that 
when he fell, mortally wounded, in one of the seven days' battles, 
the regiment's loss was more bereavement than disaster. His mantle 
fell on Colonel Guiney, who proved a- worthy successor. We give 
here a complete list of the war officers of this regiment. Some are 
gone ; but their children are among us, and not forgotten. 



v Colonels. 

Thomas Cass,** 
Patrick R. Guiney. [Bvt. 

Brig. Gen.] 

Lieutenant- Colonels . 
Cromwell G. Rowell, 
Robert Peard,*** 
Patrick R. Guiney, 
Patrick T. Hanley. [Bvt. 
Colonel.] 

Majors. 
Robert Peard, 
Patrick R. Guiney, 
George W. Dutton, 
Patrick T. Hanley, 
John W. Mahan. 

Surgeons. 
Peter Pinco, 
James F. Sullivan, 
Stephen W. Drew. 



Assistant Surgeons. 
Patrick A. O'Connell, 
Francis M. Lincoln, 
James F. Sullivan, 
Henry H. Fuller, 
John Ryan, 
James W. Fitzpatrick. 

Chaplains. 

Father Thomas Scully, 
.Father Charles L. Egan. 

Captains. 

Christopher Plunkett, 
James E. Gallagher,* 
John R. Teague, 
John Carey,* 
Charles J. McCarthy, 
James E. McCafferty,* 
Timothy O'Leary, 
John W. Mahan, 
Michael Scanlan, 
James F. McGunigle, 



Thomas R. Roche, 
Timothy Burke, 
Patrick R. Guiney, 
Edward Fitzgerald, 
Jeremiah O'Neil,* 
George W. Dutton, 
Patrick T. Hanley, 
John H. Rafferty, 
John C. Willey, 
John H.Walsh, 
Michael F. O'Hara, 
John M. Tobin, 
Patrick W. Black, 
William A. Phelan.f 
Michael A. Finnerty, 
Michael Flynn, 
Martin O'Brien, 
James W. McNamara.t 
William Madigan.* 

First Lieutenants. 
George W. Perkins, 
John Moran, 



liUicd at Gaines's Mills. 
t Killed in the Wilderness. 

** Died in Boston of wounds received at Malvern Hill. 
*** Died of disease while in the service. 



106 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



Michael Scanlan, 
Patrick T. Hanley, 
John W. Mahan, 
WUliam W. Doherty, 
Michael H. McNamara, 
Timothy O'Leary, 
John M. Tobin, 
Thomas R. Roche, 
James E. McCafferty, 
James F. McGunigle, 
John H. Walsh, 
William Strachan, 
Patrick Walsh, 
Philip E. Redmond, 
John C. Willey, 
Edward McSweeney.J 
John H. Rafferty.J 
Thomas Mooney, 
William Burke, 
Michael Phalan, 
Michael F. O'Hara, 
Michael Flynn, 
William A. Phelan, 
Michael A. Finnerty, 
Matthew Dacey, 
Nicholas C. Flaherty.f 
John W. McNamara, 
Patrick E. Murphy, 
Robert A. Miller, 



Richard P. Nugent,* 
Timothy Dacey, 
Joseph Murphy, 
Michael F. O'Hara, 
Patrick W. Black, 
John Doherty, 
Daniel G. Macnamara, 
Archibald Simpson, f 
William B. Maloney, 
Martin O'Brien, 
Christopher Plunkett, 
Bernard F. Finan, 
John F. Doherty, 
James O'Donnell, 
William R. Burke. 

Second Lieutenants. 
Patrick Walsh, 
John H. Rafferty, 
Edward McSweeney, 
John H. Walsh, 
Philip E. Redmond.ftt 
Timothy Burke, 
John C. Willey, 
Patrick W. Black, 
Edward Fennottie, 
Michael Flynn, 
Matthew Dacey, 
John Doherty, 



William B. Mahoney, 
Martin O'Brien, 
Timothy Dacey, 
Patrick E. Murphy, 
Charles B. McGinnisken.-f 
Christopher Plunkett, 
Hugh McGunnigle, 
Archibald Simpson, 
R. P. Nugent, 
Timothy F. Lee, 
Michael Phalan, 
Michael C. Flaherty, 
Michael A. Finnerty, 
Francis O'Dowd,* 
William A. Phelan, 
Robert A. Miller, 
Bernard F. Finan, 
John F. Doherty, 
Daniel G. Macnamara, 
William J. Blood, 
James W. McNamara, 
William R. Burke, 
James O'Donnell, 
William A. Plunkett, 
Joseph Murphy, 
Frank McLalor, 
Philip Redmond, 
James O'Neill.f 



The Twenty-eighth was mustered in on Jan. u, 1862, at Camp 
Cameron, near Boston. They first smelt powder at James's Island, 
June I and 2, in an effort to take Fort Johnson, which was 
successfully resisted. We give here a list of their war officers, and 
we shall leave further mention of their record till they join the Army 
of the Potomac, Aug. 16, 1862. Thus our history of the two 
regiments will be in the main a history of that famous army. 

* Killed at Gaines's Mill, 
t Killed in the Wilderness. 
} Killed at Malvern Hill. 
* tf Died in hospital at Washington, D.C. 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 



107 



Colonels. 

William Monteith, 
Richard Byrnes,**** 
George W. Cartwright. 

Lieutenant- Colonels . 
Maclehan Moore, 
Jeremiah W. Coveney, 
George W. Cartwright, 
James Fleming.fft 

Majors. 

Andrew P. Caraher, 
Andrew J. Lawler.** 

Surgeon. 
Patrick A. O'Connell. 

Chaplains. 

Father Nicholas O'Brien, 
Father Lawrence S. Mc- 
Mahon. 

Captains. 

Andrew P. Caraber, 
Lawrence P. Barrett, 
Charles P. Smith,* 
Andrew J. Lawler, 
John H. Brennan, 
Samuel Moore, 
John A. McDonald, 
John Riley, 
Patrick Nolan,*** 
Alexander Blaney, 



George F. McDonald, 
Michael Kiley, 
Martin Binney, 
Patrick W. Black, 
John Miles, 
Patrick Mclntyre,*** 
John Conners,fff 
Patrick H. Bird. 

First Lieutenants. 
Charles H. Sanborn, 
Humphrey Sullivan, 
John J. Cooley, 
Hugh P. Boyle,*** 
James Magee, 
James McArdle, 
James O'Keefe, 
Benjamin F. Bartlett, 
William Mitchell, 
Moses J. Emery, 
James Magner,** 
Addison A. Hosmer, 
John Ahern, 
William J. Lemoyne, 
Jeremiah W. Coveney, 
Michael Keiley, 
Edward F. O'Brien, 
Leonard Harvey, 
Martin Binney, 
Walter J. Morgan, 
Patrick W. Black, 
John Miles, 
John Conners, 
M. Quilty, 



John Miner, 
Patrick H. Bird, 
Patrick Mclntyre, 
John Maher, 
John Knight, 
Michael E. Pouderly, 
Thomas J. Parker.fft 
Thomas Cook. 

Second Lieutenants. 
James B. West,**** 
Jeremiah W. Coveney, 
Josiah F. Kennison, 
John Ahern, 
Florence J. Buckley, 
James A. Mclntyre,* 
Nicholas J. Barrett.f 
William H. Flynn,***** 
J. Howard Tannant, 
Theophilus F. Page, 
Edwin J. Weller,ft 
John B. Noyes, 
William F. Cochrane,** 
Walter S. Bailey, 
John Sullivan, ff 
Jacob Nebrich, 
Patrick W. Black, 
Cornelius McCarty, 
Thomas Cook, 
John McGlinn, 
William McCarty, 
Alexander Barrett,***** 
David Hogan. 



It was in April, 1 86 1, that the Ninth Regiment was organized 
and encamped on Long Island. On June 29 Colonel Cass led them 
to Washington. Two days after the disaster at Bull Run they joined 



Killed at Wilderness. 
** Killed at Spottsylvania. 
*** Killed at Deep Bottom. 
**** Killed at Cold Harbor. 



**** Killed at Chantilly. 
t Killed at Sharpsburg. 
ft Killed at Fredericksburg. 
tft Killed at Petersburg. 



108 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

the troops posted as the guard of our national capital on Arlington 
Heights, the scene of the first armed invasion of "the sacred soil 
of Virginia." Washington was then in a state of wholesome terror. 
The "powers that be" had gone into the war with the idea that one 
good blow would knock the Confederacy down ; but the Confederacy 
countered unexpectedly at Bull Run, and after that the national 
government was careful to keep its guard up. One good result of 
this defeat was the creation of the great Army of the Potomac, 1 with 
Gen. George B. McClellan, then but thirty-five years of age, as its 
commander. The Ninth left Arlington Heights to join this famous 
army, in the early spring of 1862. 

We have nothing to do with the controversy which makes com- 
parison between masterly retreats and brilliant victories ; they both, 
it seems to us, are a necessity to the proper conduct and success 
of a war. In the eyes of his soldiers, or at least of a large majority 
of them, McClellan was the ideal soldier. He was an especial favorite 
of his Irish followers. 

In the peninsular campaign the Ninth bore a beautiful national 
flag, which had been presented to the regiment by the boys of the 
Eliot school. 2 It may seem hard to understand the dual patriotism 
symbolized by these two flags. Certain it is that the cry : " Rally 
round the green flag ! " nerved this regiment to some of its bravest 
deeds. It must have been a surprise to the people of Alexandria, 
Va., on that March morning, to see a thousand boys in blue march- 
ing to the national tunes of Ireland and flying their Irish flag ; and 
a still greater surprise to see that same flag flying at the peak of the 
U.S. Transport " State of Maine," which took the Ninth to Fortress 
Munroe. 

'The order for the transportation of McClellan's army was issued on the 2701 of Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and four hundred vessek were required; for there were actually transported one 
hundred and twenty-one thousand men, fourteen thousand animals, forty-four batteries, and 
all the necessary ambulances and baggage-wagons, pontoons, and telegraph material. 
Rossiter Johnson ; " A Short History of the War of Secession." ' 

* The Eliot school is located at the North End of Boston, in a section of the city which, 
at that time, was largely populated by people of Irish extraction. Many of the friends, rela- 
tives, and parents of the men of the Ninth lived at the North End. The battle-torn remnants 
of this flag now hang in the hall of the school-house on North Bennett street. 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 



109 



The campaign upon which McClellan now entered was full of 
unforeseen difficulties. The first and greatest was the complete igno- 
rance of the Union army as to the topography of the country in 
which they were at work. It was some comfort to know that among 
the natives of the district, who knew only their own immediate 
neighborhood, the ignorance of the enemy was just as complete. 
Such a thing as a map of the peninsula had never been made. If 
the President had had a good map of the country he could have seen, 
and undoubtedly would have seen, the mistake that is now so easily 
pointed out. McClellan had planned'an approach to Richmond along 
the James river on the north bank. The advantages of such a plan are 
readily seen by reference to our sketch. 

The base of supplies 
could be on the James, 
transports and supply- 
boats could come up to 
head-quarters, and it 
would be unnecessary to 
leave heavy garrisons for 
covering a long line of 
communication. The gov- 
ernment at Washington, 
however, was very nerv- 
ous, and, although they 
now had about 70,000 men, including McDowell's corps, which 
should have been with McClellan, the War Department issued 
an order, May 18, directing that the army should approach 
Richmond from the north. This made it necessary for McClellan 
to make his base of supplies on the York and Pamunkey in- 
stead of on the James. The mistake of such a plan is now 
clearly seen. The accompanying rough map of the peninsula 
shows the relative positions of Fortress Munroe, Richmond, and 
White House, where, according to this order, McClellan made his 
base of supplies. The entire route, from whatever camp he might be 
in, to this last point, had to be kept secure from hostile occupation, 




PLAN OF THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 



M Fortress Munroe. 
R Richmond. 
W White House. 



Y York River. 

J James River. 

C Chlckahominy River. 



110 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

or else, some fine day, the army would have to fight for their supper, 
with a slim chance of any being left for them. Again, the Chicka- 
hominy river lay between them and Richmond. Sudden rains might, 
in a single day, make this stream a torrent, and in two days impass- 
able. When the army should cross this river they would leave it 
between them and their supplies ; to leave a sufficient guard on the 
other bank would hopelessly weaken the attack, and to leave no 
guard would be to stake every hope of safety, not only for them- 
selves, but for the Union, upon the chances of a single day's 
fighting. 

McClellan was finally aroused to the imminent danger of his 
situation by the daring raid of a body of about 1,500 Confederate 
cavalry, which rode completely around his army, between him and 
White House. This was on the I2th of June. If, instead of "Jeb" 
Stuart and his audacious band, the invaders had been Jackson, with 
a large detachment, and if, instead of hurrying by, they had stopped 
to wreck the stores at White House, the result can be imagined. 
McClellan was then astride the Chickahominy, and determined to 
change his base to conform with his old idea. 

Soon after this Lee began to lay his plans for attacking the Union 
army. On June 26, in pursuance of a plan for a change of base, 
the heavy guns and a large part of the baggage train were removed 
to the north bank of the Chickahominy. Lee, Longstreet, and the 
two Generals Hill crossed the Chickahominy and attempted to turn 
the flank of the Federal troops; but the artillery literally mowed 
them down, and they gained no advantage. The next day McClellan 
continued the plan he had entered upon. Porter was covering the 
removal of the remainder of the stores, when he was attacked by 
Gen. A. P. Hill, and thus was brought on the battle of Gaines's 
Mills, or Chickahominy. The desperate character of this engage- 
ment may be estimated from the fact that the National army lost 
6,000 men, and the enemy's loss is estimated at a much larger figure. 
The Ninth lost nearly 300 men, over one-fifth of their fighting 
strength. The Ninth was in General Porter's corps, the available 
strength of which on this day was about 25,000 men, while Long- 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. Ill 

street and the Hills brought against him an army of at least 55,000 
men. 

The battle was begun by Gen. A. P. Hill, about two o'clock in 
the afternoon, and for two hours he hammered Porter, blow on blow, 
only to be hurled back with frightful loss. Jackson came with ree'n- 
forcements, and then heavy masses of Confederate troops made 
assaults all along the National line. Volley responded to volley; 
batteries that remained after the infantry supports had fallen back 
were decimated, captured and recaptured. The enemy finally suc- 
ceeded in breaking General Porter's line, and at sunset he was 
compelled to retire. 

The work of Porter's men in this engagement was so desperate 
and deadly that the Confederate generals thought they were fighting 
the whole Union army. Part of the rebel force was completely 
demoralized. Whole regiments were deliberately marching back, 
and there was the most outrageous skulking on their side ever seen 
during the war. No one who reads the story of the peninsular 
battles can doubt the bravery of the Southerners, but this time they 
had roused a lion ; the Ninth was as firm as a rock on the beach. 1 
The reckless charges of the secessionists broke against their steady 
bayonets and well-directed fire ; the entire staff of a regiment before 
their line would frequently disappear, and the headless ranks drift 
back to shelter. 

Colonel Cass was disabled by illness and a slight wound early 
in the battle, and his men were led by Lieutenant-Colonel Guiney, 
who, upon the death of Cass at Malvern Hill, succeeded to 
the command. The order came to charge; Guiney ordered the 
colors forward, and at his call the men sprang to support them. 
It is the proud record of this regiment that they never lost a color, 
and their daring charge in this hotly contested battle went far to 
save the colors of their brother regiments. Surely it is not just to 
call theirs a divided patriotism; that green flag, symbol of hopes 

\ "The Irish held their position with a determination and ferocity that called forth 
the admiration of our own officers." Report of a Prussian officer serving in the rebel 
army, quoted in MfNamard's "Irish Ninth." 



112 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

deferred for generations, and of bitter, fruitless struggles for home 
and freedom ; the flag that was bought by their children and deliv- 
ered into their hands by the most famous Irish soldier then living, 1 
would they be men if it did not rouse the deepest and strongest 
passions of their nature ? Would they be worth our citizenship if 
they did not follow it, through wounds and death, to the greatness of 
the fame that history awards them to-day? 

As the day wore on with its fearful work, McClellan sent as 
reinforcements Slocum's division, and later Meagher's and French's. 
These last troops saved the day. Stragglers were beginning to work 
their way towards the bridges, and the thin and war-worn lines of 
heroes, having been under fire for two days, gladly rested behind the 
bulwark formed by the fresh troops. The enemy were finally 
baffled ; their victory, all but won, was again deferred. They were 
very willing to permit the retreat of an enemy less than half their 
number, that had resisted their most ferocious and reckless attacks 
for a whole day. The Ninth was among the last regiments to leave 
this field of dreadful carnage. After all the terrible strain of the 
day, they kept their ranks with the steadiness of veterans, and 
marched without a symptom of panic, an exemplar of discipline to 
the rest of the army, and a nucleus for stragglers that had courage 
enough to stay where they could find fighting companions. We 
quote from the New York " Herald's " war correspondent : 

The Ninth Massachusetts Regiment was the rear of the retreating column, 
which had passed over a hill into a large, open plain. . . . 

To break and run was not for the men who had covered themselves with glory 
during the entire day. Col. P. R. Guiney (now in command) decided to form a 
line of battle on his colors, and resist the approach of the enemy until the advance 
of the retreat should have been far enough to leave ground sufficient to enable him 
to commence his retreat in good order. Colonel Guiney, with his standard-bearers, 
advanced upon the rebels with the words, " Men, follow your colors ! " It was 
enough. Before that small band of jaded heroes waved the stars and stripes and 
the green flag of Erin, and with loud huzzas they rushed upon the rebels, driving 
them up hill. 

After the battle of Gaines's Mills, McClellan continued the 
'Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher, then commanding the "Irish Brigade." 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 113 

movement that he had begun. The enemy fancied that, being 
forced to abandon his depot at White House, he would retreat by 
the way he had come," and consequently lost valuable time in pur- 
suing him. They did attack him again, however, and harassed him 
all along his line of retreat, till he finally entrapped them at Malvern 
Hill. This was a small eminence on the north bank of the James 
river. The ground was peculiarly well situated for defence, and 
McClellan's keen engineering sense saw every point of vantage it 
could afford. 

Porter's division, of which the Ninth was a part, shared with 
Couch's the brunt of the attack. At 6 o'clock P.M. the artillery 
of the enemy concentrated its fire upon their fronts. Brigades 
formed in heavy masses under the cover of the trees, and raising the 
" rebel yell," started on the run across the open ground to storm 
the batteries. They were received first by a shower of grape and 
canister from the guns ; daring and determined, they pressed on to 
within a few yards of the line only to receive the deadly volley that 
their opponents had been saving for close quarters ; then the Union 
soldiers leaped to the charge, and their bayonets drove the remnant 
of their foes, in utter confusion, down and away, capturing colors 
and prisoners in goodly numbers. More than once in this fight the 
charges of the Irish Ninth decided a critical point of the contest. 1 
Colonel Cass had told General Porter 1 in the morning that his men 
would sweep the enemy before them, and they did it, though poor 
Cass paid for it with his life. 

--v^ It seems proper to insert at this point the last words that Mc- 
Clellan ever wrote, the grateful tribute of the illustrious commander 
to the men with whom and by whom his fame was made : 

So long as life lasts, the survivors of those glorious days will remember, 
with quickened pulse, the attitude of that army when it reached the goal for 
which it had striven with such transcendent heroism. Exhausted, depleted in num- 
bers, bleeding at every pore, but still proud and defiant, and strong in the conscious- 
ness of a great feat of arms heroically accomplished, it stood ready to renew the 
. 

1 The authority for these statements is Gen. Fitz-John Porter. 



114 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

struggle with undiminished ardor whenever its commander should give the word. 
It was one of those magnificent episodes which dignify a nation's history, and are 
fit subjects for the grandest efforts of the poet and painter. 

It was while the regiment was at Harrison's Landing that Col. 
P. R. Guiney received his promotion as Colonel Cass's successor. He 
had been with the regiment from the date of its commission, and had 
rapidly risen in distinction for ability and bravery. He was one of 
the active organizers of the regiment. It was his gallant and meri- 
torious conduct at the battle of Gaines's Mills that gained him the 
colonelcy, his promotion having been urged by Gen. Fitz-John 
Porter himself. 

In leaving now, as we must, the peninsular campaign to follow 
the fortunes of the regiment elsewhere, it must not be supposed that 
we have done justice to their story. We have omitted the account 
of important battles in which the Ninth participated, and we have 
omitted accounts of individual and regimental gallantry that should 
properly be told. The trouble is not the lack of incident, but the 
lack of space to recount it. What has been gjven is only to show 
the importance of this particular campaign, and to show the share of 
our Irish regiments in preventing the disastrous termination which 
was so imminently threatened and so narrowly averted. To write in 
the same way a full account of all the battles in which the Ninth and 
its peer, the Twenty-eighth, took part, would be equivalent to writing 
a history of the greater part of the Civil War. Grateful as that task 
would be, and proud as the record of our race would be in it, it is 
not our present purpose ; we must confine ourselves to the most 
sketchy accounts, and be content with the omission of many im- 
portant incidents. 

When we next see the Ninth in battle, they are serving under 
Pope in the second Bull Run. On August 29, they were a part of the 
corps which Porter refused to lead to almost certain destruction, a 
refusal which caused one of the most unjust military sentences known 
to history. The neact day, they were a part of the troops which Mc- 
Dowell hurled desperately at Lee's attacking column, still trying to 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 115, 

obey their blundering chief as best they could. The Twenty-eighth 
was also in this battle, having recently come from South Carolina, 
and did good service in repelling the flank attack of Jackson's troops 
at Chantilly on the last day of the fight. The total loss of the latter 
regiment in the three days' battle was over two hundred. 

After the second battle of Bull Run, as after the first, the 
Government turned to McClellan. Lee was moving North, and Mc- 
Clellan started on his track. The Ninth and the Twenty-eighth were 
now following the same leader. Sometimes one was in action, 
sometimes the other. After McClellan had forced the passes at 
South Mountain, the Ninth had to watch inactively from the left 
bank of Antietam Creek while the Twenty-eighth fought with the 
heroic fragment of the army that McClellan was able to put into 
action. Their loss here was twelve killed, thirty-six wounded, out of 
less than two hundred taken into action. 

Foiled in his attempt at a Northern invasion, Lee started 
homeward. McClellan followed, but hesitated to attack him in the 
strongly intrenched positions that he was able to secure. The 
politicians at Washington again got after him, and between them 
and Halleck, Lincoln was persuaded to " swap horses " again, and 
Burnside was substituted for " Little Mac." True to the old proverb, 
the new commander rushed in where McClellan feared to risk his 
well-beloved men, and the disaster at Fredericksburg followed. We 
were pushed to an impossible attack, slaughtered by a determined 
foe impregnably intrenched ; but the way in which these brave men 
"went to their graves like beds" is the brightest example of daring, 
heroic, unflinching devotion to duty that the pages of history afford. 
Burnside ordered a charge to seize the heights back of the city. 
French and Hancock's divisions made the attack, the former leading. 
They came on bravely ; shells burst in their ranks, but they closed 
the gaps and marched on ; they met the fire of the infantry, dropping 
by hundreds, but not stopping. Finally two brigades rose up from 
a sunken road and delivered a murderous fire almost in their faces. 
They halted and sought shelter, and then came Hancock's division 
with the brigades of Zook, Meagher, and Caldwell, about five 



116 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

thousand men. In Meagher's brigade was the Twenty-eighth 
Regiment. They charged in the same manner, but their desperate 
valor only carried them nearer to the deadly stone-wall. No 
organized body of men could ever reach it, for the enemy were so 
thick behind it that " each one at the wall had two or three behind 
him to load muskets and hand them to him, while he had only to 
lay them flat across the wall and fire them." Generals Couch and 
Howard, observing from a steeple, saw this fighting, 1 and Howard 
could not suppress a cry of agony as he saw the brave men drop. 

The best testimony for our famous countrymen is from the pen 
of their foes. We quote from First-Lieut. William Miller Owen : a 
" In the foremost line we distinguished the green flag with the golden 
harp of old Ireland, and we knew it to be Meagher's Irish brigade. 
The gunners were directed to turn their guns against this column, 
but the gallant enemy pushed on beyond all former charges, and 
fought and left their dead within five and twenty paces of the sunken 
road." 

In spite of all the daring and death, the attempt failed to make 
any impression on the well-managed army of Confederates, and 
out of Hancock's brave five thousand that started on the charge, 
three thousand retired at the end of fifteen minutes, leaving their 
comrades where they fell. 

After one or two more of these frantic efforts to carry the posi- 
tion by storm, Burnside gave it up, and during the night withdrew to 
the other side of the river. Shortly afterward Hooker superseded 
him, and attempted to get around Lee's position and take him from 
the rear. He began the battle of Chancellorsville by a brilliant 

1 " I had never before seen fighting like that. Nothing approaching it in terrible 
uproar and destruction. There was no cheering on the part of the men, but a stubborn 
determination to obey orders and do their duty. I don't think there was much feeling of 
success. As they charged, the artillery fire would break their formation and they would get 
mixed; then they would close up, go forward, receive the withering infantry fire, and those 
who were able, would run to the houses and fight as best they could, and then the next 
brigade coming up in succession would do its duty and melt like snow coming down on warm 
ground." General Couch, in "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War," vol. iii., p. 113. 

* Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol. iii., p. 98. 




COL. PATRICK T. HANLEY. 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 117 

strategic movement, which was soon neutralized by his vacillating 
and incompetent generalship ; and " Fighting Joe," after making a 
poor defensive battle, retired, beaten like his predecessor, though 
not quite so badly. His old-time energy soon returned, however, 
and he detected and followed up the attempted invasion of the 
North, which culminated at Gettysburg. Resenting the meddlesome 
and injurious dictation of Halleck, the commander-in-chief, he asked 
to be relieved of his command. Meade was appointed in his place, 
and led the army to the field which turned out to be the Waterloo 
of the Rebellion. 

The Ninth was at this battle, though not actively engaged ; they 
lost one killed and three wounded while on skirmish duty. The 
Irish brigade had lost their old commander, and now followed 
Col. Patrick Kelley. The Twenty-eighth, after many forced 
marches, took up a position with this brigade on the left of Ceme- 
tery Hill, early on the second day of the battle, and in this position 
line of battle was formed, and maintained until 4 o'clock P.M., 
at which time the regiment moved forward and engaged the 
enemy, who were strongly posted on the crest of a rocky hill. 
The Twenty-eighth went over the top of this hill and almost to the 
bottom of the other side, being the whole time exposed to a heavy and 
concentrated musketry fire and losing many men. The enemy were 
on both flanks, and caused our men to retire a short distance for 
support. During this engagement and the following one next day, 
the regiment lost in killed, wounded, and missing one hundred and 
one men. 

The Confederacy received its death-blow at Gettysburg, and the 
Army of the Potomac soon found itself on old battle-fields. Our 
two Irish regiments took part in various minor engagements till the 
army went into winter quarters in the fall of 1863. , 

In February of the next year, Grant took command of the 
armies of the United States, and thirteen months afterward the war 
finished, and the great and good Lincoln had gone to his rest. On 
the 3d of May, Grant crossed the Rapidan southward and plunged 
into the Wilderness, a tract of deserted mining territory, densely 



118 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

wooded and uninhabited. Lee, for once, took the offensive, doubt- 
less expecting to surprise his opponent; but Grant was awake, and 
the " murdering match " in the jungle left him in first-rate fighting 
and marching condition. 

It was in the first day's fight in the Wilderness that Colonel 
Guiney was wounded in the eye by a minie-ball, and the com- 
mand of the Ninth devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Hanley during 
the remainder of the battle. The Twenty-eighth was there, too. 
On the first day they lost sixteen killed, sixty-seven wounded, 
and fifteen missing. Here gallantly fell Lieut. James Mclntire and 
Capt. Charles P. Smith. They lost also on the last days of the 
battle, though not so heavily. 

Grant moved " by the left flank " from this time forward, and 
Lee never fought except defensively thereafter. It was a race for 
Richmond, and Lee got in first ; but there was a steady fight all the 
way. The Ninth was in it up to Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. They 
lost in this series of engagements Captains James W. Macnamara 
and William A. Phelan, and Lieutenants Nicholas C. Flaherty, 
James O'Neill, Archibald Simpson, and Charles B. McGinniskin. 

The Twenty-eighth stayed nearly through the war. In a daring 
charge at Cold Harbor they lost Colonel Byrnes. June 16 finds 
them at Petersburg, charging on and over the first line of works, 
until stopped by the superior force of the enemy. 

This regiment was the last to leave the intrenchments at the 
fiercely contested battle of Reams's Station, August 25. They were 
on this occasion publicly complimented for gallant conduct by the 
division commander, Gen. Nelson A. Miles. Their losses for the 
year 1864 were, in killed, wounded, and missing, four hundred and 
five. 

The time of enlistment for many of this regiment expired early 
in 1865, and Colonel Cartwright returned to Boston with them. The 
remainder were organized into the Twenty- eighth Battalion of Mas- 
sachusetts Volunteers. Lieut.-Col. James Fleming led them on 
March 25, 1865, in an attack on Petersburg, Va. The enemy ad- 
vanced to meet the attack and were twice repulsed. On this occa- 



THE IRISH SOLDIER. 119 

sion the battalion remained under fire until all its ammunition had 
been expended. In this engagement Lieutenant-Colonel Fleming, 
Capt. John Conners, Capt. Patrick Mclntyre, and First-Lieut. T. J. 
Parker were killed. There were also seven men killed and sixty-five 
wounded out of two hundred taken into action. 

The last fight of any moment made by the battalion was at 
South Side Railroad, under the command of Capt. P. H. Bird, on 
April 3, 1865. They were in at the surrender of Lee, and formed 
part of the grand review at Washington. 



THE 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 



A BOOK devoted to the history of the Irish race in Boston would 
be ludicrously incomplete without a sketch of that Church to 
which, at least, four-fifths of the Irish in their own land, or other- 
where scattered, belong. The loyalty of the Catholic Irish to their 
faith is a proverb ; and in New England, especially, " Irish " and 
" Catholic " are, for all practical purposes, convertible terms. In- 
deed, humanly speaking, the strength and importance of the Cath- 
olic Church in these parts to-day are due to the influx of the Irish 
element, and to the large and attractive personalities of the Irishmen 
who became prominent in her episcopate and priesthood. It remains, 
therefore, but to outline Catholic progress, as a whole, in Boston. 

The first Catholic ever to set foot in Boston was, doubtless, the 
Jesuit missionary, the Rev. Gabriel Druillettes. He had been a success- 
ful missionary among the Abnaki Indians in Maine. In 1650, Canada 
being anxious to open a free intercolonial trade and association, for 
mutual defence against the Iroquois, with New England, Father Druil- 
lettes was sent in quality of ambassador, so to speak, by the Cana- 
dian authorities to the governing powers in New England. The 
Jesuit was courteously received by Major-General Gibbons, who gave 
him a room in his house where he could be free to say his prayers 
and perform the exercises of his religion. Whence Dr. John Gilmary 
Shea, in his " History of the Catholic Church in Colonial Days " 
(Vol. I. of his "Catholic Church in the United States "), thinks we 
may infer that Father Druillettes celebrated Mass in Boston, Decem- 
ber, 1650. "At Roxbury," continues Dr. Shea, "he visited Eliot 
(the Pilgrim missionary to the Indians), who pressed him to remain 
under his roof until spring." The Jesuit did not prolong his stay. 
Be it remembered that only three years before, 1647, a law had been 



124 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

enacted in New England expelling every Jesuit from the colonies, 
and dooming him to the gallows if he returned. 

A French Protestant refugee, who was in Boston in 1687, found 
eight or ten Catholics, three of whom were French, the others Irish. 
None were permanently settled, however, except the surgeon, who 
was, Dr. Shea thinks, Dr. Le Baron. 

From 1711-13, Father Justinian Durant, one of the priests who 
had tried to labor among the oppressed Acadians in Nova Scotia, 
was a prisoner in Boston. 

In 1775, when Washington took command of the American 
forces at Cambridge, and forbade the observance of " Pope day," 
there were evidently a few Catholics permanently located in Boston, 
Charlestown, and the towns in the vicinity. The Abbe Robin, a 
French priest, was in Boston in 1781 ; Father Lacy, an Irish priest, 
' made a short visit to Boston about the same year. The Tories in 
Boston tried to excite anti-Catholic prejudice in New England against 
the American cause, on account of the alliance of Congress with 
France, and in their journals how history repeats itself! pub- 
lished imaginary items, dated ten years ahead, detailing the terrible 
things which would happen now that " Popery " was suffered to exist. 

In 1 788 the Boston Catholics, under the direction of Father de 
la Poterie, a priest from the diocese of Aryen, France, acquired a site 
of a French Huguenot church on School street, and erected a small 
brick church, under the title of the Holy Cross. The Archbishop of 
Paris, on an appeal from the French Catholics in Boston, sent to the 
little church a needed outfit. There was, however, scant spiritual 
comfort for the Catholics in Boston till 1790, when Bishop Carroll 
sent them Father John Thayer, a native of Boston, who had been 
converted while travelling in Europe, received into the church in 
Rome in 1783, and ordained about three years later. .When he 
took charge of his Boston flock he found it numbered about one 
hundred French, Irish, and Americans. 

Bishop Carroll visited Boston for the first time in the spring of 
1791, to heal the division made in the little congregation by the dis- 
edifying French priest, Rousselet. The Bishop was courteously 




MOST REV. JOHN J. WILLIAMS, 

ARCHBISHOP OF BOSTON. 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 125 

received by Bostonians generally, and, having been invited to the 
annual dinner of " The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company," 
pronounced the thanksgiving at the close of the banquet. 

Catholic growth in Boston was greatly quickened by the advent 
thither, in 1792, of the Rev. Francis A. Matignon, formerly professor 
in -the College of Navarre, France, and experienced among English 
Catholics. He was joined, four years later, by his friend and country- 
man, the Rev. John Cheverus, like himself a refugee from the French 
revolution. These two priests, by their exemplary lives, unwearied 
devotion to the duties of their office, profound learning, kindliness, 
and tact, disarmed, by degrees, the prejudice and suspicion with 
which all things Catholic were regarded in Boston. The sermons of 
Father Cheverus attracted crowds of Protestants. His devotion to his 
fellow-citizens, whose nurse and spiritual consoler he became, with- 
out distinction of race or creed, when the yellow-fever scourge 
visited Boston, completed his victory. 

The Legislature of Massachusetts were preparing the formula of 
an oath to be taken by all the citizens of the State before voting at 
elections ; but, fearing it might contain something objectionable to 
the Catholic conscience, they submitted it to Father Cheverus, 
accepted his revision, and enacted it into a law. 

In 1799 the Catholics felt the need of a new church. A sub- 
scription list was opened, which John Adams, President of the United 
States, headed with a generous offering. James Bullfinch, Esq., drew 
the plans, and declined remuneration therefor. On St. Patrick's day, 
1800, ground was broken on the site acquired on Franklin street. 

The same year, however, witnessed a revival of the old anti- 
Catholic,.spirit, and Father Cheverus was prosecuted by Attorney- 
General Sullivan on the charge that he had violated the law, which 
was held to permit his ministrations only in Boston, by marrying two 
Catholics in Maine. Judges Bradbury and Strong were especially 
hostile to Father Cheverus; but Judge Sewall, grandfather, we be- 
lieve, of Samuel Sewall, the eminent abolitionist, lately deceased, was 
unprejudiced. The pillory and a fine were threatened ; Bradbury 
would have the law carried out to the letter ; but he was thrown from 



126 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

his horse and prevented from attending court, and the Attorney- 
General was absent when the case was reached. The prosecution 
lapsed. 

In 1803 Bishop Carroll came on and dedicated the Church of 
the Holy Cross, assisted by Doctors Matignon and Cheverus. The 
late Hon. E. Hasket Derby presented this church with a bell from 
Spain. His son, the famous oculist, Dr. Hasket Derby, became a 
Catholic, and is a devoted attendant at the Cathedral. The bell is in 
the mortuary chapel at Holyhood. 

The humble and unpromising beginnings of the Church in 
Boston have been dwelt on thus minutely only for the sake of con- 
trast with its magnificent development of to-day, a development 
which sets it in the front rank of American Catholic Sees, second 
only in numerical strength, riches, enterprise, and last, but far from 
least, steadfast faith and loyalty of religious spirit, to the great See of 
New York itself. 

In 1808 Pope Pius VII. erected four new Episcopal Sees in the 
United States, one of which was Boston, with Doctor Cheverus as 
first bishop. He was consecrated in Baltimore, by Archbishop 
Carroll, Nov. I, 1810. Bishop Cheverus established a little theolog- 
ical seminary under his own roof for candidates for the priesthood, 
and founded an Ursuline Convent in Boston for the education of 
young girls. Boston's second Catholic parish St. Augustine's, 
South Boston was created by Bishop Cheverus. In 1823 his failing 
health obliged him to return to his native France, where he became 
successively Bishop of Montauban and Cardinal Archbishop of Bor- 
deaux, dying in 1836. His departure from Boston was mourned as 
much by Protestants as by Catholics. A Protestant lady, Mrs. John 
Gore, had his portrait painted by Gilbert Stuart. This portrait, now 
the property of Mrs. Horatio Greenough, adorns the Boston Art 
Museum. During his administration many converts were received 
into the Church, members of the most distinguished New England 
families. 

Bishop Cheverus was succeeded in the diocese of Boston by the 
Rt. Rev. Joseph Benedict Fenwick, a lineal descendant of Cuthbert 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 127 

Fenwick, one of the Catholic pilgrims who helped Lord Baltimore to 
found the colony of Maryland. Irish immigrants poured into Boston 
during his episcopate, and the Irish priests followed their people. 
Churches and schools multiplied. 

Bishop Fenwick's first care in Boston was to remove the 
Ursuline nuns from their crowded and unhealthy quarters in the 
city to a fine estate in Charlestown. He next enlarged the Cathedral 
by an addition, seventy by forty. Ample space was afforded in the 
basement for school-rooms, which were soon filled by earnest and 
intelligent boys, whose studies were directed by the ecclesiastical 
students of the diocese. At this time Bishop Fenwick had but one 
priest 4 in the city to share his labors, the Rev. P. Byrne, a native 
of Kilkenny, Ireland. He came to thif country at an early age, and 
was ordained in Boston, by Bishop Cheverus, in 1820. With the 
Rev. Denis Ryan, also a native of Kilkenny, and ordained for the 
diocese of Boston by Bishop Cheverus, he rendered inestimable 
services during the infancy of the Church in New England. He 
was the pastor of St. Mary's Church, Charlestown, from 1830 till 
1843. Later, he had pastoral charge of New Bedford and the island 
of Nantucket. He died Dec. 4, 1844, and, according to his request, 
was buried in St. Augustine's Cemetery, South Boston. Father 
Ryan labored in the Maine missions of the vast diocese, and his 
name will always be tenderly associated with Catholic beginnings in 
Whitefield and Damariscotta. 

In 1827 Bishop Fenwick officiated at his first ordination, the 
candidates being the Revs. James Fitton and William Wiley. The 
former spent many fruitful years as a missionary among the Indians 
in Maine, and later built up the church in East Boston. He has left 
valuable records of Catholic beginnings and growth in his " Sketches 
of the Establishment of the Church in New England." 

Under Bishop Fenwick's administration the Church of St. 
Augustine, South Boston, built in 1819 for a mortuary chapel, was 
enlarged to accommodate the Catholics, who were growing very 
numerous in its neighborhood. Its successive pastors have been the 
Revs. Thomas Lynch, 1833-1836; John Mahony, 1836, till his death, 



128 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

in 1839; Michael Lynch, 1839-40; Terence Fitzsimons, 1840-44. 
The new and beautiful St. Augustine's of our own day was built by 
the Rev. Denis O'Callaghan, who became its first pastor. It was 
dedicated in 1874, and consecrated in 1884. Father O'Callaghan is 
of Irish birth, but resided in Boston since his seventh year (1848). 
He is a zealous priest and a well-known advocate of the legislative 
independence of his native land. The splendid church, free of debt, 
and the spacious schools under way, speak more eloquently for him 
and his people than a volume of praising words. The old cemetery, 
in which the pioneer Catholics of Boston are buried, is a shrine of 
historic interest and of reverent pilgrimage. Among the graves of 
the pioneer priests we find that of the Rev. John Mahony, men- 
tioned above among the pastors of St. Augustine's. He was born 
in the County Kerry, Ireland, in 1781. After his ordination and 
advent to America he spent six years on the Maryland missions, 
eight on those of Virginia, and thirteen in the Boston diocese. 

In 1834 Bishop Fenwick founded St. Mary's parish, North End, 
Boston. The church was entirely completed and dedicated May 22, 
1836. The following priests were successively in charge: the Revs. 
William Wiley, P. O'Beirne, Michael Healy, Thomas J. O'Flaherty, 
John B. Fitzpatrick, and Patrick Flood, till 1847, when it was placed 
in charge of the Jesuits. 

In 1832 Bishop Fenwick "introduced into Boston the Sisters of 
Charity, from Emmittsburg, Md. The " foundation-sisters," as we may 
call them, were the famous Sister Anne Alexis and her companions, 
Sisters Blandina and Loyola. The first-named was for nearly fifty 
years a noted personage in Boston, a woman of attractive personality, 
rare culture, and great executive ability, and beloved by both Cath- 
olics and Protestants. The Sisters of Charity, though of French 
institution, were founded in the United States by an American con- 
vert, Mrs. Elizabeth Seton, and have attracted an immense Irish- 
American membership. Their late Mother-General for the United 
States was Mother Mary Euphemia Blenkinsop, a native of Dublin, 
Ire., and sister to the present rector of the Church of SS. Peter and 
Paul, South Boston. Her successor is a lady of Irish ancestry, 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 129 

Mother Mariana Flynn. It is not wholly irrelevant to mention here 
that the present directress of the famous academy of the Sisters of 
Charity at Emmittsburg, Sister Lucia, is a Boston lady. These 
sisters have now under their charge in Boston : St. Vincent's Orphan 
Asylum for Girls, Camden street ; the Home for Destitute Catholic 
Children, Harrison avenue ; St. Mary's Infant Asylum, in the Dor- 
chester District ; and the Carney Hospital, South Boston. Among 
the notable benefactors of the Sisters of Charity in Boston may be 
named Andrew" Carney, who founded the hospital which bears his 
name, and gave $12,000 to the St. Vincent's Orphanage; and the 
late Daniel Crowley, a most liberal contributor to all their works. 

Another of the old Boston parishes founded by Bishop Fenwick 
was St. Patrick's, Northampton street, in 1835. So active and virulent 
was the spirit of Know-nothingism at the time the new church was 
building, it was the year following the destruction of the Ursuline 
Convent in Charlestown, that the men of the parish took turns by 
night in guarding the walls. The church was completed, however, 
without trouble, and dedicated Dec. n, 1836. The Rev. Thomas 
Lynch, one of the most celebrated of the old-time Boston priests, 
was its pastor from this time until his death, in 1870. 

A few words descriptive of Father Tom, of whom it is truly said 
that he was heroic in soul and body, may be fitly given here from a 
recent sketch in the " Pilot : " 



He was born in Virginia, County Cavan, in 1800. Piety, patriotism, and love 
of learning were the very atmosphere of his boyhood's home. His own father was 
his first instructor in English and Latin, and also in the grand old Gaelic tongue. 
How capable and successful an instructor may be judged from the feet that the boy 
at the age of eleven easily translated long passages from Virgil and Horace into 
Irish. His familiarity with the Irish language was of the greatest service to him in 
the priesthood years later, as many of the poor Irish immigrants who came to him 
in Boston for aid or counsel were unversed in any other tongue. 

While a student in Maynooth, he volunteered for the American mission, and 
came to this country in 1830. He stopped in Boston, and Bishop Fenwick was 
greatly pleased with the fervent young ecclesiastical student. He continued his 
studies under the bishop's direction, teaching, meanwhile, in the school attached to 
the Cathedral, and was ordained in 1833. He was a large, strong, and strikingly 



130 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

handsome man, and probably the best classical scholar at that time in New England. 
He was a good preacher, and diligent in devotion to the severe routine work of his 
large and scattered parish. But his distinguished characteristic the grand 
passion of his life was charity for the poor. At the time of the Irish famine 
'46, '47, '48 great numbers of Irish immigrants arrived in Boston, in the most 
destitute condition. To Father Tom they were at once directed. He fed them, 
clothed them, counselled them. They slept in the basement of the church till other 
shelter could be procured for them ; or until, well equipped for the journey, he could 
start them on their way to the manufacturing towns of New England or the 
prairies of the Far West. He always had a store of boots and shoes in his house, 
and kept many hands busy making up clothes for the immigrant women and chil- 
dren. Not until the Day of Judgment will it be known what a multitude of souls 
owe their perseverance in the faith, and their eternal salvation, to Father Tom's 
unbounded charity. Nor was his solicitude for the resident poor less minute and 
comprehensive. He cared little for splendid buildings ; but much for drawing the 
hearts of the worn-out old laborer, the poor widow or orphan, to the love of God, 
by relieving in God's name their material sufferings. The needy never left his 
house with empty hands. 

A nephew of Father Lynch's, the Rev. Hugh P. Smyth, is the 
present rector of St. Joseph's Church, Roxbury. He is noted as a 
church-builder, having erected, in whole or part, about twenty-five 
churches during less than as many years in the priesthood. 

The successor of Father Lynch at St. Patrick's was the Rev. 
Joseph N. Gallagher, who built the beautiful new church on Dudley 
street, and the parochial school, so well conducted by Sisters of 
Charity, from Halifax, N.S. Under his pastorate the church cele- 
brated last year its semi-centenary. Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop 
Williams, all the bishops of the New England province, and a great 
number of priests, attended the impressive commemoration. 

The parish of the Holy Trinity, for German Catholics, until 
very recently the only German Catholic parish in all New England, 
was also organized under Bishop Fenwick's administration, and so 
was the first Catholic parish in East Boston. Perhaps the greatest 
work of Bishop Fenwick's episcopate was the founding of Holy 
Cross College of the Jesuits, at Worcester, in 1843. Its first presi- 
dent was Father "Tom" Mulledy, famous in old Georgetown's 
annals. 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 131 

Bishop Fenwick was a Jesuit himself, having received the habit 
at Georgetown College, B.C., with his brother, Enoch Fenwick, and 
John McElroy, the last a name subsequently so dear to Boston 
Catholics, immediately on the restoration of the Society in the 
United States in 1 806. In 1 844 the Rt. Rev. John Bernard Fitzpatrick 
was made Coadjutor to Bishop Fenwick. The same year a new dio- 
cese Hartford, then comprising the States of Connecticut and Rhode 
Island was erected in New England, with the Rt. Rev. William 
Tyler, D.D., as its first Bishop. Bishop Fenwick died Aug. n, 
1846. We quote from a tender eulogium passed upon him by Dr. 
Brownson : " It will be long before we look upon his like again ; but he 
has been ours ; he has left his light along our pathway ; he has blessed 
us all by his pure example and his labor of love, and we are thank- 
ful." In the diocese, which had but two churches and two priests at 
his coming, he left fifty churches and as many priests, a college, an 
orphanage, and numerous schools. He was buried, as he desired, at 
his beloved Worcester College. 

We have not touched on the great sorrow of Bishop Fenwick's 
life, the Know-nothing uprising and the destruction of the Ursuline 
Convent at Charlestown, which are treated of fully elsewhere in this 
volume. 

Let us pass now to one of the brightest pages of the history of 
the Church in New England, and to perhaps the dearest name in her 
annals, John Bernard Fitzpatrick. 

He was born in Boston, of Irish parents, Nov. I, 1812. His 
family were prominent members of the Cathedral parish, and Bishop 
Cheverus and Father Matignon were present at his christening. 
He made his first studies at the Adams and Boylston Schools, 
winning the Franklin medals at the public exhibitions of each. In 
1826 he entered the Boston Latin School, and through his 
exemplary conduct, talents, and application became a favorite with 
masters and pupils. In a poem for the reunion, in 1885, of an old 
class of the Latin School, Dr. T. W. Parsons, who had been his 
fellow-student, grows tenderly reminiscent of " blessed John Fitz- 
patrick." His vocation early manifested itself, to the great delight 



132 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

of Bishop Fenwick, and in 1829 he entered the Montreal College, 
completing, 1837, with immense success and brilliancy, his eight 
years' course. 

Young Fitzpatrick, on his return to Boston, was the recipient of 
many distinguished attentions. George F. Haskins, then a Protestant, 
and an Overseer of the Poor for the city of Boston, later a convert 
to the Faith, a priest, and the founder of the House of the Angel 
Guardian, Roxbury, is quoted by Dr. R. H. Clarke, in his " Deceased 
Bishops of the United States," in an interesting sketch of the young 
Catholic student's reception at the annual school dinner in Faneuil 
Hall, Aug. 24, 1837. Among the guests were the Hon. Edward 
Everett, then Governor of the Commonwealth ; Hon. Samuel A. Eliot, 
Mayor of the city ; President Quincy, of Harvard University ; and 
Adjutant- General Dearborn. Major Benjamin Russell introduced 
Mr. Fitzpatrick in a most flattering speech. The response of the 
young man thus distinguished was, as Father Haskins tells us, modest, 
manly, dignified, and graceful. It was frequently interrupted by 
applause. The following month he went to the Seminary of St. 
Sulpice, Paris, where he was the only American student. His genius 
and virtue made him the subject of admiring interest. Says Dr. 
Clarke: "The Rt. Rev. Dr. De Goesbriand, Bishop of Burlington, 
Vt, who was one of his companions at St. Sulpice, has stated that 
the venerable Superior of the Sulpicians then predicted that young 
Fitzpatrick would one day rise to a high position in the Church of 
God, and become an ornament to its hierarchy." The prediction 
was speedily fulfilled. 

He was ordained priest June 13, 1840. In November of the 
same year he returned to Boston. His first mission an arduous 
one was at the Cathedral. He was at the same time assistant 
pastor of St. Mary's, North End. In September, 1843, he was ap- 
pointed pastor of the just-completed St. John's Church, East Cam- 
bridge. In 1844, being then only in his thirty-second year, he was 
made Coadjutor-bishop of Boston, Rome concurring in Bishop Fen- 
wick's own choice. His consecration took place in the chapel of the 
Monastery of the Visitation Nuns, Georgetown, D.C., on Sunday, 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 133 

March 4, 1844. Bishop Fenwick was consecrator; Bishop Whelan, 
then of Richmond, Va., and Bishop Tyler, of Hartford, Conn., 
assistant consecrators. He at once relieved Bishop Fenwick of the 
more laborious duties of his office; and no priest outrivalled the 
young Coadjutor-bishop in his devotion to the Cathedral parish work. 
His sermons attracted vast congregations, which always included 
many Protestants. 

It has been noticed that while the Church in Boston was poor 
and a stranger, it drew within its shelter so many men and women of 
personal distinction or of old and eminent families. After the Rev. 
John Thayer came Orestes A. Brownson, the Rev. George F. Has- 
kins (already referred to), the Rev. Joseph Coolidge Shaw and the 
Rev. Edward H. Welch (these two became Jesuits), Captain 
Chandler, besides representatives of the Dwights, Carys, Danas, 
Metcalfs, Lymans, Warrens, etc. One day in August, 1844, Bishop 
Fitzpatrick confirmed sixty persons, nearly half of whom were native 
converts. 

In 1846 Bishop Fenwick died, and the whole responsibility 
of the great diocese fell upon the young Coadjutor. At this time 
Bishop Fitzpatrick had these priests to assist him in Boston : at the 
Cathedral, the Revs. P. F. Lyndon, Ambrose Manahan, D.D., and 
John J. Williams, the last named now the revered Archbishop of 
Boston; at St. Mary's, the Revs. P. Flood and James O'Reilly; at 
SS. Peter and Paul's, South Boston, the Rev. Terence Fitzsimons ; 
at St. Patrick's, the Rev. Thomas Lynch ; at St. John the Baptist, the 
Rev. George F. Haskins ; at the Holy Trinity, the Rev. Alexander 
Martin, O.S.F. ; at St. Nicholas, the Rev. Nicholas O'Brien; at 
Roxbury, the Rev. P. O'Beirne. St. Augustine's, South Boston, was 
vacant ; and the church in Charlestown, which was not then within 
the city limits, was served by a convert priest, the Rev. George J. 
Goodwin, who was assisted by the Rev. M. M'Grath. 

In October, 1847, at the invitation of Bishop Fitzpatrick, Jesuit 
Fathers, headed by the Rev. John McElroy, S.J., took charge of St. 
Mary's parish, North End. Father McElroy was born in Enniskillen, 
Ireland, in 1782, and came to America in 1803. He became a 



134 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Jesuit, studied for the priesthood at Georgetown College, D.C., was 
ordained there in 1817, and at one time held the responsible office of 
procurator of that institution. He was chaplain in the United States 
Army during the Mexican War, and was greatly beloved by the sol- 
diers. Settled in Boston, he took early thought for the educational 
needs of his parish, opened a parochial school for girls, and brought 
on a colony of Sisters of Notre Dame, from their mother-house in 
Cincinnati, to take charge of it. 

The Sisterhood of Notre Dame is one of the numerous com- 
munities of women which sprang up in France soon after the Revo- 
lution. Founded at Amiens in 1805, by Mother Julie Billiart, its 
present seat of government is at Namur, Belgium. The community 
is devoted exclusively to teaching. It has had an enormous devel- 
opment in the United States, most of all, perhaps, in New England. 
Besides the well-known academies of Notre Dame, Berkeley street, 
and Notre Dame, Roxbury, where a second generation of Boston's 
Catholic young womanhood is receiving a liberal education, the 
parochial schools under these Sisters' care, in the city and its neigh- 
borhood, have now a pupilage not far short of ten thousand. So 
rapid and vigorous was the growth of the Sisterhood of Notre 
Dame in these parts, and so numerous the applications of New Eng- 
land girls for admission to it, that it became necessary to open a 
novitiate here, which is now attached to the academy on Berkeley 
street. The present Provincial of the Sisterhood, Superior Julia, 
makes this house her headquarters during six months of every year, 
while she is visiting the numerous convents in her charge in New 
England. This lady is of Irish parentage, as are also an immense 
number of the religious whom she governs, and was the first pupil 
of the Academy of Notre Dame in Cincinnati. 

Father McElroy was succeeded at St. Mary's by the well-re- 
membered Father Wiget, who founded the boys' school, and the first 
sodalities in the city for young and old men. After him came, suc- 
cessively, Father Bannister, Father Brady, Father O'Kane, then 
Father Brady again, with orders to build a new church. The work 
was well under way when, in 1877, Father Brady was appointed Pro- 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 135 

vincial of the New York-Maryland Province of the Jesuits ; and the 
Rev. William H. Duncan, SJ.,took his place as pastor of St. Mary's. 
Father Duncan completed the new church, a large and splendid 
edifice, which cost about $250,000; the pastoral residence; the new 
schools, which now have an average attendance of fifteen hundred 
boys and girls ; and the parochial hall. One incident will suffi- 
ciently indicate the spirit of the congregation. Over twenty-two 
hundred young men, largely of the working people, followed the 
exercises of a retreat recently given in St. Mary's. 

Father McElroy's greatest work for Catholic education was the 
founding of Boston College. He built, also, .the beautiful granite 
Church of the Immaculate Conception on Harrison avenue. The 
college started in 1860, and was incorporated in 1863, with power 
" to confer such degrees as are usually conferred by colleges in the 
Commonwealth, except medical degrees." Names prominently asso- 
ciated with Boston College are those of the late Father John Bapst, 
S.J., and Father Robert Fulton, SJ. The story of Father Bapst and 
the "Ellsworth Outrage," in 1854, are doubtless well known to all our 
readers, and do not, moreover, come properly within the scope of 
this sketch. An extended sketch of Father Fulton is given elsewhere 
in this volume. His successor in the presidency of Boston College, 
in 1 88 1, was the Rev. Jeremiah J. O'Connor, S.J., now rector of St. 
Lawrence's Church, New York City. Then came the Rev. Edward 
V. Boursaud, S.J., now English secretary to the General of the Jesuits 
in Rome ; then the lamented Father Robert S. Stack, S.J., who died 
during his first month in office ; then the Rev. Nicholas Russo, S.J., 
now at St. Francis Xavier's, New York. The college has begun its 
second quarter of a century, with Father Fulton again at its head. 
Work has already begun on a large addition to the college proper, a 
building for the Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston College 
(founded in 1875 by Father Fulton), and a Catholic High School, 
which will be open to boys who have completed their course in 
schools of the parochial or grammar school grade. The venerable 
founder of Boston College, Father John McElroy, died Sept 12, 
1877, at the great age of ninety-six years. 



136 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

i 

But we must return and revert briefly to other events in the 
episcopate of Bishop Fitzpatrick. He dedicated the German Church 
of the Holy Trinity, Oct. 25, 1846, and placed it in charge of a 
Franciscan Father, the Rev. Alexander Martin. The parish subse- 
quently was given in care to the Jesuits, who built the present fine 
church and schools on Shawmut avenue. 

The establishment of the Church in East Boston, though begun 
in the last years of Bishop Fenwick's lifetime, may properly be 
adverted to here. Soon after the formation of the East Boston 
Company, in 1833, Irish Catholics began to settle on the island. 
The names of Mr. Daniel Crowley, Messrs. McManus, Cummiskey, 
Lavery, etc., are among the first of the permanent householders. 
In 1844 the Catholics bought the meeting-hou^e of the Maverick 
Congregational Society. It was remodelled for Catholic use, and 
dedicated under the patronage of St. Nicholas, the Rev. Nicholas J. 
A. O'Brien being its first pastor.. He was replaced in 1847 by the 
Rev. Charles McCallion ; and he, in 185 1, by the Rev. William Wiley, 
who, dying in 1855, was succeeded by the Rev. James Fitton. 
Father Wiley, a few months before his death, projected the present 
beautiful parish church, which was built by his successor, and dedi- 
cated as the Church of the Most Holy Redeemer. 

Fathee- Fitton was born in Boston in 1803. His father was a 
native of Lancashire, Eng., his mother a native of Wales, and both 
were members of the first Catholic congregation in Boston. He 
began his education in the parochial school established by Dr. 
Matignon. Before his ordination he was a teacher in the seminary 
attached to the old Cathedral on Franklin street, and the present 
Archbishop of Boston, the Most Rev. John J. Williams, was one of 
his pupils. He was ordained by Bishop Fenwick, Dec. 23, 1827. 
In 1828 he was missioned to the Passamaquoddy Indians in Maine, 
and exercised among them with great fruit the twofold office of 
priest and teacher. The following year he had also charge of the 
scattered Catholics of New Hampshire and Vermont. In 1830 he 
had charge of the mission extending from Boston to Long Island, 
N.Y., with Hartford, Conn., as a central point. In Hartford he 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 137 

founded and personally conducted the first Catholic newspaper in 
the United States, the " Catholic Press," and made about eighty 
converts. In 1832 he purchased the property on Mt. St. James, 
Worcester, Mass., and established a school, which subsequently de- 
veloped into the College of the Holy Cross. After notable services on 
the missions of Rhode Island and Western Massachusetts, he was sent 
to East Boston, in 1855. Some faint idea of his missionary labors 
may be gathered from his " Sketches," already referred to ; but he 
keeps himself so well out of sight, that in reading the beginnings of 
Catholicity in New England one hardly realizes that the writer is often 
of necessity chronicling his own life and labors. In East Boston he 
founded four parishes, the Most Holy Redeemer, St. Mary's, Star of 
the Sea, the Sacred Heart and the Assumption ; also, as early as 1858, 
a fine school for girls, under the Sisters of Notre Dame. His last 
work was the establishment, in his own parish, the Holy Redeemer, 
of a society for young men, now properly known as the Fitton Insti- 
tute. Father Fitton celebrated the golden jubilee of his priesthood 
Dec. 23, 1877. The day was kept with great honor in his own 
parish, and was made the subject of a splendid religious celebration 
in the Cathedral the following week, in which the Archbishop and 
all the priests of the diocese joined. Father Fitton died Sept. 15, 
1881. 

The limitations of space forbid more than a brief advertence to 
the celebrated school controversy of 1859. Rules had been made 
in the public schools though these were then, as now, professedly 
non-sectarian enforcing on all the children the use of the Protestant 
version of the Bible, the reciting of the Ten Commandments in their 
Protestant form, the chanting of the Lord's Prayer in its Protestant 
form, and other religious chants in unison. A Catholic boy was 
severely punished in the Eliot School for his conscientious refusal 
to obey these rules; several hundred of his comrades joined him 
in open resistance, and a season of intense, angry, and illogical 
excitement against all things Catholic pervaded Boston. The boys 
were suspended, and their parents notified that the indispensable 
condition of reinstatement was conformity to the objectionable rules. 



138 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Moreover, they would, by staying out of school, be liable to arrest 
and imprisonment for truancy. In the latter case they would be sent 
to the city penitentiary, where they would be wholly at the mercy of 
the officers and teachers, who were all Protestants, and known to be 
of a proselytizing spirit. Bishop Fitzpatrick, to avoid the worse evil, 
advised the parents to direct the boys to submit, under protest, while 
he addressed a temperate and courteous letter to the School Board, 
wherein he set forth clearly why Catholics could not in conscience 
obey said rules, and made so manly and forcible an appeal for the 
citizen-rights of Catholics in the schools that he pierced through the 
prejudices to the reason of the Board ; the obnoxious rules were 
repealed ; and within the year, for the first time in the history of 
Boston, a Catholic priest and several Catholic laymen were elected 
members of the School Board. 

Hard work and heavy cares now began to tell on Bishop Fitz- 
patrick. He never had a secretary till 1855, nor a Vicar-General 
till 1857. No wonder that with the almost incredible increase of the 
Catholic population of New England, and the corresponding mul- 
tiplication of churches, schools, and beneficent institutions, the 
strength of the overworked bishop waned, and that hardly had he 
reached his prime till his end was in sight. Though at his petition 
before the National Council in Baltimore, in 1853, his diocese was 
again subdivided and the new Sees of Burlington, Vt, and Portland, 
Me., erected; still, at his death, in 1866, he left in the diocese of 
Boston, then comprising the State of Massachusetts over a hundred 
priests and as many churches, to say nothing of schools and chari- 
table institutions. 

In 1854 Bishop Fitzpatrick had paid his regular ad limina visit 
to Rome. He was then in the very bloom of manly beauty and 
strength. Ten years later he went abroad again ; this time in a vain 
search for health. He always dearly loved the land of his ancestry ; 
and while in Brussels, having heard of the sufferings of the Irish 
people, he wrote from his sick-bed an urgent entreaty to his Boston 
flock to send help to Ireland. Needless to state that his appeal 
brought out a generous response. 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 139 

But Bishop Fitzpatrick was first of all an American. His fer- 
vent patriotism was known and honored of all men. From an ap- 
preciative tribute by a non-Catholic pen in the Boston " Gazette " we 
glean the following : 

When the news came of the firing on Sumter, though a sick man, he died 
five years after, he was the first to order that all the churches be kept open for 
prayers for the Union. A gentleman tells me that during the first preparations for 
war, when people were talking of three-months' enlistments, as the war would surely 
be over before that, the Bishop said to him : "Urge people to make no such hasty 
calculations ; this thing has been long maturing ; they have more ammunition than 
we realize, and they have the advantage of territory and intense homogeneous in- 
terests. We will be lucky to see it ended in five years ; " a bit of prescience that 
turned out almost exact. 

Sincerity, firmness, patience, and faith were the strong points in 
this great bishop's character. Of his faith, the Rev. George F. 
Haskins said that it was not only strong, but simple and reliant. 
" Hence," continued Father Haskins, " his solicitude in supplying 
the spiritual wants of his vast flock by sending them learned and 
good priests. Hence his earnest instructions to erect large and com- 
modious rather than ornamental and costly churches. Hence his 
deep concern for the training of little children ; his zeal in visiting 
personally every church and congregation, as long and as often as 
his health permitted; his kind and considerate bearing towards 
Protestants of whatever sect; his uniform affability, that made all 
men, even the humblest, regard him as a friend." 

Some years before his death, Bishop Fitzpatrick had fixed his 
desire on the Rev. John J. Williams, then pastor of St. James' Church, 
Boston, as his successor in the episcopate ; and it was one of the 
great joys of his fading days when he learned that Pope Pius IX. 
had ratified his choice. Bishop Fitzpatrick died Feb. 13, 1866. 
All Boston united in mourning his loss and honoring his memory. 
As his body was carried to the Cathedral, and again during the 
funeral, the bells of the city were tolled by order of the mayor. 
Ten bishops, one hundred and forty priests, the Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, the Mayor of Boston, State and city officials, political and 



140 THE IRISH Iff BOSTON. 

literary celebrities, and a concourse of people of every form of belief, 
attended the funeral of the beloved bishop. 

Bishop Williams was consecrated at St. James' Church, of which 
he had been rector, March II, 1 866, and went to reside at the 
Cathedral house on April 2 following. He was succeeded at St. 
James' by the Rev. James A. Healy. The Rev. William Byrne, now 
Vicar-General and rector of St. Joseph's, West End, Boston, was made 
Chancellor of the diocese. In the same year the Rev. Thomas Ma- 
gennis, now rector of the Church of St. Thomas, Jamaica Plain, was 
ordained. 

Bishop Williams gave early attention to a work which had been 
very near the heart of his predecessor, the building of the new 
Cathedral. The old Cathedral lands on Franklin street had been 
transferred to Mr. Isaac Rich, in 1859. On Sunday, Sept. 16, 1860, 
Mass was celebrated for the last time in the venerable old building, 
reminiscent of the apostolate of a Matignon, a Cheverus, and a 
Fenwick. The site of the present Cathedral . was acquired in two 
parcels, in October, 1860, and January, 1861. Ground was broken 
for the foundations April 27, 1866, and Bishop Williams laid 
the corner-stone June 25 following. Meantime the congregation 
worshipped in the Castle-street Church, bought from Harvard Col- 
lege in 1 86 1, and dedicated the same year as a Pro-Cathedral. Mass 
is still celebrated in this church on Sundays, for the accommodation 
of the people in its vicinity. The grand new Cathedral was dedicated 
Dec. 8, 1875. Archbishop Williams Boston had been made a 
Metropolitan See early in the year officiated. Bishop Lynch, of 
Charleston, S.C., preached. This Cathedral is unsurpassed for size 
and beauty in the United States, except by the Cathedral of New 
York City. 

In 1 867 the Nuns of the Good Shepherd an order devoted 
to the reformation of fallen women made their first establishment 
in Boston. They have now a splendid brick convent on Tremont 
street, near Brookline, and in the twenty-two years of their existence 
here have reclaimed, or preserved from danger, about four thousand 
young women. The Boston house was erected into a mother-house 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 141 

about two years ago, and the new convent and chapel dedicated 
with imposing ceremonies. Several young ladies have since taken 
the veil here. A Magdalen convent has also been opened within the 
same enclosure ; and here the penitent who desires to become a nun 
may enter, for no penitent, however thoroughly reformed, can be 
received into the order of the Good Shepherd. The whole institu- 
tion is now under the charge of Mother Mary of St. Aloysius. She 
is aided by about sixty nuns, who have under their charge close on 
three hundred penitents and children of the preservation classes. The 
house is maintained by the labor of the inmates and the offerings of 
the charitable. 

In 1870 the Little Sisters of the Poor made their first foundation 
in Boston. This community, one of the youngest in the Church, is 
of French origin, and is devoted to the aged poor of both'sexes, 
without distinction of race or creed. They have now a large house 
on Dudley street, in which over two hundred old people are cared 
for. About six years ago they opened another house in Charles- 
town, and are preparing to found still another in Somerville, Mass. 

The Rev. T. Magennis, appointed in 1869 rector of the new 
parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica Plain, founded schools for boys and 
girls, directly his church was completed, and in 1873 brought on 
as teachers, the Sisters of St. Joseph, from Flushing, L.I. These 
Sisters were later given the parochial schools of the Gate of Heaven 
parish, South Boston, by the rector, the Rev. M. F. Higgins, and 
have also flourishing schools in Stoughton, Amesbury, and Haverhill. 
Their novitiate was transferred a few years ago from Jamaica Plain to 
Fresh Pond, Cambridge. The buildings on this erstwhile well-known 
pleasure resort have been adapted to conventual and academic pur- 
poses, and the place is known as Mt. St. Joseph's. The Sisterhood of 
St. Joseph was introduced into the United States from France in 1836, 
and is now numerically the strongest of all the communities of 
women in this country. It had, at latest estimates, a membership of 
2,213, with 58,553 pupils in its academies and parochial schools. 

In 1873 the Italians and Portuguese resident in the North End 
were organized into a congregation, and a small Baptist meeting- 



142 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

house, on North Bennet street, bought, remodelled for Catholic use, 
and dedicated under the patronage of St. John the Baptist. This is 
now used by the Portuguese alone. They are under the pastoral 
charge of the Rev. N. Serpa. His predecessor, the Rev. Henry B. 
M. Hughes, missionary apostolic, established a parochial school for 
boys and girls, and placed it in charge of the Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. Dominic. Father Hughes was a Welsh convert, a man 
of great missionary enterprise and extraordinary linguistic attain- 
ments. He died in his native land, whither he had been missioned, 
about two years ago. 

The rapidly increasing Italians were placed under the pastoral 
charge of the Franciscan Fathers, Father Boniface, now Provincial of 
the New York and New England Province, being at the head of the 
mission. The first Italian chapel bears the name of St. Leonard of 
Port Maurice. Another congregation has recently been organized 
by Father Francis Tzaboglio, general secretary of tfye Missionary 
Society for Italian Immigrants, with its chapel on Beverly street. 
Father Paroli, of the same society, is in charge of it. 

In April, 1875, the Rev. James A. Healy, pastor of St. James' 
Church, Boston, was made Bishop of Portland, Me. He was suc- 
ceeded by his brother, the gifted and beloved Father Sherwood 
Healy, who died the same year. An interesting fact in connection 
with St. James' parish is that since its creation, in 1852, three of its 
pastors have become bishops ; the third to be chosen for this dignity 
being the Rt. Rev. Matthew Harkins, who, in 1887, succeeded the 
late Bishop Hendricken in the diocese of Providence, R.I. During 
the pastorate of the Rev. Thomas Shahan, now at Arlington, Mass., 
schools were begun in this parish, a work which the present rector, 
the Rev. W. P. McQuaid, is perfecting. 

Pope Pius IX. erected Boston into an archdiocese in 1875, with 
Springfield, Mass., Hartford, Conn., Providence, R.I., Portland, Me., 
"and Burlington, Vt. (the diocese of Manchester, N.H., was not 
established till 1884), as Suffragan Sees. The pallium was conferred 
on Archbishop Williams May 2, 1875, by Cardinal M'Closkey, Arch- 
bishop of New York. Bishop McNeirney, of Albany, celebrated the 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 143 

Mass; Bishop De Goesbriand, of Burlington, preached. All the 
bishops of New York and New England were present, with a multi- 
tude of priests, and the since celebrated Sanctuary Choir of the 
Cathedral trained by Mile. Gabrielle de la Motte made its first 
appearance. 

This year is 'also memorable for the passage of a bill in the 
Massachusetts Legislature, through the efforts of Senator Flatley and 
others, by which freedom of worship was guaranteed to the Catholic 
inmates of the penal, reformatory, and charitable institutions of the 
city. The first Catholic religious service was held in the chapel of 
the State Prison, Charlestown, on June 6, 1875, the Rev. William 
Byrne, pastor of St. Mary's, Charlestown, officiating. 

Another notable event of the year was the religious and patri- 
otic celebration of the centenary of Daniel O'Connell, August 6, the 
Rev. Robert Fulton, S.J., being the orator at the commemoration at 
St. James' Church, in the morning, and John Boyle O'Reilly giving 
the poem, " A Nation's Test," at the festivities of the evening. 

In 1876 the Redemptorist Fathers built the splendid Church of 
Our Lady of Perpetual Help, familiarly called the Mission Church, 
on Tremont street, Roxbury. These priests, whose Institute was 
founded in the last century by St. Alphonsus Liguori, were intro- 
duced into this country in 1841, by Archbishop Eccleston, of Balti- 
more, for the German Catholic missions of the United States. The 
American membership of the Congregation of the Most Holy Re- 
deemer has always been largely of German extraction, though the 
ubiquitous Irish race has been fairly represented in the ranks. The 
present rector of the Mission Church, Boston, the Rev. H. J. 
Mclnerney, is an Irishman. During the pastorate of his predeces- 
sor, the Rev. Joseph Henning, C.SS.R. (now rector of St. Patrick's 
Church, Toronto, Ont.),the Mission Church began to acquire a more 
than local celebrity through the remarkable, not to say miraculous, 
cures wrought at the shrine of Our Lady of Perpetual Help. The 
case of Miss Grace T. Hanley, daughter of Colonel Hanley, of Bos- 
ton, in 1883, is perhaps the most notable, and is commemorated 
by a bronze tablet in the wall of the Blessed Virgin's shrine. .The 



144 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Redemptorist Fathers are completing a magnificent parochial school, 
which will accommodate fifteen hundred pupils, and will be opened 
this year, with the School Sisters of Notre Dame, from Baltimore, as 
teachers. Two existing Boston Catholic schools of equal magnitude 
are St. Mary's, North End, built long ago by the Jesuits, and St. Ste- 
phen's, in the same section, just completed by the Rev. M. Moran. 

The Rev. P. F. Lyndon, V.G., died April 18, 1878. He had 
been Vicar-General under both Bishops Fitzpatrick and Williams, 
and administrator of the diocese while the latter was attending the 
Vatican Council, 1869-70. His most important pastoral charges 
were SS. Peter and Paul's, South Boston, and St. Joseph's, West 
End. He enlarged St. Joseph's Church, and provided the rectory. 
He also built the Gate of Heaven Church, South Boston. 

Father Lyndon's successor as Vicar-General was the Very Rev. 
William Byrne, then rector of St. Mary's, Charlestown. 

Father Byrne was born in Dunsany, County Meath, Ireland, 
about fifty-four years ago. He made his classical studies chiefly in 
Ireland. He came to New York City in 1857 and after a short res- 
idence there, convinced of his vocation to the priesthood, repaired for 
his ecclesiastical studies to Mt. St. Mary's College, Emmettsburg, Md. 
He was ordained priest for the diocese of Boston in 1864. For some 
years preceding his ordination, and for a year thereafter, he was pro- 
fessor of mathematics and philosophy in the college. In 1865 he 
was recalled to Boston, and appointed successively, as heretofore 
stated, Chancellor, pastor of St. Mary's, Charlestown, and Vicar- 
General. In 1880 Father Byrne was prevailed upon to accept the 
presidency of his old-time Alma Mater, Mt. St. Mary's, Emmettsburg. 
This institution was in serious financial difficulties ; it needed at its 
head a man of a hard-working, self-sacrificing disposition, clear judg- 
ment, and business ability, qualities which were already conspicuous in 
Father Byrne. After three years of his administration, the college 
found itself again in a prosperous condition, and Father Byrne re- 
turned to Boston, being succeeded at Mt. St. Mary's by another priest 
of the archdiocese of Boston, the Rev. Edward P. Allen. Father 
Byrne's success in freeing Mt. St. Mary's from its difficulties won 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IK BOSTON. 145 

for him the grateful consideration of the whole Church in America; 
for that venerable college has had a most important and honorable" 
part in her history. Over eighty years in existence, so many of its 
sons have been called to the honors of the Episcopate, that it is popu- 
larly named the " Mother of Bishops." There is not a diocese in the 
land that is not, or has not been at some time, represented in its 
seminary. 

A few months after his return from Mt. St. Mary's, Father 
Byrne succeeded the Rev. William J. Daly (who died in Rome, De- 
cember, 1883) in the pastorate of St. Joseph's Church, West End, 
Boston. 

Besides his distinctive work as Vicar-General of a great arch- 
diocese and rector of a populous city parish, Father Byrne has 
found time for much special service in the promotion of popular 
education and temperance reform. He founded, a few years ago, 
the Boston Temperance Missions. Associated with him was a band 
of prominent priests of the archdiocese, who went from church to 
church, on the invitation of the pastor, giving, for four successive 
evenings at each church, instructions on the causes of intemperance, 
its spiritual and temporal evils, and its remedies. These missions 
were highly successful, and set an example which has been followed 
in other dioceses. 

Father Byrne was administrator of the archdiocese of Boston 
during Archbishop Williams' visits to Rome in 1883 and 1887. He 
represented the Archbishop in Rome at the Golden Jubilee of 
Pope Leo XIII., and was the recipient of distinguished favor and 
consideration from the Sovereign Pontiff. Returning from Rome, 
he visited his native Ireland. Here the fame of his efforts for Irish 
nationalism had preceded him, and he received from the leaders of 
the Irish Parliamentary Party, and Irishmen generally, an enthusiastic 
welcome. He was an honored guest at the St. Patrick's day banquet 
of 1888, in London, and made an impressive speech in response to 
the toast " The Irish in America." The following Easter he cele- 
brated Mass before an immense congregation in his old parish 
church at Dunsany, County Meath. Bishop Nulty, of Meath, gave 



146 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

a banquet in his honor, at which all the priests of the diocese were 
present, and at which the patriotic bishop praised in the warmest 
terms Father Byrne's eminent services to the Catholic faith and Irish 
nationalism. On his return to Boston the May following, the parish- 
ioners of St. Joseph's testified, by a memorable reception, their devo- 
tion to their cherished pastor. 

Father Byrne has a faculty of terse and lucid expression both in 
speaking and writing. He contributed to the great " Memorial His- 
tory of Boston," published by Messrs. J. R. Osgood & Co., the chap- 
ter on " The Roman Catholic Church in Boston." During the latest 
phases of the school excitement in Boston he has several times been 
called upon to explain, in the secular press, the Catholic doctrine on 
certain controverted points, notably the much-misrepresented question 
of indulgences ; and many misunderstandings have been cleared up, 
and much bad feeling dissipated, by his prudent, courteous, and clear 
manifestation of the Faith. By their invitation, he prepared a paper 
which was read before a meeting of the Universalist ministers of Bos- 
ton, last November, entitled w Aids to Practical Piety." 

On May 10, 1879, St. Mary's Church, Charlestown, celebrated 
its fiftieth anniversary. Archbishop Williams celebrated the Pontifi- 
cal High Mass, and Bishop O'Reilly, of Springfield, preached. At 
a further celebration, the following day, the Rev. Richard J. Barry, 
now rector of St. Cecilia's, Back Bay, Boston, and the Very Rev. 
J. J. Power, V. G., of the diocese of Springfield, Mass., made ad- 
dresses. 

The ranks of the priesthood in New England have received 
many accessions from old St. Mary's, Charlestown. This was the 
parish church of the Rt. Rev. Lawrence S. McMahon, now Bishop 
of Hartford, Conn., who used to serve Mass at its altar in his boy- 
hood. The present esteemed rector of the church, the Rev. John 
W. McMahon, is a brother of the bishop. Another old-time parish- 
ioner of St. Mary's is the Very Rev. John J. Power, Vicar-General 
of the diocese of Springfield, Mass. 

On Feb. 20, 1880, the nuns of the Sacred Heart, a teaching 
order, devoted mainly to the higher education of girls, were intro- 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 147 

duced into Boston, and located their academy at Chester square. 
This order, founded in France, in 1800, came first to America 
in 1818, and has been marvellously popular and successful. Like 
all the other orders in this country, it has been largely recruited 
from among ladies of Irish birth or descent. Among them we may 
mention two nieces and a grandniece of the beloved Irish novelist 
and poet, Gerald Griffin ; and in the Boston convent, a relative of 
the illustrious Irish patriot, Theobald Wolfe Tone. The new con- 
vent on Chester square was built in 1886. It is in charge of Madame 
Sarah T. Randall. The academy has an attendance of nearly one 
hundred pupils. 

In the fall of 1884, the great work of the episcopate of Arch- 
bishop Williams, St. John's Ecclesiastical Seminary, Brighton, was 
completed. The seminary, a plain, substantial stone building, has 
beautiful grounds covering twenty-eight acres. 

As it now stands it has accommodations for one hundred 
students. Later, a new wing will be erected for the students of 
philosophy. Then the theological students will have the exclusive 
use of the present building. The course includes two years' philos- 
ophy, with natural science, and four years' theology. The seminary 
is open primarily to candidates for the priesthood from the various 
dioceses of New England ; but the candidates from other dioceses 
can also be received. 

A word here of the very remarkable man who is president of the 
seminary. The Very Rev. John B. Hogan, S.S., D.D., is a native of 
Ireland, but received his ecclesiastical training and lived the greater 
part of his priestly life in the seminary of St. Sulpice, Paris. He re- 
fused bishoprics in his native land and in France, preferring to devote 
himself unreservedly to the great work of his order, the training 
of priests for God's Church. When, at the request of Archbishop 
Williams, Father Hogan was sent by the Superior of the Sulpicians 
to found the Boston Seminary, there was sorrow throughout France. 
The well-known Irishman, Mr. J. P. Leonard, long resident in Paris, 
and a friend of the distinguished priest, wrote thus of him to the 
"Pilot" in July, 1885 : 



148 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

For a quarter of a century as one of the Directors of St. Sulpice, Father 
Hogan was the friend and spiritual adviser of thousands of students who are now on 
the mission in different parts of France. 

Nothing can equal their respect and affection for him. I have heard their feel- 
Ings warmly expressed in Brittany, in Normandy, in the Orleanses, and the Bour- 
bones, in hospitals, and ambulances, and even on the field of battle. This will 
explain the outburst of sorrow, when the news of his departure became known. 

Father Hogan is regretted not only by the clergy, who all knew and appreci- 
ated him, but in the higher circles of Parisian society, though he lived almost 
exclusively in the seminary, holding little intercourse with the lay world. Once, 
however, much against his will, he was forced to leave it, and this was during the 
terrible Commune, when his conduct was truly heroic, saving, perhaps, the semi- 
nary, and certainly many most important documents, from destruction. From his 
prison cell on the conciergerie, quite close to that formerly occupied by the unfor- 
tunate Marie Antoinette, he defied and browbeat the miserable imitators of her 
persecutors, narrowly escaping the fate of the Archbishop of Paris and the other 
hostages. 

There is sorrow, too, among his own countrymen, for he was true to them and 
to his native land. Poor, suffering Ireland ever held the first place in his heart. In 
her dark hours, and they were many, he defended and served her, as many here know 
well, and none better than his old friend and constant admirer, J. P. LEONARD. 

A pleasant incident in the history of the seminary was the 
assembling within its walls, January, 1888, of the priests of the arch- 
diocese, in witness of their affection and devotion for the founder, 
Archbishop Williams. Besides the testimonial to the Archbishop 
himself, his portrait-bust in bronze, the work of the sculptor, Mr. 
John Donoghue, was presented by the priests to the seminary. The 
projector of both testimonials was the Rev. Arthur J. Teeling, of 
Newburyport, Mass. 

The development of the Parochial School System in Boston has 
also to be noted. We have seen its beginnings under Bishop Chev- 
erus and the Abbe Matignon. In this field, Boston Catholics, and 
indeed New England Catholics as a body, have had to work against 
difficulties not experienced in the same degree by their fellow-relig- 
ionists in other parts of the United States. Here the general preju- 
dice against the Catholic Church has been special and intense against 
the Catholic schools. Protestant ignorance or misunderstanding of 
the real point at issue, must account for this ; for the principle of 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 149 

religion in education, which the Church has ever maintained, and 
which Catholics, as far as possible, carry out, was the very corner- 
stone of the New England public-school system. Up to 1859 the . 
public schools of Boston, though professedly non-sectarian, and only 
used by the Catholics as such in absence of Catholic schools, were 
practically Protestant. Though more nearly conformed to the non- 
sectarian profession to-day, the Catholic children, who still form at 
least half the attendance, are by no means secured against assaults 
on their faith ; and Catholic parents, who in any event prefer a relig- 
ous education to the best- possible merely secular system, are building 
up steadily, at great personal sacrifice, their own schools. 

The decree of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1884, 
which emphasized the mind of the Church and the indispensable duty 
of American Catholics in regard to the establishment of parochial 
schools, naturally gave a great impetus to school building. Some 
of the largest and best in Boston have been erected since that date. 

Catholic activity in this direction excited the wrath of certain 
Protestants to such a degree that a bill ostensibly for " the inspection 
of private schools," but actually intended for the embarrassment, or 
even repression, of Catholic schools, was introduced into the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature, in January, 1888. 

This bill was framed on the majority report of the joint special 
committee of the Massachusetts Legislature of 1887, on the employ- 
ment and schooling of children. Its supporters professed to be 
moved by a fear that the education given in private schools was 
not equal to that given in the public schools ; and that the welfare 
of the children and the safety of the Commonwealth would be en- 
dangered if the private schools, to whose foundation and maintenance 
the State has contributed nothing, were not compelled to open their 
doors and submit teachers and pupils to the inspection and exami- 
nation of officials for the most part hostile to their very existence. 

Opposed to this bill was the able minority report of the same 
committee, presented by Representative Michael J. McEttrick. Said 
report protested against the proposed State inspection as an in- 
terference with the natural right of parents and the constitutional 



150 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

right of American citizens. On these lines the bill was fought in 
five successive hearings before the Committee on Education of the 
Massachusetts Legislature, and all the bigots and cranks in Boston and 
its neighborhood, led by the Rev. Joseph Cook and the Rev. A. A. 
Miner, D.D., advocated the bill. Ranged with the Catholics in 
opposition to it were such men as President Eliot, of Harvard 
University; Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, of Cambridge; 
the Rev. Edward Everett Hale, and Gen. Francis Walker. Charles 
F. Donnelly, Esq., represented the Catholic schools with con- 
spicuous ability and dignity. The bill was defeated, and the dis- 
cussion had the good effect of concentrating national attention on the 
well-defined attitude of the Catholics on the education question, and 
of bringing out strongly the fact that many thoughtful Protestants 
share the Catholic conviction of the necessity of religion in edu- 
cation. 

In the wake of the State Inspection Bill came the now historic 
episode in the school controversy, the calumnious definition of the 
Catholic doctrine of indulgences by Master Charles B. Travis, of 
the English High School, Boston, before his history class, in which 
there were a number of Catholic pupils. Master Travis asserted 
that the Catholic doctrine of indulgences means a permission to 
commit sin, sometimes bought with money t and illustrated the asser- 
tion by the further statement that in a Catholic country a murderer 
brought before a judge would be liberated by showing his indulgence 
papers. 

A Catholic pupil earnestly objected to this infamous calumny of 
Catholic doctrine; whereupon the professor replied that he would 
hold to his opinion, though the pupil was free to hold his own. 

The incident was made public, but the teacher's name and the 
name of the school were charitably withheld, in the hope that the case 
would be promptly investigated, and the offender brought, at least, to 
an apology; but within a few days the lie was reiterated in the 
most insulting manner. Thereupon the Rev. Theodore A. Metcalf, 
rector of the Gate of Heaven Church, South Boston, to whose parish 
the pupil above mentioned belonged, made a formal complaint to the 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 151 

Boston School Committee. Master Travis, called to account, de- 
fended himself on the plea that he followed this foot-note in his text- 
book, " Swinton's Outlines of History." 1 Later, the Committee on 
Text-Books, composed of three Protestants and two Catholics, the 
Rev. Dr. Duryea, G. B. Swasey, E. C. Carrigan, Judge J. D. Fallen, 
and Dr. J. G. Blake, in their annual revision of text-books, pro- 
nounced the book inaccurate not only on Catholic matters, but in other 
respects, and ordered it dropped. In this decision the Committee on 
High Schools, Dr. J. G. Blake, chairman, to whom Father Metcalf's 
complaint was referred, concurred, censured the action of Master 
Travis, and recommended his transfer to some other office in the 
High School than that for which he had shown himself so grossly 
unfitted. The School Committee accepted the report and adopted the 
recommendations. Chroniclers of this episode should note, however, 
that Father Metcalf never asked either for the exclusion of " Swinton's 
Outlines " from the school nor the exclusion of Master .Travis from 
the professorship of history, nor uttered one word of attack of the 
public-school system ; but simply appealed, in exercise of his citizen- 
right, to the School Committee to take measures to prevent the rep- 
etition by a teacher of statements inconsistent with non-sectarian 
teaching. 

This decision furnished to the anti-Catholic leaders a pretext for 
the incitement of the prejudices and ignorant fears which, in an 
earlier stage of Boston's history, had found expression in church- 
wrecking and convent-burning. Sunday after Sunday, Music Hall, 
Tremont Temple, and certain other Protestant places of worship 
rang with abuse and defamation of all things Catholic. It is true" 
that the more refined and educated non-Catholic element had no 
part in this assault on their fellow-citizens of a different faith, and 
that so eminent a Protestant historian as Professor Fisher, of Yale 
College, publicly denounced as an atrocious scandal the assertion 

1 " These indulgences were, in the early ages of the church, remissions of the penances 
imposed upon persons whose sins had brought scandal on the community. But in process 
of time they were represented as actual pardons of guilt, and the purchaser of indulgences 
was said to be delivered from all his sins." 



152 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

that the Catholic Church ever taught that the forgiveness of sins can 
be bought with money. A Protestant association, called the Evan- 
gelical Alliance, formally petitioned the Boston School Committee 
for the restoration of " Swinton's Outlines" and the reinstatement of 
Master Travis. The petition was denied. Then the religious issue 
was introduced into the campaign preceding the municipal elections 
of Dec. n, 1888. A peculiar element in this campaign was the 
interference of a secret society known as the Committee of One 
Hundred, pledged to make aggressive war on the Catholics. 

In Boston, women have the right to vote for members of the 
School Committee. The Protestant women, excited by the frenzied 
appeals of ministers and politicians to save the schools, and Ameri- 
can institutions generally, " from the Jesuits," etc., voted in great 
numbers. Some Catholic women also voted, believing that the emer- 
gency justified them in overcoming their natural aversion to entering 
the field of political action. But the majority of the Catholic 
women felt that, in the long run, they were better serving the cause 
of justice by abstaining from the suffrage. The election resulted in 
the defeat of every candidate of the Catholic faith, or supposed to 
be favorable to equitable dealing with Catholics. The Catholic 
membership of the School Committee was reduced to eight, and this 
in a city whose population is more than half Catholic. 

In the spring of 1889 another bill for the State inspection of 
private schools was introduced into the Massachusetts Legislature. 
The bill was framed by the Rev. Samuel L. Gracey, of Salem, and 
most actively pushed by representatives of the Committee of One 
Hundred. The bill of the preceding year was conciliation itself in 
comparison with this, which, however, had the merit of throwing 
off all hypocrisy, and being, what it has been justly styled, an Anti- 
Catholic School Bill. It was aimed directly at the rights of Catho- 
lic parents and citizens, and, if carried into effect, would deprive 
these of freedom of conscience, and even of freedom of speech. 
This is the bill, as introduced before the Committee on Educa- 
tion : 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 153 

1. Absolute right of inspection and supervision by the local School Commit- 
tee of every private school in which any children between the ages of eight and 
fourteen were being educated. 

2. That every parent and other person having control of a child able to 
attend school, and between the ages of eight and fourteen, and needing instruction, 
who would not cause such child to attend a public school, or a private school, 
approved by the local School Committee, would be subject to a penalty of twenty 
dollars, whether it appeared the child was receiving a good education elsewhere 
or not. 

3. That the local School Committee shall only approve of a private school 
when the teaching therein is in the English language, in the branches provided by 
law, and the text-books used therein are such as may be approved by the committee, 
and when they are satisfied otherwise of the progress and condition of the school. 

4. That any person who shall attempt to influence any parent or other person 
having under his care or control any child between eight and fourteen years, to take 
sttch child out of, or to hinder or prevent such child from attending a public or 
approved school by any threats of social, moral, political, religious, or ecclesiastical 
disability, or disabilities, or any punishment, or by any threats, shall forfeit a sum 
not exceeding $1,000, and not less than $300, in each offence. 

The petitioners for this bill tried to invest their cause with some 
respectability by securing as counsel ex-Governor Long. The 
counsel for the Catholic parochial and private schools was again 
Charles F. Donnelly, and the counsel for Protestant private schools, 
Nathan Matthews, Jr. 

The proposed bill was discussed before the Committee on 
Education in fourteen hearings, from March 20 till April 24, inclu- 
sive. On April 25 the closing arguments were made. Represent- 
ative Lund was assistant counsel for the petitioners. Two Protestant 
ministers the Revs. A. A. Miner and J. B. Dunn were constant 
in their attendance and advocacy of the bill. The presence among 
the petitioners of Superintendent Bartlett, of the public schools of 
Haverhill, resulted from the fact that the Haverhill School Committee 
had brought in an order of their own, asking for legislation on the 
inspection and approval of private schools, moved to this course by 
finding their powers insufficient for the suppression of the French 
Canadian parochial school, St. Joseph's. More than a third of the 
pupils attending this school came from homes in which only the 



154 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

French language was spoken. Part of the teaching was, therefore, 
of necessity in the French language. This, and the fact that the 
text-books were not identical with those used in the public schools, 
decided a hostile school committee, after a hasty examination, to 
refuse to approve the school. 

The Rev. Oliver Boucher, rector of St*. Joseph's, offered to make 
every reasonable concession to the School Committee. Neverthe- 
less, parents were ordered to withdraw their children from St. 
Joseph's and send them to the public schools, or otherwise be prose- 
cuted under the truant law. The French parents stood up bravely 
for their parental and conscientious rights. Several test cases were 
brought before Judge Carter, of Haverhill, who decided in favor of 
the defendants, giving it as his official opinion that St. Joseph's 
School, even without the modifications made by Father Boucher in 
the hope of securing the approval of the School Committee, amply 
met the requirements of the compulsory education statute. Then 
the cry was raised by some of the Boston bigots that the French 
people were coerced by the priests into sending their children to the 
parochial schools. On the other hand, it was maintained that the 
French kept up parochial schools, and had their children instructed 
in the ancestral tongue with a view to eventually annexing New 
England to the Province of Quebec ! 

French Canadians came in great numbers from Haverhill, 
Lowell, Lawrence, Marlboro', Worcester, Fall River, and Holyoke, 
to testify to their preference for a distinctly Catholic education 
for their children, and to their absolute loyalty to the United 
States. Among their conspicuously able spokesmen were Rep- 
resentative Dubuque, of Fall River, and Emil Tardivel, editor 
of " Le Travailleur," Worcester. The inquiry developed a fact 
little to the taste of the petitioners; namely, that the French 
Canadians of Massachusetts are becoming naturalized rapidly, and 
in great numbers, and are, as a rule, in favor of the annexation of 
Canada to the United States. Three priests testified: the Revs. 
J. P. Bodfish, of Canton ; Joseph F. McDonough, of Taunton ; and 
the Rev. Richard Neagle, Chancellor of the Archdiocese of Boston. 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 155 

Other remonstrants were Col. T. W. Higginson, J. W. McDonald, 
principal of the Stoneham High School, Edward Hamilton, Arthur 
A. Hill, editor of the " Haverhill Gazette," all Protestants; Julius 
Palmer, Jr., and Thomas J. Gargan, Catholics. The searching and 
comprehensive examination to which the Catholics were subjected 
would give a disinterested hearer the impression that the Catholic 
Church was on trial for her life in Massachusetts. 

In the face of the fact developed during the hearing, that the 
Catholics number about two-fifths of the total population of the 
Commonwealth, and in many cities and towns are in the majority, 
Massachusetts legislators, whatever their political affiliations or relig- 
ious sympathies, began to shrink from open identification with the 
Anti-Catholic School Bill. While the hearings were still in progress, 
the House, to avoid the burden of a decision, appealed to the 
Supreme Court of Massachusetts for an interpretation of the statute 
relating to private schools. The Court refused an opinion. 

A few weeks later, Representative T. W. Bicknell, for the majority 
of the Committee on Education, reported to the Legislature a bill 
which, though divested of the prominent anti-Catholic features of 
the Gracey Bill, was still so bigoted and inquisitorial as to be objec- 
tionable to all fair-minded people. Representatives McEttrick and 
Keane, of the same committee, put in a minority report setting 
forth the needlessness of any additional legislation. Various substi- 
tute bills were offered and debated, but that which finally passed 
both branches of the Legislature, with slight amendments by Repre- 
sentatives Dubuque and Davis, was the bill of Representative Ward- 
well (Republican), of Haverhill. This bill does not change, but 
merely defines, the existing school laws ; clearing Section I. (the 
Compulsory Education Statute) of the obsolete " poverty " and 
" half-time school " clauses, and explaining in what " the means of 
education" consist. 

Concluding this outline of the school controversy of 1889, it 
must be said that the Catholics, forced by the tactics of their oppo- 
nents to defend the teachings of their Church, as well as their citizen 
and parental rights, were most fortunate in their counsel, Mr. Charles 
F. Donnelly, who conducted their case with a dignity, disinterested- 



156 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

ness, and ability which shaped public opinion at an early stage of 
the contest, and foredoomed all anti-Catholic and inquisitorial legis- 
lation before the close of the legislative hearings. That famous 
advocate of Catholic popular education, the Right Rev. Bernard J. 
McQuaid, of Rochester, N.Y., voiced the general Catholic conviction, 
when he said in Boston, before the Free-Thought Association, in 
1 876, that Massachusetts will yet settle the school question on an 
equitable basis for the whole country. This conviction of the 
national value of the outcome of the Catholic case in the Massachu- 
setts school controversy attracted national interest to Mr. Donnelly's 
procedure, and won grateful recognition from the American Catholic 
press, for the value of the weapons which he has furnished to the 
arsenals of those on whom in other commonwealths a similar conflict 
may be forced. Massachusetts Catholics have reason, also, to be 
pleased with their representatives in the Legislature, notably the 
faithful and loyal Mr. M. J. McEttrick. 

Prominent among the Catholic charitable institutions of Boston 
is the House of the Angel Guardian, founded in 1850 by a pious 
convert priest, the Rev. George F. Haskins. It is for orphan boys, 
and is conducted by Brothers of Charity from Montreal, Canada. 

The Home for Destitute Catholic Children, on Harrison avenue, 
deserves more than a mere naming. 

The Home for Destitute Catholic Children was organized in 
June, 1864. It was first known as the Eliot Charity School, and 
was conducted by benevolent ladies and gentlemen at a house on 
old High street, in this city. 

The original committee for this work was the Very Rev. John 
J. Williams, now Archbishop of Boston ; the Rev. James A. Healy, 
now Bishop of Portland, Me. ; Messrs. Patrick Donahoe, William S. 
Pelletier, Charles F. Donnelly, William- S. Mellen, the last-named 
since deceased. 

A meeting, composed mainly of the superintendents of the 
various Catholic Sunday-schools, was held in the basement of the 
Cathedral chapel on the evening of Palm Sunday, March 20, 1 864. 

It was ascertained that at least one thousand children between 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 157 

the ages of eight and twelve years were annually prosecuted before 
the courts of Boston. The judges and officers before whom- they 
appeared could only look upon them as homeless vagrants. They 
were for the most part children of Catholic parents. 

It was, therefore, proposed that a temporary home be provided 
for such children, or any other destitute child, regardless of creed, 
color, or nationality, where they might be cared for until they could 
be transferred to permanent and good homes. 

In 1864 George W. Adams was elected to the position of 
superintendent, which he held until 1866, when he was succeeded 
by Bernard Cullen, whose labors for the Home covered a period of 
twelve years. Mr. Cullen died Feb. 12, 1878, and immediately 
his son, James B. Cullen, became his successor to the superintend- 
ency of the institution by a unanimous vote of the corporation. 
He did the duties of superintendent from Feb. 12, 1878, until 
May, 1883, when he voluntarily resigned and engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. John A. Duggan succeeded to the position made vacant 
by the younger Mr. Cullen, and he still occupies it. 

' The association became a corporate body under the laws of the 
State, with fifteen members to constitute the board of managers, 
who are elected from the different parishes, of Boston. 

The domestic management of the Home was under the super- 
vision of matrons until 1865, and then the Sisters of Charity were 
induced to assume the management of its domestic affairs. In 
1870 the present spacious and well-appointed building on Harrison 
avenue was erected. 

When it is remembered that over seven thousand eight hundred 
destitute, homeless, neglected children have been received and pro- 
vided for at this establishment, without pay or compensation of any 
kind, and that the heavy indebtedness of the institution, incurred by 
a land purchase and erection of its buildings, together with the 
annual payment of about twelve thousand dollars ($12,000) for 
house expenses, it will be seen that, in order to place it on its present 
sound financial basis, much care, skill, and self-sacrifice were neces- 
sary. 



158 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

All poor, homeless, and friendless children between the ages 
of three and twelve years are received and sheltered, without any 
distinction of race, color, or religion. 

The names of the officers of the Home corporation, with the 
date of their election, are as follows : 

1864 Patrick Donahoe; Charles F. Donnelly, James Havey, 
Matthew Keany, John Lyons; 1869 James Bonner; 1871 
Patrick Grealy, John W. McDonald, James McCormick, John B. 
O'Brien; 1877 John Donovan, James W. Dunphy, James Dool- 
ing, James McMahon ; 1877 Patrick Norton, Owen Nawn, David 
A. Ring; 1878 Christopher Blake, Patrick T. Hanley; 1880 
Patrick Collins, Rev. W. H. Duncan, S.J., John Miller, Patrick F. 
Sullivan; 1882 William Peard, Denis Cawley, Patrick Doherty, 
Thomas F. Doherty; 1889 Rev. Richard Nagle. Twenty-eight 
members in all, two vacancies existing in the board. Officers for 
1889 President, John B. O'Brien; Vice-President, Charles F. 
Donnelly ; Treasurer, Patrick F. Sullivan ; Secretary, James Havey ; 
Executive Committee, James W. Dunphy, John W. McDonald, John 
Miller. 

The Home celebrated its Silver Jubilee on Sunday, May 26, 
1889, in Music Hall, by a grand Catholic demonstration, at which 
Archbishop Williams presided, and Bishop Healy, of Portland, Me., 
delivered the chief address. 

Boston has not a more interesting public institution than the 
Working Boys' Home, on Bennet street. It was begun in a small 
building on Eliot street, in the spring of 1883, by the Rev. David 
H. Roche, with four boys. Under his direction the present spacious 
and well-appointed brick building on Bennet street was erected. In 
1888 the Rev. John F. Ford succeeded Father Roche as superin- 
tendent. There are at present nearly one hundred boys in the 
Home. Sisters of St. Francis, from Allegany, N.Y., have charge 
of the domestic arrangements. Besides comfortable dormitories 
and refectories, there is a well-furnished gymnasium, and Father 
Ford has started a library and reading-room. The Home is 
open to working boys, without distinction of race or creed. 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 159 

A Home for Working Girls was opened in June, 1888, on 
Dover street, Boston, under the patronage of Archbishop Williams. 
It is directed by Grey Nuns from Montreal. It is not a charitable 
institution, but a house where home protection and home comforts 
can be supplied at a modest sum to girls employed in stores, offices, 
etc. An association of prominent Catholic ladies, called the Work- 
ing Girls' Friends' Society, has been organized for the benefit of this 
institution. Its president, in 1888, was Mrs. Hugh O'Brien; in 1889, 
Mrs. M. E. P. Fennell. 

The priesthood of Boston have always been earnest advocates 
of Irish Home Rule. On Jan. 25, 1881, almost immediately after 
the great National Convention of the Land League, in Buffalo, N.Y., 
Archbishop Williams and all the priests of the archdiocese met at 
the house of the Vicar-General, Boston. 

The meeting endorsed the principles laid down in the Buffalo. 
Convention as justified by religion and morality, and framed an 
address to the bishops, priests, and people of Ireland, expressing 
fraternal sympathy in their struggle, admiration for their splendid 
self-control in the face of extreme provocation, and speaking strong 
words for land reform and home rule. It thus concluded: "We 
pray the Giver of all good gifts that he may reward Ireland's cen- 
turies of suffering and fidelity to religion with the fullest civil liberty, 
peace, and prosperity, so that she may be once again the home of 
learning and science, and a source of blessings to other nations." 
The address was signed as follows : 

John J. Williams, Archbishop of Boston ; William Byrne, V.G. ; 
William A. Blenkinsop, Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, South Bos- 
ton, Chairman; M. F. Flatley, St. Joseph's, Wakefield, Secretary; 
T. H. Shahan, St. James, Boston; T. Magennis, St. Thomas, Ja- 
maica Plain ; M. J. Masterson, St. John's, Peabody, 

The address was followed by a generous contribution from the 
Boston priests to the funds of the Land League. 

A word about the chief Catholic Societies in Boston. The 
Society of St. Vincent de Paul, composed of laymen, who regularly 
devote some time to the visiting and relief of the sick and poor, was 



160 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

introduced into Boston by its present archbishop, the Most Rev. 
John J. Williams. In 1861, while pastor of St. James' Church, 
Boston, he established in that parish the first conference of St. 
Vincent de Paul. There is now scarcely a parish in the city without 
its conference. A conference of colored Catholics, called St. Peter 
Claver's, was established in the spring of 1889, under the presidency 
of Mr. Robert L. Rufin, with the Rev. John F. Ford, of the Working 
Boys' Home, as spiritual director. From the report of the Particular 
Council, for the year ending Dec. 31, 1888, we get a specimen 
year's work. The active membership at date was 547 ; families 
aided during the year, 1,532, comprising 5,378 persons; visits made 
to the poor, 22,953 > moneys received during the year, added to 
balance in treasury, $34,866.56; moneys disbursed among the poor, 
$25,741.09 leaving in treasury $9,125.47. The Particular Council 
is composed of a Council of Direction (constituted in 1889), as 
follows : 

Spiritual Director, the Very Rev. William Byrne. V.G. ; Presi- 
dent, Thomas F. Ring; Vice-Presidents, Henry McQuade, Thomas 
Shay; Secretary, John J. Mundo; Treasurer, J. W. McDonald; and 
the spiritual directors, presidents, and vice-presidents of the vari- 
ous Conferences. 

The Catholic Union, of Boston, was founded in March, 1873, 
under the inspiration of the words of the late Sovereign Pontiff, Pope 
Pius IX., recommending union and organization of the Catholic laity 
in the spirit of loyalty to the Church. To secure the perpetuation of 
a truly Catholic spirit in the Union, Sect. 2, Art. I., of the By-Laws 
provides that the Archbishop of Boston shall always be arbiter in 
all questions and cases that may arise in the Union. The first Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the Catholic Union (or the Council of the Cath- 
olic Union, as it was originally called) was thus composed : John G. 
Blake, M.D., Hon. P. A. Collins, Messrs. John F. McEvoy, William 
F. Connolly, H. L. Richards ; Treasurer, Hugh O'Brien ; Correspond- 
ing Secretary, William S. Pelletier ; Recording Secretary, John Boyle 
O'Reilly. First Board of Officers: President, Theodore Metcalf; 
first Vice-President, Patrick Donahoe ; second Vice-President, John 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 161 

C. Crowley ; Spiritual Director, the Rev. James Augustine Healy. 
Committee on Nominations : Hugh Carey, Gen. Patrick R. Guiney, 
John Boyle O'Reilly, Samuel Tuckerman. 

The Union proposed to its members these permanent studies 
and interests : The Church, Catholic Education, Public Schools, Pub- 
lic Institutions, Catholic Charities and Protection, Sacred Music. 
The influence of a body of earnest, intelligent men, taking serious 
thought of such questions as are involved in the foregoing topics, 
was soon felt in the community. To the Catholic Union is due in 
great part the obtaining of freedom of worship for the inmates of the 
State penal, reformatory, and charitable institutions. It is interest- 
ing to add that one of the two honorary members of the Catholic 
Union is a lady, Miss Emma Forbes Cary, of Cambridge, Mass., 
distinguished for her labors in the spiritual and temporal interest 
of prisoners. The other honorary member is the Rt. Rev. James A. 
Healy, Bishop of Portland, Me. 

The succession of presidents in the Catholic Union has been : 
Theodore Metcalf, 1873-75; Henry L. Richards, '75-76; John C. 
Crowley, '76-78; Hugh O'Brien, '78-80; Thomas Dwight, M.D., 
'81-82; John B. Moran, M.D., '82-84; J. A. Maxwell, '84-85; 
Joseph D. Fallen, '85-86; J. C. Crowley, '86-88; Thomas F. Ring, 
'8889. The successive spiritual directors have been : the Revs. 
James Augustine Healy., Alexander Sherwood Healy, Joshua P. 
Bodfish, and Leo P. Boland. The present board of officers (1889) : 
Honorary President, Archbishop Williams; President, James L. 
Walsh ; First Vice-President, Thomas B. Fitz ; Second Vice-Presi- 
dent, James A. Reilly ; Recording Secretary and Treasurer, John J. 
McCluskey; Corresponding Secretary, Thomas J. Kelly; Executive 
Committee, the foregoing ex-officiis and William H. Grainger, 
Daniel L. Prendergast, Francis Martin, Stephen Murphy, J. B. Fitz- 
patrick; Committee on Nominations to Membership, M. C. Curry, 
Edward Harkins, T. J. Monaghan, F. B. Doherty. 

To Father Bodfish, for so many years identified with it as 
Spiritual Director, the Union is indebted largely for its development 
and influence as a social organization. A brilliant and memorable 



162 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

event in the early history of the Catholic Union was the three days' 
festival in Music Hall, concluding on the evening of Nov. 13, 1873, 
in honor of Pope Pius IX. The programme included an address by 
the President, Theodore Metcalf ; the address of the Catholic Union 
to Pope Pius IX., John Boyle O'Reilly ; the reading of the Holy 
Father's reply to the Union's address, by William Summers Pelletier ; 
and the following addresses : " The Objects of the Catholic Union of 
Boston," Henry L. Richards ; " The Growth of the Church in New 
England," Rev. James A. Healy, Spiritual Adviser to the Council of 
the Union ; " The Catholic Charities of Boston," Patrick Donahoe ; 
" Congratulatory,** Dr. Henry James Anderson, President of the 
Catholic Union of New York ; " Catholic Historical Society," John 
C. Crowley ; " Catholic Institute in Boston," Patrick A. Collins ; 
"The State of the Church in Europe," Rev. Robert Fulton, S.J. 
The great feature of Part III. of the Festival's programme was the 
discourse on "The Duties of American Catholics," by the Rev. James 
Kent Stone. Dr. Kent Stone had been a clergyman of the Episcopal 
Church, and President of Hobart College, Geneva, N.Y. His con- 
version was a direct result of the fatherly appeal of Pope Pius IX., 
just before the Vatican Council of 1869-70, to non-Catholic Chris- 
tians to return to the unity of the faith. This appeal was also the 
inspiration of Dr. Kent Stone's celebrated book, "The Invitation 
Heeded." The author is now a member of the austere Passionist 
Order, founded in the last century by St. Paul of the Cross ; and for 
seven years past has been doing wonderful missionary work in 
Buenos Ayres and other portions of the Argentine Republic and 
Chili, S.A. 

Other notable events in the history of the Catholic Union have 
been the reception in honor of Cardinal Gibbons, March 12, 1888; 
and the celebration, at the Brunswick, of the Centenary of Washing- 
ton's Inauguration, April 30, 1889. The new President, Judge James 
L. Walsh, was chairman; J. P. Leahy, Esq., toast-master. The 
formal addresses of the evening were : " George Washington," by 
Hon. Thomas J. Gargan; "The Catholic Church," the Very Rev. 
William Byrne, V.G. ; " The United States of America," Thomas 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BOSTON. 163 

Flatley, Esq. Addresses were also made by the Rev. J. P. Bodfish, 
the Rev. Leo. P. Boland, Spiritual Director of the Union, and ex- 
President Thomas F. Ring. 

Catholic temperance work in Boston received its first notable 
impulse from the visit of Father Mathew, in 1849. 

The city authorities gave him a public reception, and the use 
of Boston Common and Faneuil Hall for public meetings. On a 
single day, July 27, 1849, he gave the pledge to four thousand 
people, Catholic and non-Catholic. 

Among Boston priests eminent and successful in temperance 
work we may name the Rev. Peter A. McKenna, now of Marlboro' ; 
the Rev. Hugh Roe O'Donnell, of East Boston ; the Rev. James F. 
Talbot, D.D., of the Cathedral. Boston has a flourishing Arch- 
diocesan Total Abstinence Union, with a membership, at latest 
returns, of 3,667, and officered as follows: President, J. Crowley, of 
Cambridge ; Vice-President, Stephen Anderson ; Secretary, Edward 
Mulready ; Assistant Secretary, C. J. Fay ; Treasurer, the Rev. P. A. 
McKenna. 

The eighteenth annual convention of the Catholic Total Absti- 
nence Union of the United States was held in Tremont Temple, 
Boston, August 2 and 3, 1888, under the presidency of the Rev. 
Thomas J. Conaty, D.D., of Worcester, Mass. There were delegates 
representing 53,000 Catholic total abstainers. Among the eminent 
visitors who addressed the Union were the Rt. Rev. John J. Keane, 
rector, and the Rev. Philip J. Garrigan, vice-rector, of the American 
Catholic University, Washington, D.C. ; the Rev. J. R. Slattery, 
rector of St. Joseph's Seminary, Baltimore, Md., for the education of 
candidates for the negro missions of the South ; the Revs. Thaddeus 
Hogan, Jersey City, NJ. ; Morgan M. Sheedy, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; J. 
M. Cleary, of Wisconsin ; and Walter Elliot, of the Paulist Fathers, 
New York. Protestants and Catholics alike crowded the galleries 
during the various sessions, and the revelation of the sound sense 
and effectiveness of Catholic methods of temperance reform was 
not lost on workers in the good cause outside the Catholic 
Church. 



164 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Besides the associations above mentioned, every parish is well 
equipped with religious sodalities for men and women. 

To summarize: Of Boston's 400,000 population, fully 225,000 
are Catholics. Out of the total of children born in this city in a 
recent year (1887), seven-twelfths were baptized in the various 
Catholic churches. These Catholics have 35 fine churches, at- 
tended by 125 priests. The thirty-sixth, St. Cecilia's, in the 
Back Bay district, is begun, and ground will soon be broken for 
two school-chapels in St. Joseph's parish, Roxbury. There is an 
ecclesiastical seminary with 81 students; a college with 275 ; three 
academies for girls with- a total of 270 pupils, and 17 parochial 
schools with an attendance of over 10,000 boys and girls; three 
hospitals, five orphanages, two homes for the aged poor, a House of 
the Good Shepherd, a Home for Working Boys, and a Home for 
Working Girls. 

These are eloquent figures, and voice truths no reasonable mind 
can misunderstand, remembering how the seed of Catholicity was 
sowed on ungenial soil, in poverty and obscurity, and in the shadow 
of popular disfavor ; how it sprouted and strengthened, withstanding 
many tempests, until now, deep-rooted, of towering . height and 
giant girth, beautiful, indestructible, it gathers a vast multitude 
under its grateful shade, and, Tree of Life as it is, puts forth its 
leaves for the healing of the nations. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



DISTINGUISHED MEN OF EARLY TIMES, 



SKETCHES OF DISTINGUISHED MEN OF EARLY 

. TIMES. 




JOHN HANCOCK. 

IT is stated by reliable authorities that the ancestors of John Han- 
cock emigrated from near Downpatrick, Down County, Ireland, 
and settled in Boston l towards the close of the seventeenth century. 2 
The " Hancocks have been for centuries actively and largely engaged 
in the foreign and domestic trade of Newry," 3 
and it was doubtless in a commercial capac- 
ity that the first of the name came to 
Boston. The family to which President Han- 
cock belonged is, it is said, now represented 
in Ireland by John Hancock, of Lurgan, 
Down County, and by Neilson Hancock, the 
founder of the Irish Statistical Society. 

John Hancock was born at Braintree, Mass., JOHN HANCOCK. 

in 1737, and when quite young was left in the care of his father's 
brother, a wealthy merchant of Boston, who sent him soon after to 
Harvard College, where he was graduated in 1754. He then became 
a clerk in his uncle's office, and, going to England on business in 1761, 
made the acquaintance of several of the leading public men there. 

1 Tyrone (Ireland) Constitution, quoted in " Irish World," Centennial number, 1876. The writer 
adds : " Those who are conversant with Reid's ' History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland' 
are aware that multitudes of Protestants left Ulster for the plantations of North America, for 
causes sufficiently explained in that authority. John Hancock's ancestor was amongst that 
number." 

* Anthony Hancock was in Boston in 1681. He came from Ireland. 

8 Article in Pittsburgh " Leader," quoted in " Irish World." The name appears in the 
records of the Irish Parliament. 

(167) 



168 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

His uncle died in 1763, and left him great wealth, the largest for- 
tune in New England. He became prominently identified with, and 
a leader in, public affairs. In 1766 he represented Boston in the 
Massachusetts General Assembly. Incidentally his regard and gen- 
erosity were bestowed upon his kindred in Boston. An Irish Presby- 
terian congregation, whose first place of worship was a barn, had 
erected a church on the corner of Federal and Berry streets. Hancock 
gave them a bell and vane. The first pastor of this church, Rev. 
John Moorhead, entered the ministry in Ireland, and was installed 
in Boston in 1730,' becoming a member of the Charitable Irish 
Society in 1739. It was to this church that the convention of 
which Hancock was president adjourned from the Old State-House, 
where it met to consider the adoption of the Federal Constitution in 
January, 1788. 

He was from the first a sturdy opponent of the methods by which 
the London Parliament sought to injure and harass the colonists, and 
his example, efforts, and influence contributed materially to the ad- 
vancement of the national cause. One of the earliest " outrages," as 
the English called them, committed by the people upon the govern- 
ment officials, was caused by the seizure of Hancock's vessel, the 
" Liberty," on a charge of containing concealed contraband goods. 
" The people turned out, beat the officers, burned the government 
boat, and drove the officials to the fort in the harbor for safety." 2 
He delivered in 1774 the annual oration in commemoration of the 
"Massacre" of March 5, 1770, and was elected in the same year 
president of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, and also a 
delegate to the Continental Congress, which met in September, at 
Philadelphia. On June 12, 1775, he was declared an " outlaw" by a 
proclamation of General Gage. In this document, " martial law " was 
proclaimed. Those in arms, and their friends, were declared " rebels, 
parricides of the Constitution," and a free pardon was offered to all 
who would return to their allegiance, except John Hancock and 
Samuel Adams. 

1 Drake's " Landmarks of Boston," p. 263. 
* Lossing's " Eminent Americans," p. 160. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Hancock was again a delegate to the Continental Congress, in 
1775 ; and when Randolph, the first president, resigned through ill 
health fourteen days after it had met, the Massachusetts " outlaw " 
was chosen to fill his place. On July 4, 1776, Hancock, as president 
of Congress, and Charles Thomson, of Maghera, as secretary ^ signed 
the Declaration of Independence, when it was adopted, and with only 
their names attached to it " was sent forth to the world," the other 
signatures not being affixed to the document until August the second, 
following. 

The illustrious " First Signer," on account of weakened health, 
resigned his seat in Congress in 1777. In the year following, how- 
ever, when Sullivan was preparing to attack the British on Rhode 
Island, Hancock hastened to his aid at the head of the militia of 
Massachusetts, and took part in the stirring events near Bristol 
Ferry in August, I778. 1 The year following, he was elected 
Governor of Massachusetts, a position which h*e continued to hold 
for five consecutive years, when he declined a reelection. He was 
again chosen Governor in 1787, and reflected annually until his 
death, which took place Oct. 8, 1793. 

MAJOR-GENERAL HENRY KNOX. 

Major-General Henry Knox was born at Boston of Irish parents 
in 1750. When the Revolution commenced he was engaged in 
business as a bookseller in his native city, 
but he promptly sacrificed his personal in- 
terests in his zeal for the national cause. 

" The man," says Peterson, " who, of 
all others, stood first in Washington's affec- 
tions was Henry Knox, commander of the 
artillery in the American army. . The in- 
tellectual abilities of Knox were sound ; but 

GENERAL KNOX. 

it was his moral ones that were preeminently 

deserving of esteem, and in consideration of which Washington 

1 Lossing's " Eminent Americans." 




170 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

bestowed upon him the love and confidence of a brother. In every 
action where Washington appeared in person Knox attended him ; 
in every council of war he bore a part. His services at the head 
of the ordnance were invaluable. He assumed command of that 
branch of the army in the first year of the war, and continued at its 
head until the close of the contest. At the battle of Monmouth, 
the manner in which he handled his guns awakened the admiration 
of the enemy, and, in fact, contributed more, perhaps, than anything 
else to repel the last desperate assault. Greene had so high an 
opinion of Knox, that when Washington offered to the former the 
command of the Southern army, he proposed Knox in his stead. 
His first connection with the artillery service occurred immediately 
after the battle of Lexington. Knox had not been engaged in that 
struggle ; but, a few days subsequently, he made his escape from 
Boston, and, joining his countrymen in arms at Cambridge, offered 
to undertake the arduous task of transporting from Ticonderoga 
and Canada the heavy ordnance and military stores captured there 
by the Americans. The energetic spirit of the young man, and the 
handsome manner in which he executed a task abounding with what 
some would have considered impossibilities, attracted the special 
notice of Washington, 'and Knox, in consequence, was rewarded 
with the command of this very artillery, most of which he employed 
with good service in the 'siege of Boston. Thus at the age of 
twenty-five he occupied one of the most responsible positions in 
the army. From this period Knox remained with Washington,, tak- 
ing part in all the principal battles fought by the Commander- 
in-Chief." 

When Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, Knox was promoted 
to the rank of major-general. He was in command of the American 
troops when they marched into New York on its evacuation by the 
English, Nov. 25, 1783, halting for a few hours near where now 
stands the armory of the Sixty-ninth Regiment, and then moving 
forward to take possession of Fort George, " amid the acclamations 
of thousands of emancipated freemen and the roar of artillery 
upon the battery." When, on December 4, the principal officers of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

the army assembled at Fraunce's Tavern to bid farewell to Wash- 
ington, the latter entered the room where they were all waiting, and, 
taking a glass of wine in his hand, expressed the wish that their 
" latter days might be as prosperous and happy as their former ones 
had been glorious and honorable." Then, having drunk, he said, 
" I cannot come to each of you to take my leave, but shall be 
obliged to you if each will come and take me by the hand." Knox, 
who stood next to him, grasped his hand, and then, " while the 
tears flowed down the cheeks of each," the Commander-in-Chief 
embraced and kissed him, as he did afterwards the other officers. 
Knox succeeded Lincoln as Secretary of War under the old con- 
federation, and in 1789, on the organization of the Federal Govern- 
ment, he was chosen by Washington to fill the same position in his 
cabinet. He resigned in 1794, and went to live at Thomaston, 
Me. ' In 1798, when a foreign war seemed imminent, he was 
appointed to an important command ; but the trouble passed over, 
and he was not called on for active service. 

At the age of twenty-two years, in 1772, Knox joined the Char- 
itable Irish Society, of Boston. His desire to mingle and be iden- 
tified with men of Irish origin was further shown in 1782, when he 
became a member of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, of Philadel- 
phia. The Society of the Cincinnati was formed at his suggestion. 
He died in 1806, at Thomaston, Me. 

He was affable and unassuming in private life, as a public offi- 
cer thorough and capable, and as a soldier of unsurpassed daring. 

GOV. JAMES SULLIVAN. 

James Sullivan was a most ardent and distinguished patriot of 
the American Revolution, and he was equally noted for his masterly 
ability as a lawyer, statesman, and orator. His father, John Sul- 
livan, was an Irish schoolmaster, who had emigrated from Kerry or, 
as some say, Limerick, Ireland, to the Colonies, and settled in 
Berwick, Me., in '1723, and lived to see his two sons, James the 
Governor of Massachusetts and John, become distinguished among 



172 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

their fellow-countrymen, dying at the patriarchal age of one hun- 
dred and five years. 

James was born in Maine, April 22, 1744, and was educated by 
his father, who taught school for many years in Berwick. The 
principles of self-government and the right of the colonists, as free- 
men, to resist the imposition of taxes other than those which were 
imposed by themselves and for their own benefit, were taught him, 
and deeply impressed on his young mind. 

Nearly all the settlers in those days had farms, and James was 
wont to assist his father on his farm, which developed his muscular 
strength. One day, while felling a tree, he accidentally injured his 
leg, which left one limb shorter than the other. 

The weakness of his leg precluded hard manual labor, and he 
commenced the study of law and was admitted to the bar. He 
quickly attracted attention and practice. He was an uncompro- 
mising opponent to taxation without representation, and made a firm 
stand against the claims of the home government. 

He entered into the cause of American freedom heart and soul 
as the critical moment approached to strike a blow for liberty. In 
1776 he was a member of the Provincial Congress, and held the 
leading position of a judge of the Superior Court of his State. He 
organized troops for State and national defence, but his lameness 
prevented him from assuming command, which his generous spirit 
would have gladly accepted were it not for that misfortune. He was 
a member of the Continental Congress in 1782, also a member of 
the Executive Council and Judge of Probate. When Maine was 
separated from Massachusetts he took ^up his residence in the 
latter. 

He was elected to Congress from Massachusetts in 1788. He 
became Attorney-General of that State in 1790, and while in that 
position projected the Middlesex Canal, and wrote the " History of 
the District of Maine," which the Legislature ordered to be pub- 
lished. He was elected Governor of Massachusetts in 1807, and re- 
elected in 1808, in which year he died. His son, Hon. William 
Sullivan, was an eminent jurist and scholar, and wrote many valuable 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 173 

works. He was a member of the Legislature of Massachusetts for 
nearly twenty-six years, and died in 1839. 

The mother of General Sullivan was a woman of great energy 
and spirit. There is a story told of a visit which she paid to her 
distinguished son when he was Governor of New Hampshire, and 
had as a guest his brother John. The servant, not knowing her, 
replied that she could not see the Governor he was engaged. 
"But I must see him," said the old lady. "Then, madam, you will 
please to wait in the ante-room." " Tell your master," said she, 
sweeping out of the hall, " that the mother of two of the greatest 
men in America will not wait in any one's ante-room." The Gov- 
ernor having called his servant, on hearing the report said to his 
brother, "James, let us run after her; it's my mother for cer- 
tain." Accordingly the two governors sallied out, and soon over- 
took and made their peace with the indignant but easily mollified 
lady. 

As a lawyer, Gov. James Sullivan ranked among the very first, 
and he was retained in the most important cases which were within 
the jurisdiction of the courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
at that time. A proof of his ability is manifested in his success over 
his able opponents who were the legal luminaries of his day. They 
were such men as Dexter, Otis, Dana, and Parsons, to none of whom 
he was second. He had a commanding presence and dignity ; deep 
thought shone from his fine, expressive face. His distinguishing 
characteristics of mind were force, comprehensiveness, and repressed, 
but intense, ardor; nothing escaped the piercing intensity of his 
scrutiny. His arguments were clear, close, pointed, and forcible, 
and always directed towards pertinent results, no verbosity or clap- 
trap for admiration, but aimed to secure conviction. Although he 
seldom summoned up his pathetic powers, he did not lack this char- 
acteristic of his race, for it is said that when he adopted pathos it 
proved as intense and irresistible as his other masterly qualities. 
Among the works which he left are "A History of the District of 
Maine," " A Dissertation on Banks " and on the " Durability of 
States," " History of Land Titles in Massachusetts," " The Consti- 



174 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

tutional Liberty of the Press," " History of the Penobscot Indians," 
etc. He was a man of solid and extensive acquirements, and was 
honored by one of the great seats of learning with the degree of 
LL.D. Some of his descendants are among living Bostonians. 

ROBERT TREAT PAINE. 

Robert Treat Paine, according to very reliable authorities, 
was of Irish descent. O'Hart tells us that " Henry O'Neill, of 
Dungannon, born in 1665, sixth in descent from Shane the Proud, 
Prince of Ulster, and cousin of Sir Neal O'Neill, who was killed 
at the battle of the Boyne, changed his name to Paine, which 
was that of a maternal ancestor, after the surrender of Limerick, in 
order to preserve a portion of his estates. He entered the British 
army, obtained grants of land in Cork County and other parts of 
Ireland, and was killed in 1698 at Foxford, in Mayo. His youngest 
brother, Robert, who also took the name of Paine, emigrated to 
America a little before the occurrence alluded to. He was the 
grandfather of Robert Treat Paine," the signer of the Declaration, 
who was born at Boston, March II, 1731. He graduated at Har- 
vard, where he studied theology in 1 749, and acted as chaplain, in 

1 75 5, of the Provincial troops on the northern frontier. A little 
later he visited Europe, and on his return studied law, settling, in 
1759, atTaunton, Mass., where he remained for several years. He 
was one of the delegates in 1768 to the convention called by prom- 
inent men in Boston, when Governor Bernard dissolved the General 
Court for refusing to rescind the circular letter sent to the other 
colonies. 

He conducted the prosecution of the English captain, Preston, 
and eight of his soldiers, when they were tried for their murderous 
work in the " Boston Massacre " of March 5, 1770. In 1773 and 
the year following, he was elected to the General Assembly of Mas- 
sachusetts, and was sent as a delegate to the Continental Congress 
from 1774 to 1778, voting for, and signing, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. When, in 1780, the State Constitution of Massachusetts 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 175 

was adopted, he was made Attorney-General, which office he held 
until 1790, when he became a judge of the Supreme Court. In 
1804 he resigned his position, on account of deafness and other 
infirmities of age, and died in 1814, at the age of eighty-three. 
O'Hart says that beside Henry and Robert O'Neill, Paine's ances- 
tors, there were two other brothers, Brian and John, who went to 
France after Sarsfield's surrender, and finally settled in Portugal. 
Eight of their descendants, in 1807, when the French invaded the 
last-named country, went with the royal family of Braganza to Brazil, 
where many of their offspring are now to be found. 



THE CREHORE FAMILY. 

Teague Crehore according to Savage's " Genealogical Diction- 
ary" was the earliest known person who bore this name, and he 
resided in Milton or Dorchester some time during the decade of 
1640-50. 

He is said to have been stolen from his parents in Ireland, and 
he was " a mere child at the time." His name does not correspond 
orthographically with any Irish name, but, phonetically, the old- 
fashioned pronunciation, aspirating the " h " and accenting the last 
syllable, corresponds with that of the Irish surname Krehan or 
Krahan. The more modern pronunciation is the reverse of the old, 
and corresponds with Creogh. 

The earliest written evidence of Teague Crehore is an unre- 
corded deed from John Gill to him of a parcel of salt-marsh, 
December, 1660. In 1670 he sold to Robert Bodcock a piece of 
land near Paul's Bridge, described as purchased by him from John 
Smith. His deed to Bodcock is upon record, Suffolk Records, lib. 
7, fol. 281. This land was near Paul's Bridge. He married, proba- 
bly about 1665, Mary, said to have been the daughter of Robert 
Spurr, of Dorchester. His death is recorded in Milton Records, 
Jan. 3, 1695, aged fifty-five years. His widow administered, and 
the inventory, etc., are found in Suffolk Probate Records, lib. 



176 THE IRISH IN BOSTON, 

10, fol. 723. She married Matthias Puffer, of Stoughton, May 14, 
1697. 

Teague left five living children. Timothy, the ancestor, proba- 
bly, of those bearing the name of Crehore, born Oct. 18, 1666, 
who married, Feb. 10, 1688, Ruth Riol (Ryall), of Dorchester. 
He died Aug. 15, 1739, and his headstone is in the Crehore lot, 
Milton cemetery. Another son, Benjamin, also survived Teague, 
but no record appears of his having married. Three daughters, 
Ann, Rebecca, and Mary, married, respectively, Ebenezer Maxwell, 
of Bristol, Robert Pelton, of Dorchester, and Henry GloVer, of 
Bristol. In 1714, the four last named united in conveyance of their 
share of the paternal estate to their brother Timothy (Suffolk Rec- 
ords, lib. 29, fol. 1 86). 

The records show that Timothy added considerably to the 
paternal estate. He had a numerous family, ten in all, only two of 
whom seemed to have continued the name, Timothy, 3d, and 
John. The latter, who bore the title of " captain," was the head of 
a single line of males, all bearing the same name, who lived upon a 
part of the paternal estate, terminating, in the sixth generation 
(from Teague), with the death of John Arnold Crehore, who died 
Jan. 21, 1677, leaving no issue. 

Timothy, 3d, like his father, was the progenitor of all now 
bearing the name of Crehore. He was born Dec. 3, 1689, 
married Mary Driscoll, of Dorchester, Dec. 24, 1712, and died 
Dec. 26, 1755. He was a farmer, and lived upon a portion of 
his father's farm, bordering the river, near Paul's Bridge, and is 
buried in Milton cemetery. He had three daughters, two of whom 
died young; the other, Hepsibah, with his sons, Jedediah and 
William, inherited his property, and the deed of partition, tri-partite, 
is now in possession of the family. 

Jedediah lived on the estate of which he had become possessed, 
and it passed into the hands of his third son, John Shepard, whose 
sons, Charles C. and Jeremiah, resided on it as late as 1844. 

The house now owned by Mrs. Lyman Davenport, the one by 
Mrs. Green, and the next, adjoining the Bent property, are all of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 177 

them situated upon this estate. William also had a number of 
descendants, one of whom, Thomas Crehore, lived in Milton, and 
was a well-known citizen. None of the family now bearing the 
name are residents of the town. 1 



REV. JOHN LYFORD. 

Earlier than the time when so much commotion was caused in, 
England by the many Irish people who had come to this country, 
and still desired to emigrate, we have on record in Savage's " Gen- 
ealogical Dictionary " and Hubbard's " History " an account of the 
advent of John Lyford. 

It may be said that " the Lords of the Committee for Foreign 
Plantations," as early as 1634, caused warrants to issue to stay the 
ships bearing Irish immigrants ; but on petition of the ship captains, 
who stated the prospective wealth that would accrue to England by 
the settlement and development of the colonies in Newfoundland, 
the vessels were released. 

John Lyford came from Ireland, and arrived in Plymouth in 
1624. He landed there with Winslow on the ship " Charity." 
Lyford was hired by the "Adventurers " of London, approved of 
by them as an able minister who was willing to risk his life in 
a wilderness, and with his family, who came with him, to heroically 
endure many hardships in a strange land, that he might enjoy the 
liberty of his own judgment in matters of religion. 

He discovered a great difference between religious Ireland and 
the religious tenets of Plymouth. The Pilgrims disliked his teach- 
ings, many of whom had been previously taught by Robinson. It 
is thought that Lyford travelled over much territory adjacent to 
Plymouth, and passed through Boston, preaching and exhorting 
persons to accept his instructions. 

1 The History of Milton, Teele. 



178 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



WILLIAM HIBBINS. 

He was one of the Irish pioneers of the New England colony. He 
emigrated from Ireland on board the " Mary and John," and arrived 
here in 1634. He married a widow named Mrs. Anne Moore, who 
was a sister of Richard Bellingham, Governor of Massachusetts. 1 

William Hibbins was held in high esteem by the towns-people 
of Boston, and as a magistrate and an agent of the colony in England 
he was regarded by the colonists as an important man. He is re- 
puted to have been possessed of wealth, which doubtless added to 
his popularity here. 

He died in 1654. Mrs. Hibbins died by hanging in 1656, by 
order of the General Court, to expiate her alleged crime of witchcraft. 

No jury could be found to convict her, and she suffered death 
at the hands of the ignorant and prejudiced authorities. She be- 
queathed her property to her two sons in Ireland, John and Joseph 
Moore, of Ballyhorick, in the county of Cork. 2 



BENJAMIN CREHORE. 

Our subject was a descendant of old Teague Crehore, of Ireland. 
Benjamin Crehore was born in Milton, and always lived there ; his 
many business transactions in Boston, as well as his constant inter- 
course with the Boston men of his day, made him notable. 

Remarkable as it may appear, Benjamin Crehore manufactured 
the first bass-viols ever made in this country, and it came about in 
this way: In 1798 he was engaged by the proprietors of the old 
Federal-street Theatre to assist in constructing the mechanical stage 
appliances for the play of the " Forty Thieves," then in rehearsal. 

He showed much inventiveness and skill in the nice adjustment 

1 Bellingham (Richard), colonial deputy from 1635 to 1636; 1640 to 1641; 1653 to 1654; and 
1655 to 1665 ; Governor of Massachusetts, 1641, 1654, 1665 ; born 1592 ; died 1672. He was a law- 
yer, and one of the original patentees of the colony. 

See Suffolk Deeds, vol. viii., fol. 83, 84 ; also fol. 180-183. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 179 

and execution of the intricate details of stage machinery, which 
greatly pleased the managers, and later, his services were demanded 
frequently. The leader of the orchestra, whose name was Peter von 
Hagen, came to him one day with a broken bass-viol, which had 
been considered useless, no one being found to mend it, and the 
band needed it greatly. 

Mr. Crehore's ingenuity received quite a test when he under- 
took to repair the instrument, for he was wholly unused to the work. 
He successfully repaired the viol, however, and it was pronounced by 
musicians to be improved in tone. This led to his commencing the 
manufacture of bass-viols in this country, and they rivalled those im- 
ported from other lands. Mr. John Preston, of Hyde Park, Mass., 
possessed one of these instruments. 

About the beginning of the present century, Deacon Nathan 
Martin C. Martin, the Milton postmaster for many years, a singer of 
note and a good musician, was on a visit at Thomaston, Me. On a 
certain Sunday he attended divine service there, and was invited to 
a seat in the choir, where he found a large bass-viol, which he tried, 
before the beginning of the religious services, and highly praised its 
superior tone. 

The man who played the instrument told Deacon Martin that 
it was valued highly, not only on account of its fine tone, but also for 
its antiquity. " Ah," said Deacon Martin, " an old instrument, is it? " 
" Yes," said the musician, " a very old instrument ; we do not know 
exactly how old, but it is something more than two hundred years 
old." This aroused the curiosity of the deacon, who was an anti- 
quarian, to examine it minutely, and peering through the sound-holes, 
he read on a piece of paper pasted within, 1 



BEN CREHORE, MAKER, MILTON. 



Mr. Crehore's shop in Milton soon became the repository of un- 
repaired musical instruments of varied descriptions and kinds, and, 

1 History of Milton, Teele. 



180 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

strange to relate, a piano- forte was among these. His ready tact and 
skill served him in mastering a knowledge of this, as of other things 
which required much patience and perseverarice. 

Its parts, mechanism, and movements were all familiar to him in 
a short time, and he began the manufacture of this popular instrument. 

" The first piano-forte made in the United States was manufactured 
by Benjamin Crehore, in his shop at Milton, A.D. 1800." * 

Benjamin Crehore had planted the seed of an enterprise which 
to-day is as extensive as our continent. One of the largest and most 
successful piano manufactories in America sprung from his humble 
beginning. The inventive talent of Mr. Crehore could not lie dor- 
mant, and he sought some new venture after having transferred the 
piano business over to Lewis Babcock, a Milton boy who had been 
apprenticed to him, and also William and Adam Bent, who had been 
employed by him in the making of pianos. The War of 1812 had 
come to an end, when Dean Weymouth, a Southerner, who had lost 
his left leg in the service of his native land, took up residence in 
Milton for the purpose of acquiring an education that would be suit- 
able for the condition of things then existing. He had a charming 
manner and an attractive and gentlemanly bearing, which made him 
many friends. Among these was Benjamin Crehore, who conceived 
that the best way in which he could befriend the young man would 
be by rendering aid to his amputated leg. 

His idea was practically carried out, and after much labor the 
soldier-student was made happy by the possession of a wooden leg 
made by the ingenious Crehore. The leg had joints at the knee, at 
the ankle, and in the foot, nicely adjusted by straps, and with 
sufficient elasticity to render its use easy and comfortable. Capt. 
Lewis Vose, a saddler by trade, and Crehore's neighbor, supplied the 
straps, covering, and padding for the leg. This invention created a 
great deal of talk at the time of its completion, as it was the first 
experiment of the kind ever made in America. 

The leg disappeared after it had been returned to Mr. Crehore 

i History of Milton, Teele. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 181 

by the soldier-student, who could not pay for it, and its whereabouts 
remain enshrouded in mystery to this day. 



GEORGE DOWNING. 

The subject of this sketch was the son of Emmanuel Downing, 
who married a sister of John Winthrop, Governor of Massachusetts. 
Emmanuel Downing arrived in this country in 1638, and his family 
followed him some years later. George was born in Dublin, Ireland, 
in 1624, and studied at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass., where ( 
he graduated with the first class which completed the course of 
study at that institution. 

His name appears on the list of the alumni. He was a 
preacher in the army under General Fairfax, and was afterwards 
heard of in the Scotch army, and as an ambassador in the Low 
Countries. He captured three of the regicides of Charles L, one of 
whom was his old commander, Key. In 1654 he married Lady 
Frances Howard, sister of the first Earl of Carlisle. 



ANTHONY GULLIVER. 

Anthony Gulliver was born in Ireland in 1619, died in Milton, 
Nov. 28, 1706. After removing from Braintree to Unquity in 1646, 
he bought land of Edward and Richard Hutchinson, sons and heirs 
of Richard Hutchinson, which was bounded north by Gulliver's 
Creek. He married Elenor, daughter of Stephen Kinsley, who bore 
him five sons and four daughters, Lydia, born 1651, married James 
Leonard; Samuel, born 1653, died 1676; Jonathan, born Oct. 27, 
1659; Stephen, born 1663; John, born Dec. 3, 1669; Hannah, 
married Tucker; Mary, married Atherton; Elizabeth, born Nov. 
6, 1671 ; Nathaniel, born Nov. 10, 1675, married Hanna Billings. 

About 1850 his house stood on Squantum street, Milton. 
When the building was demolished, the brick chimney was exam- 
ined, and it was found to have been composed of imported brick, 



182 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

which bore the inscription " 1 680." The house was at one time 
known as the Rawson House, a name adopted from David Raw- 
son, who had married into the Gulliver family. 

Anthony Gulliver became the possessor of a large tract of land 
in the heart of the town, most of which is now a part of the estate 
of Col. H. S. Russell. This property was owned and occupied by 
the Gulliver family for many years, and some of his descendants 
have lived on the land near by ever since. Lieut. Jonathan Gulliver, 
second son of Anthony, and a leading man of his day, married 
Theodora, daughter of Rev. Peter Thacher, the first pastor of Milton. 
Anthony Gulliver was the ancestor of a large number of able and 
influential men and women, who have been prominent in the history 
of church and town affairs of Milton for nearly two hundred years. 

Some members of the family still remain among our citizens. 
Such forms of spelling the original name often appear as : Caliphar, 
Colliford, Cullifer, Gulliwer, Gouliver, Gullwer, Gullifer. 

Capt. Lemuel Gulliver, who once lived at Algerine Corner, 
returned to Ireland in 1723, and gave a glowing description of the 
American country to his neighbor, Jonathan Swift. Lemuel's 
imagination was vivid and fanciful, and he turned it to a quaint 
account in this instance. He declared to Swift that " the frogs 
were as tall as his knees, and had musical voices that were guitar- 
like in their tones ; the mosquitoes' bills were as long as darning- 
needles ; " and from these exaggerated and fabulous accounts of the 
country, the great Swift conceived and wrote the famous " Gulliver's 
Travels," which was published in 1726, displaying a unique union of 
misanthropy, satire, irony, ingenuity, and humor. In a letter from 
Pope to Swift, dated 23d March, 1727-28 (Bishop Warburton's ed., 
1766, vol. ix., 76), appears the following: 

I send you a very odd thing, a paper printed in Boston, in New England, 
wherein you'll find a real person, a member of their Parliament, of the name of 
Jonathan Gulliver. 

A person of the same name represented the town of Milton in 
the General Court in 1727, and received his name in 1659, before 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 183 

either of the wits were born; although Pope happily adds that, 
"perhaps he was an Anabaptist, unchristened till of full age." 



James Boies was recognized as a . faithful citizen, an earnest 
patriot, a prominent manufacturer, 'and a projector of many valuable 
enterprises, and one whose business relations with his contemporaries 
were of the most honorable kind, and of value to the community in 
which he lived. Mr. Boies was born in Ireland in 1702, and died 
in Milton, Mass., July n, 1798, at the advanced age of ninety-six 
years. He married as second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Jeremiah 
Smith, his fellow-countryman, and grandfather of Hon. Henry L. 
Pierce. 

Mr. Boies settled in Dorchester in the middle of the eighteenth 
century, and in his younger day he acted as supercargo on vessels 
employed in bringing emigrants from Ireland to New England. He 
became familiarly known as " Captain Boies," and had great business 
capacity. On the 1 3th of September, 1 759, he was with General Wolfe 
in the battle on the Plains of Abraham. In 1775 General Washington 
appointed him to take charge of the transportation of the fagots of 
birch and swamp-brush which had been piled up at Little Neck the 
previous winter. Captain Boies directed the work, and three hun- 
dred teams were engaged in transporting the material to Dorchester 
Heights, with which they were fortified, and the evacuation of Boston 
followed. The British army, under General Howe, numbered eight 
thousand troops, and they sailed for Halifax in a hundred and twenty 
vessels. Captain Boies was one of a committee of three who drew 
up instructions for the representatives of Milton on May 28, 1776, 
wherein was voted that the colony would support the Continental 
Congress with their lives and fortunes if it should declare the United 
Colonies of North America independent of Great Britain. And the 
representatives were directed to act accordingly in the General 
Assembly. 



184 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

In 1765 Ebenezer Storer sold his half of the old powder-mill 
estate, in Milton, to James Boies, who in turn sold the same to 
Edward Wentworth, which goes to show that even at that early time 
Irishmen were among the thrifty and energetic land-owners. In the 
same year he built a paper-mill on the slitting-mill site, and conveyed 
to Richard Clark. The old house near the paper-mill at Mattapan 
was built by Captain Boies for his own residence ; soon after he pur- 
chased the mill estate, June 29, 1765, he conveyed to Richard Clark 
the " northerly half of the dwelling-house in which he lived, and six 
acres of pasture-land bounded northerly on the ditch." Mr. Boies 
was interested in paper-mills and the manufacture of paper as early 
as 1 760, when he had secured the services of Richard Clark, a skilful 
workman, who conducted the business with ability for five years, when, 
in company with Mr. Boies, he started the paper business in a new 
mill at Mattapan. 

In 1778 Mr. Boies bought the slitting-mill property, which was 
the first mill started in the provinces for slitting iron. His son-in- 
law, Hugh McLean, had been in partnership with him since 1771, and 
in 1790 they made partition of their business, and it fell to Mr. 
McLean. 

Jeremiah Smith, Hugh McLean, and James Boies may be said 
to be the founders and early promoters of the paper industry of 
Dorchester. 

About 1795 a young man from New Jersey, named Mark 
Hollingsworth, was given employment in one of these mills, and 
after the deaths of Boies and McLean he, in company with Edward 
Tileston, became possessed of the mills and water privileges. The 
descendants of Messrs. Tileston and Hollingsworth carry on the 
business to this day in the same locality. 

James Boies was the father of Jeremiah Smith Boies, who grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1783. He was for a time engaged in 
manufacturing with his father, on the Neponset river. After his 
father's death, however, he sold out, moved to Boston, and was 
elected an alderman. 

The following quaint advertisement is from the " Boston News 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 185 

Letter" of March 23, 1769, which was the method of getting stock 
for the paper-mill of James Boies: 

ADVERTISEMENT. The Bell Cart will go through Boston before the end of 
next month to collect Rags for the Paper Mills at Milton, when all people that will 
encourage the Paper Manufacture may dispose of them. They are taken in at Mr. 
Caleb Davis' Shop at the Fortification ; Mr. Andrew Gillespie's, near Dr. Clark's ; 
Mr. Andreas Randal's, near Phillip's Wharf; and Mr. John Boris' in Long Lane; 
Mr. Frothingham's in Charlestown ; Mr. Edson's, in Salem, Mr. John Hariss', in 
Newbury ; Mr. Daniel Fowle's in Portsmouth ; and the Paper Mill at Milton. 

Rags are beauties which concealed lie; 
But when in paper how it charms the eye ! 
Pray save your rags, new beauties to discover, 
For of paper truly every one's a lover. 
By pen and press such knowledge is displayed 
As wouldn't exist if paper was not made ; 
Wisdom of things mysterious, divine, 
Illustriously doth on paper shine. 

Early New England manufacturers were dependent on English 
artisans, in a great measure, for skilled work in special lines of pro- 
duction, as but few in this country knew the business. The paper 
industry stood in greater need of American workmen than almost 
any other, and the importance and immense value to be attached 
to the successful efforts and enterprise of the three Irishmen who 
fathered the movement can never be overestimated. 

James Boies and Hugh McLean petitioned the Congress, of the 
Province of the Massachusetts Bay, assembled at Watertown, on 
May 15, 1775, that John Slater, James Colder, William Durant, and 
William Pierce, then enlisted in the provincial army, be released 
from the service, as they had attained so great a knowledge of the 
art of paper-making that their attendance in the business was abso- 
lutely necessary to its being carried on. These men had worked at 
the petitioners' mills for two years previous to 1775, and it was 
deemed necessary to obtain their services again. On the following 
day Boies and McLean received a favorable reply from the Provin- 
cial Congress, and their petition was granted. 



186 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

JEREMIAH SMITH. 

Jeremiah Smith was born in Ireland in 1705. In 1726 he came 
to Boston with his wife, and in 1737 moved to Milton. He was a 
neighbor and intimate friend of Governor Hutchinson, with whom 
he was a great favorite. Mr. Smith was also very intimate with 
Governor Hancock, at whose hospitable board the wits of the day 
were ever welcome, and Mr. Smith was never absent, except volun- 
tarily. He was the grandfather of Hon. Henry L. Pierce and 
Edmund J. Barker, of Dorchester; also, great-grandfather of ex- 
Governor Henry J. Gardner. His death occurred at Milton, in 1790. 

On Sept 13, 1728, the General Court passed an act granting the 
exclusive privilege to make paper in this province for a term of ten 
years to some Boston merchants. Among them were Thomas Han- 
cock and Benjamin Faneuil. A fine of twenty shillings was imposed 
on every ream manufactured by anybody else. These gentlemen 
leased a building at what is now Milton Lower Mills. Henry Deer- 
ing acted as agent and superintendent. These gentlemen carried on 
the business until 1737, when it came under the superintendency of 
Jeremiah Smith. 

In 1741 he was enabled to purchase the mill from the heirs of 
Rev. Joseph Belcher, of Dedham, with seven acres of land laying on 
both sides of the Neponset river, and bounded by the public landing 
and also the county road. Mr. Smith continued to carry on the 
business until 1775, when, having accumulated a fortune, he sold out 
to his son-in-law, Daniel Vose, and retired from active business. If 
to Mr. Smith belongs the credit of being the first individual paper 
manufacturer, to others of his countrymen is due the fact that the 
Neponset river was made by them the basis of paper manufacturing 
in the North American colonies, which, in a measure, lasts to this 
day. 

JOHN HANNAN. 

One morning, in the fall of the year 1764, a distressed wayfarer 
was seen sitting upon a rock at the Lower Mills, in Dorchester, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 187 

weeping; he attracted the interest and sympathy of a benevolent 
individual. The latter inquired into his circumstances, and teamed 
that his name was John Hannan, an Irishman. He was a chocolate- 
maker by trade, and reported that he had come to this country to 
improve his condition, that he was friendless, homeless, and 
penniless. 

The sympathetic stranger referred him to Mr. James Boies, as 
an Irishman of ample means, who, with Messrs. Wentworth & Storer, 
were constructing mills up the stream. Mr. Boies carefully ques- 
tioned him, and, satisfied with the truthfulness of his story, as well 
as inspired with confidence in Hannan's ability, employed him. 
Messrs. Boies, Wentworth, and Storer were then erecting a new mill 
on the site of the old powder-mill in Milton, and these gentlemen 
became interested benefactors of John Hannan. Boies built a 
chocolate-mill for Hannan, on the spot where now stands the 
famous, spacious, and commodious chocolate establishment of 
Henry L. Pierce, the descendant of an Irish settler named Jere- 
miah Smith; and on that site, in the spring of 1765, John Hannan 
manufactured the first chocolate made in the British Provinces of 
North America. 

. In 1768 Barlow Trecothic bought the mill property, and Han- 
nan was compelled to leave. He opened a small shop in Boston, 
by the assistance of Mr. Edward Preston, who put one kettle 
and other necessary apparatus into his fulling-mill in Dorchester, 
and there made chocolate for him until 1775, when a fire destroyed 
the building. Hannan then hired the mill in which he was at first 
employed, of the agent of the trustees of Trecothic, who had died in 
London, and engaged in the chocolate business on his own account. 
He employed a boy named Nathaniel Blake, to learn the business. 
Hannan was married to Elizabeth Gore, of Boston, in 1773, and 
they selected Dorchester as a place of residence. 

His married life was unhappy and unfortunate, and so affected 
him that he left his wife, after closing his business, in 1779. He 
caused a false report to be circulated about his departure for the 
West Indies to purchase cocoa ; but, in reality, he had started for 



188 THE IRISH IN BOSTON, 

Ireland, never to come back. He was never heard from afterwards, 
and it is conjectured that he was drowned at sea, or died on the pas- 
sage, without having revealed his true name. The widow Hannan 
attempted to carry on the making of chocolate, by the assistance of 
the Blake boy. The boy, like her late husband, took to his heels, 
and fled the premises, unable to tolerate her disposition. 

It may be well to add that the importance of the industrial 
event introduced by John Hannan can be readily seen and appre- 
ciated to-day. From the year 1765, when this Irishman first started 
his valuable enterprise, the industry has steadily grown, until now its 
vastness is as extensive as the continent. Its influence is felt through- 
out the great commercial centres of the world. Dr. James Baker 
took up the business in 1772, and the honorable and successful 
record of the house under the late management of our ex-Mayor 
Henry L. Pierce is well known, and bids us look back into the days 
of Irish John Hannan, to whose knowledge and labors in the incep- 
tion of this immense business we are indebted. 



HUGH MCLEAN. 

Hugh McLean was born in Ireland in 1724. In his younger 
days he followed the sea. While in this occupation he became 
acquainted with his countryman, Captain Boies, and was induced to 
settle in Milton. It was during his residence in Milton that Mr. 
McLean married Agnes, a daughter of Captain Boies. While in 
partnership with his father-in-law he accumulated a considerable 
fortune. He was father of John McLean, the benefactor of Harvard 
College and the Massachusetts General Hospital. 

Hugh McLean owned and occupied the Jackson house, at Milton 
Upper Mills, on the west side of Blue Hill avenue, now owned by 
the heirs of George Hollingsworth, where he resided during his life. 
He died in Milton, December, 1799, at the good old age of seventy- 
five years. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 189 



JOHN McLEAN. 

This benevolent public benefactor, humanitarian, and worthy 
son of a worthy Irish father and Irish-American mother, was born in 
Milton in 1761. At the time of John McLean's birth, his mother 
was the guest of Jeremiah Smith, at Milton Lower Falls. His father 
was then at St. George, transacting business of importance. She 
preferred to remain among her kindred until his return, for H^he Smith, 
Boies, and McLean families were most intimately affiliated by race 
ties and relationship. 

President Quincy, in his " History of Harvard College," states 
that John McLean was born in St. George. He lived at Milton 
with his father until he reached man's estate, and married Ann 
Amory, of the honorable and respected Amory family of Boston. 
Business adversity embarrassed Mr. McLean during the latter part 
of the eighteenth century, which was caused by an unfortunate 
decree of the French Council. 

A few years later he invited all of his creditors to a supper at 
the Exchange Coffee House, in Boston, where the sterling integrity 
which was the basis of his noble character manifested itself by a most 
pleasing and substantial act. When his guests assembled at the 
table every man found under his plate a check for the full amount of 
his debt, principal and interest. 

His handsome countenance and commanding figure were very 
much admired, and the magnetic quality 1 of his social and genial 
nature captivated those who had the honor of his acquaintance or 
friendship. He was rarely seen walking in the streets of Boston for 
several years, having become afflicted with the gout, which compelled 
him to ride in his carriage whenever he desired an outing. 

The War of 1812 had scarcely begun when he was actively 
engaged in molasses speculation, and he bought all of this article 
that could be purchased, held it until its value rose, and cleared 
$100,000 out of this enterprise. 

The Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard College are 



190 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

monumental edifices to his memory and generosity. He made the 
former his residuary legatee. The Massachusetts General Hospital, 
at the time of incorporation, was given $100,000 by the State, to 
fund it, with the stipulation that it might bear the name of any bene- 
factor who should contribute a large sum. Mr. McLean's legacy 
was in excess of that amount. Notwithstanding, instead of justly 
inscribing his name on the Massachusetts General Hospital, they 
placed it on the institution for the insane at "Barrels Farm," the 
" McLean Asylum for the Insane." The sum of $43,062.93 has 
been realized from his bequests to Harvard College to the year 1 886. 

He left many private legacies, amounting to many thousands of 
dollars. He made the minister and deacons of the First Church, 
Milton, the legatees of a trust fund of $2,000, the income of which 
is annually given to the poor ; and the same sum was bequeathed to 
the Federal-street Church, Boston, to be used for a similar object 

On Blue Hill avenue, to-day, can be seen many milestones 
bearing these words, "J. McLean, 1823." He requested Mr. Isaac 
Davenport, his partner in business, to place them at certain distances 
along the road ; and, after Mr. McLean's death, which occurred before 
the work was finished, his name was inscribed on these distance 
indices by Mr. Davenport's instructions. Should the reader ever 
pass that way, let him reflect upon the good life of John McLean, 
whose Irish heart was warm, and throbbed as fast for his fellow-man 
as any of his race, and no hand was ever more ready to extend relief 
to the needy and suffering. On history's page will ever be written 
of him, He was a noble man. 

JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY. 

This eminent American artist was born in Boston, Mass., in 1737, 
of Irish parents. He was the son of Richard Copley and Mary 
Singleton, who had emigrated from the County Clare, Ireland, on the 
preceding year. Richard Copley was in poor health on his arrival 
in America, and went to the West Indies to recuperate and improve 
his failing strength. He died there in 1737, and his widow married 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 191 

Peter Pelham, an engraver of Boston, by whom she had a son, 
Henry. John had a strong penchant for art when but a boy, and 
developed it, uninstructed, without models or assistance, either in 
drawing or coloring. He had native genius, industry, and taste, by 
which he was aided in painting a picture of his half-brother, Henry 
Pelham, which he sent to Benjamin West, in 1760, to be entered in 
the Royal Academy, and which West declared was superb in color- 
ing, as well as artistic in design and drawing. It was named " The 
Boy and the Flying Squirrel." A flattering letter from West, urging 
Copley to come to England and make his home with him at his 
house, strongly tempted the young artist; but he resolved to remain 
with his mother, and assist her to maintain the family. 

In 1769 he married Susannah Farnum Clarke, the daughter of a 
rich Boston merchant, agent for the East India Company, and the 
consignee of the famous cargo of tea which was steeped in Boston 
Harbor by an improved order of Red Men. Copley now fixed his 
residence on Beacon Hill, then a charming and beautiful suburb, 
which included seven acres of what is now a densely populated part 
of Boston. He pursued his art zealously, and with great success, 
while on this historic spot, and painted many of the distinguished 
people of his day. He visited New York in 1771, where he 
painted a miniature of Washington. 

He embarked for Europe in June, 1 774, to see and study Euro- 
pean art, particularly the works of the masters. He sailed for 
England, where he remained sufficiently long to acquaint himself with 
the leading artists and works of art, and then passed into Italy. 
Here he was enchanted beyond expression with the beauties in 
nature and art. He remained in Rome some time, and collected val- 
uable specimens of art in plaster-casts. He was in Parma two 
months, making a copy of " St. Jerome," for Lord Grosvenor, and 
improving in art studies. This copy is said to be unsurpassed. In 
June, 1775, his wife and family, excepting an infant left with his 
mother in Boston, arrived in England on the last vessel (the " Mi- 
nerva," Captain Callahan) which left Massachusetts Bay as a British 
colony. 



192 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

The threatening war impelled the devoted wife to go to her hus- 
band, as she knew art could not flourish here during the struggle, and 
she desired that the development of his genius might not be retarded. 
Her father was a Tory, and went to England; that, too, induced 
her to leave America and join her husband. Copley's letters to 
his mother show him to have been in sympathy with the cause of 
the American colonists, and a strong defender of colonial rights. 

He then predicted the triumph of the colonists. Copley took 
up his residence in London after having left the continent, and made 
his home there with his wife and children, who had arrived shortly 
before. His brilliant career now began to shine forth as a painter of 
portraits and historical subjects. He was among the first artists of 
that day. His works include " A Boy rescued from a Shark in the 
Harbor of Havana," a most thrilling and life-like effort, which has 
been engraved in mezzotint by Val. Green ; " The Red Cross Knight," 
from Spencer's " Fairy Queen ; " " A Family Picture," representing his 
own family, including his father-in-law, Mr. Clarke, an excellent 
work, and said by connoisseurs to equal Van Dyke's best ; " The 
Western Family ; " " The Three Princesses," daughters of George 
III. ; " The Death of Lord Chatham," engraved by Bartolozzi, and 
which increased the fame of Copley by its realistic impressiveness 
and power ; " The Siege of Gibraltar," painted for the city of London, 
in 1790, and hanging in the Council Chamber of Guild Hall (Copley 
had the honors of an academician conferred on him during the same 
year) ; " Charles I. demanding the Impeached Members ; " " The 
Death of Major Pierson," which the Duke of Wellington pronounced 
to be the only battle-piece which faithfully depicted the scene, or that 
was entirely satisfactory to him ; " Abraham's Sacrifice ; " " Hagar 
and Ishmael ; " " Saul reproved by Samuel ; " " The Nativity ; " 
"The Tribute Money;" " Samuel and Eli; " " Monmouth refusing 
to give the Names of his Accomplices to James II. ; " " The ' Offer ' 
of the Crown to Lady Jane Grey ; " besides innumerable others in 
portraiture, etc. 

It was Copley's heartfelt wish to return to America, and again 
establish his home on Beacon Hill ; but his property had been alien- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 193 

ated by his Boston agent, and Copley was unable to secure pos- 
session. His son, who became Lord Lyndhurst, came expressly to 
Boston to recover his father's property, but failed. This son became 
a famous lawyer, and afterward Lord Chancellor, and was elevated to 
the peerage. Copley died in London, Sept. 9, 1815, aged seventy- 
eight years. 



LORD JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY LYNDHURST. 

He was a distinguished jurist and legislator of Great Britain, 
and a son of Copley, the Irish-American painter. He was born in 
Boston, Mass., May 21, 1772. He and his mother went to England 
in 1774, and joined his father, who was there practising his profession. 
John Singleton Copley Lyndhurst graduated from Cambridge in 
1794, and became a Fellow at Trinity College. He came to 
America to recover the paternal estate which had been hypothe- 
cated by an agent, but failed ; for that reason the family remained 
in England. Our subject was called to the bar in 1802, and won 
distinction. 

He was a sergeant-at-law in 1813, and Chief Justice of Chester 
in 1817. He entered Parliament as a Tory in 1818, and was knighted 
and made Solicitor-General in 1819; was counsel of George IV. in 
the trial of Queen Catherine, 1820, and became Attorney-General 
in 1823; represented Cambridge in Parliament in 1826, and was 
made Master of the Rolls. In 1827 he was appointed Lord 
Chancellor, and raised to the Peerage as Baron Lyndhurst ; was Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer in 1830, and High Steward of Cambridge 
University in 1840. He died in London, October 12, 1863. He 
was a bigot ; he opposed Catholic emancipation, was an ultra Tory, 
and the son of a patriot. 

CHARLES JACKSON. ^^ 

Charles Jackson, an able and distinguished American jurist, was 
the son of Jonathan Jackson, a prominent and popular merchant who 



194 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

had emigrated with his parents from Ireland, and settled in Newbury- 
port, Mass., where Charles was born, May 31, 1775 ; died in Boston, 
December 13, 1855. He graduated from Harvard College in 1793, 
and entered the law-office of Theophilus Parsons, where he remained 
for three years. He then established an office, in which he acquired 
a lucrative practice and an enviable reputation. He removed to 
Boston in 1803, and immediately became one of the foremost law- 
yers of the bar. 

He then formed a partnership with Judge Samuel Hubbard, and 
their business was said to have been the most profitable and success- 
ful in New England up to that day. He was chosen a judge of the 
Supreme Court of Massachusetts, which office he held for ten years, 
and then resigned on account of poor health. In 1820 he was a 
leading member of the convention which amended the State Consti- 
tution, and in 1832 was one of the commissioners to revise the General 
Statutes of the State. He published a treatise on " Pleadings and 
Practice in Real Actions," and contributed many valuable papers to 
American jurisprudence. 



JAMES JACKSON. 

James Jackson, an eminent American physician, was a younger 
brother of Judge Charles Jackson ; he was born in Newburyport, 
October 3, 1777, and studied at Harvard College, where he graduated 
in 1796, and afterwards entered the office of Dr. Holyoke, of Salem, 
Mass., where he studied for two years. He went to London in 
1802, and accepted the position of dresser in St. Thomas's Hospital, 
and attended the lectures at that place, and also those given at Guy's 
Hospital. He was abroad two years, returned to Boston and prac- 
tised his profession. 

He was chosen Professor of Clinical Medicine at Harvard 
College, and about this time he and Dr. Warren were principals in 
establishing an asylum for the insane at Somerville, Mass., and the 
Massachusetts General Hospital at Boston, of which he was the first 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 195 

physician. He was made Professor of the Theory and Practice of 
Medicine at Harvard in 1812, and was for several years President of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society. He wrote numerous medical 
works and papers ; among them, " The Brunonian System ; " " On 
the Medical Effects of Dentition," 1812; "On Cow-pox and Small- 
pox;" "On Spotted Fever," i8i6;"On Spasmodic Cholera;" 
" Syllabus of Lectures ; " " Text-Book of Lectures," 1 825 ; " Letters to 
a Young Physician," 1855, etc.; besides a eulogy on Dr. John C. 
Warren, 1815, and " A memoir of his son, James Jackson, Jr.," 1825. 
Dr. Jackson resigned his professorship and other positions in 1835, and 
attended to his private practice solely. He died in Boston, Aug. 27, 
1867, at a good old age, honored, respected, and lamented. 

PATRICK TRACY JACKSON. 

Patrick Tracy Jackson was an eminent American merchant, 
the third son of Jonathan Jackson, a younger brother of Judge 
Charles and Dr. James Jackson. He was born in Newburyport, 
Mass., Aug. 14, 1780. His education was practical, and he en- 
tered the business house of William Bartlett, Newburyport, at 
fifteen years of age. He remained several years with Mr. Bartlett, 
and came to Boston, where he established himself in the India 
trade, and was successful in acquiring a large interest. He en- 
gaged with his brother-in-law, Francis C. Lowell, in the project 
of establishing cotton-mills and of introducing the power-loom. 
Lowell had been in England, examining and investigating as much 
as possible, but failed to solve the secret process and the technique 
of the machine, which were not divulged to him. 

Jackson and himself then invented a model, from which Paul 
Moody constructed a machine; and in 1813 they built their first mill 
at Waltham, near Boston, which is said to have been the first in the 
world that combined all the operations of converting raw cotton 
into finished cloth. In 1821 Jackson organized the Merrimac 
Manufacturing Company, and made large land purchases on the 
Merrimac River, adjoining the Pawtucket Canal, where a number 



196 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

of mills were erected. This settlement generated the busy city of 
Lowell. A few years later he formed another company, who built a 
number of mills, and in 1830 he secured a charter for a railroad 
between Lowell and Boston. The construction of the road, which 
was completed in 1835, was under his superintendence and direc- 
tion, and it was pronounced to be the most perfect of its kind 
then in this country. His interests were extensive and of great 
value, but the financial crisis of 1837 swept away his magnificent 
fortune in a few months. His services were eagerly sought, how- 
ever, and he was the custodian of many important trusts connected 
with great and valuable manufacturing interests. He was, mentally, 
a broad-gauged, long-ranged man, possessing the generosity of his 
race, and bearing the love of his employees, for whose moral and 
intellectual improvement he was ever solicitous. He died Aug. 27, 
1867, amid great sorrow. 

JAMES KAVANAGH. 

James Kavanagh was a native of the County of Wexford, 
Ireland, and immigrated to Boston in 1780. His stay in this city 
was of but short duration, but sufficiently long to distinguish him as 
a man of superior business attainments and excellent executive 
ability. He settled in Damariscotta Mills, Me., engaged exten- 
sively in the lumber business in that place, and built several vessels 
there. He was the father of Edward Kavanagh, the statesman, 
who was born in New Castle, Me., April 27, 1795, and whose 
death occurred Jan. 21, 1844. 

Edward was educated in Georgetown, D.C., and graduated in 
Montreal Seminary in 1820. He then studied law, was admitted 
to the bar, and began to practise in Damariscotta, Me. He was a 
member of the Maine Legislature in 1826-8, and again in 1842-3. 
He was secretary of the State Senate in 1830, and later, for a short 
time, its president. He was elected to Congress as a Jackson Demo- 
crat, serving from 1831 till 1835, and then became chargt d'affaires 
in Portugal, where he remained till 1842. He was afterwards a 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 197 

member of the commission to settle the north-eastern boundary of 
Maine. In 18423 served as acting governor of Maine on the 
election of Gov. John Fairfield to the United States Senate. 

WILLIAM DOUGLAS O'CONNOR. 

This talented American writer was born in Boston, of Irish 
parents, 1833. He had artistic talent, and adopted painting as a 
profession, but drifted into literary habits, and became assistant 
editor of the Boston "Commonwealth," 1853, and, later, of the 
Philadelphia "Evening Post," from 1854 to '60. He was connected 
with the Lighthouse Department in Washington in 1861, and Libra- 
rian of the Treasury Department in 1871. He contributed largely 
to the popular literature of the day, in poems, tales, etc., for 
magazines : and is the author of " Harrington," a romance, the 
" Ghost," and " The Good Gray Poet," a vindication of Walt 
Whitman. 

JEREMIAH SMITH BOIES. 

Jeremiah was the son of Capt. James Boies. His useful life 
corresponded with that of his father's eminently well. Jeremiah 
Smith Boies was honored and respected by the citizens of Milton and 
Boston for his many manly qualities. Born in Milton in 1762, where 
he married a Miss Clark, he was early identified with the industrial 
progress and development of the town. In 1783 he was graduated 
from Harvard, and then engaged in manufactures at Dorchester. 

In 1765 he built a dam where the starch factory is now located, 
and constructed a chocolate, corn, and paper mill, engaging the 
services of Mark Hollingsworth, a young man from New Jersey, 
as foreman of the latter. Mark Hollingsworth and Edmund Tileston 
had been in the paper business at Needham, and they received from 
Mr. Boies a transfer of his business in 1801. His father had 
bequeathed to him the paper-mill in Milton, and he made many 
improvements there. The mansion on Mattapan street, now owned 
by the heirs of the Hon. Arthur W. Austin, was erected by Mr. Boies. 



198 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

In public life he was not less active than in mercantile and com- 
mercial. He was a trustee of Milton Academy in 1798, the date of 
its establishment, and was treasurer of the board of trustees for 
several years. His active interest and useful services in all educational 
and religious affairs, during his residence in Milton, were liberally 
devoted to the welfare of the people. Mr. Boies removed to Boston, 
and served on the Board of Aldermen in 1827. He died in this city 
in 1851. 

CORNELIUS CONWAY FELTON. 

Cornelius Conway Felton, a distinguished and learned Irish- 
American scholar and writer, was born in Newbury, Mass., of Irish 
parents, Nov. 6, 1807. He graduated at Harvard College with 
distinction in 1827. He supported himself while there by teaching, 
and was one of the conductors of the "Harvard Register" in his 
Senior year. After graduating, he taught for two years in Geneseo, 
New York, and in 1829 was appointed Assistant Professor of Latin at 
Harvard, and in 1832, Professor of Greek. He was honored by 
elevation to the Eliot Professorship of Greek Literature, and was 
made one of the regents of the College in 1834. 

At that time he published an edition of Homer, which has 
passed through several revised editions, and, in 1840, a translation of 
Menzel's work on German literature. In 1841 he published "Clouds 
of Aristophanes." He also assisted in preparing a work on classical 
studies, and in 1844 assisted Longfellow in "Poets and Poetry of 
Europe." He was closely identified and intimately associated with 
the men of learning in Boston and vicinity ; his writings were held in 
high esteem by the citizens of this city, and they helped to shape 
public thought to a high degree. 

ANDREW DUNLAP. 

Andrew Dunlap was born in 1794, and was the only son of 
James Dunlap, an Irish merchant of Salem. From his earliest 
childhood his ability was recognized and a brilliant future predicted 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 199 

for him. In 1 820 he moved to Boston, where his effective eloquence 
made him a favorite criminal-pleader. He was warmly attached to the 
Democratic party, and earnestly advocated the election of Andrew 
Jackson, to whose policy he remained devoted to the end of his life. 
He delivered orations in Boston on Independence Day, in 1822 and 
1832; served as United States District Attorney from 1829 to 1835, 
when his resignation drew affectionate tributes of esteem and regret 
from Joseph Story and Judge Davis. He died a few months afterward. 
His " Treatise on the Practice of Courts of Admiralty in Civil Cases 
of Maritime Jurisdiction " was posthumously published, under the 
editorship of Charles Sumner. 

JAMES BOYD. 

The sterling integrity which characterized James Boyd, and 
formed the basis of his honorable, useful public and private life, pre- 
sents a lesson worthy of imitation. Born at Newtownards, Ireland, 
Nov. II, 1793, of Hugh Boyd and Mary, nee Patten. James, during 
his infancy, was cared for by his grandparents, James and Sarah 
Patten, of Cunningbrom. He married Margaret Curry, of Cainey 
Caw, Ireland, July 4, 1815 ; he died at Boston, Mass., Oct. 10, 1855. 
Margaret Curry was born in Ireland, Feb. 15, 1794; she died in 
Hyde Park, Mass., July 26, 1 874. 

Her father's name was Francis Curry, a farmer, of Cainey Caw, 
Parish Rahalp, County Down, Ireland, whose wife was Margaret 
Cavan; his mother was a Dunbar; hers, a Litton. Francis was 
a man of exemplary character and untiring industry. He died in 
1852, in the one hundred and second year of his age. His wife 
died at the age of seventy. James' family consisted of twelve 
children, all born at Boston (except Colonel Francis, who was born 
at Newtownards, Ireland). James Boyd, though brought up in the 
tenets of the Scotch Presbyterian Church belief, joined the Unitarian 
faith of Channing, in which faith he died. In 1819 he joined the 
old Hollis-street Church, of which Dr. John Pierpont was then the 
pastor. The contemporaries of Boyd's manhood have cherished his 



200 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

memory, and hie Catholic countrymen respected him for his broad 
and liberal mindedness. 

In the mid-summer of the year 1817 the Boyd family, consist- 
ing of James Boyd, his wife, and infant child, Francis, came -from 
Ireland, and landed on Moose Island, in Passamaquoddy Bay, where 
they stayed for twenty-two days. On the fifth day of August, 1817, 
they took passage for Boston, Mass. They arrived here on the twelfth 
day of the same month, and on the following day James Boyd was at 
work for Arthur Noon, a chaise-trimmer from London, England, whose 
shop was located at 32 Orange street; James received from him six 
dollars per week for his services. In February, 1 8 1 9, he was em- 
ployed by William Reed, a chaise-trimmer on Marlborough street 
(now Washington street), near the Old South Church. 

On May 6, 1819, James commenced business, with a capital of 
fifty dollars, at 32 Orange street, the name then applied to that part 
of Washington street between Boylston and Dover streets. There he 
manufactured harnesses and trunks ; later he engaged in the manu- 
facture of leather hose for fire-engines, which was made of a single 
thickness of leather and waxed thread, and hand-sewed together. 

About 1820 he made an important improvement on the old 
, process, a patent for which he applied, and it was granted to him 
on May 30, 1821. This was the first patent issued from the United 
States for fire-hose. It was quickly followed by another improve- 
ment, which substituted copper rivets for waxed thread. Mr. Boyd 
was the first manufacturer in New England to adopt this method of 
making fire-hose. It acquired a high reputation, and was known 
as Boyd's double-riveted fire-engine hose, and superseded the other. 
He manufactured fire-buckets, firemen's caps, and general leather 
supplies for the fire department. 

Public attention was soon attracted to the excellence of his mate- 
rials and workmanship, and he became the leading manufacturer of 
these goods. 

Larger accommodations, with increased facilities for his ex- 
tensively developed business, were necessary; he removed to the 
west corner of Merchants' row and Faneuil Hall square; thence, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 201 

in 1826, to a newly erected building on the opposite corner of 
Merchants' row. This was occupied on lease by himself and by 
the firm of James Boyd & Sons. It was afterwards purchased by 
Mr. James Boyd, subsequently sold to the Faneuil Hall Bank. The 
location of the business was changed in 1874 to No. 9 Federal street. 
For many years they were engaged in making military equipments, 
under contract with the United States Ordnance Department. For 
this branch he obtained a patent, Nov. 19, 1833, for a folio-extension 
knapsack. He became a member of the volunteer fire department of 
Boston, which was largely composed of young men engaged in pro- 
fessional, mechanical, and mercantile pursuits, and he soon rose to a 
commanding position. 

At the Beacon-street fire one of the memorable conflagrations 
of Boston he was the second foreman of Hero No. 6, and later 
the foreman of Brooks No. n, a company noted for its efficiency, 
located on Franklin street, near the centre of the mercantile section 
of the city. He first suggested the organization of the Charitable As- 
sociation of the Boston Fire Department, drew up its constitution and 
by-laws, which were adopted, with slight modifications of two articles. 

He was the president of the board of trustees of the asso- 
ciation, and on his retirement from office, in 1829, resolutions were 
passed by the members of the association expressing their high 
appreciation of his services. This was the first association ever 
organized in this country for the relief of firemen suffering injury- 
received while in the discharge of their duties ; it was the model for 
its successors in New York and elsewhere. 

In 1835 Mr. Boyd was elected to the Massachusetts Legisla- 
ture. One of the most important bills considered at the session 
was the one for the suppression of riots, suggested by the burning 
and destruction of the Ursuline Convent, at Charlestown, Mass., by 
a mob, in 1834. Mr. Boyd proposed an amendment to this bill, the 
adoption of which he urged by a stirring speech. It attracted much 
attention, and was published verbatim et literatim in the " Columbian 
Sentinel," then a leading political journal. Subsequently the princi- 
ples enunciated therein were accepted as equitable. 



202 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

On the i /th of March, 1837, he delivered an oration at the 
Masonic Temple before the Charitable Irish Society. It was a 
product of love for his native land, a loyal utterance of gratitude, 
no less patriotic, true, and hearty, for his adopted country. He 
denounced strongly the principles of that snake-like political move- 
ment of the Native- American party, so sudden in its inception, and 
more rapid and complete in failure. His able article which ap- 
pealed to the " sober second thought" of the people in the Boston 
" Atlas," the organ of the local Whig party, reviewed the message 
of Governor Gardner, and was editorially quoted as " able, well put, 
intelligent, and suggestive." Its sentiments were such as are now 
accepted by fair-minded men as to the rights and relations of our 
adopted fellow-citizens. 

In 1838 Mr. Boyd established a branch house in New Orleans. 
His second son, James Patten, who had served him for five years as 
clerk, entered into partnership with him, and managed the New 
Orleans house until, at his death, May 30, 1843, the branch was 
discontinued. 

In April, 1843, Mr. Boyd visited Indiana, to inspect the cannel- 
coal mines, of Cannelton. He bought an interest in the American 
Cannel Company. 

His son Frederick went out first as clerk, afterwards as partner 
with his father, and became manager, a position which he occupied 
until about 1860. Mr. Boyd continued to cooperate with the company 
in mining and cotton manufacturing at Cannelton until 1852. He 
visited the town frequently, encouraged the enterprises of the popu- 
lation, and raised funds for the erection of its churches and schools. 

He retired from active business about 1852; his wife survived 
him nearly nineteen years. Both are buried in Mt. Auburn Ceme- 
tery, of which Mr. Boyd was one of the original incorporators. 
According to the Mt. Auburn register of interments, on the 6th of 
July, 1832, an infant child of James Boyd was buried in Lot 182, 
Mountain avenue. It was the first burial made in the cemetery. Of 
their family of eleven children but three are living. 

Francis, born May 2, 1816, was educated in the Boston Grammar- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 203 

schools and at the English High School, from which he graduated in 
1831; he received his mercantile training in the office of Josiah 
Bradlee & Co., one of the old merchant firms of Boston. In 1840 
Francis established the commission and shipping house of Boyd & 
Frothingham. Frederick, born April 29, 1824, has been referred to. 
John Curry, born April 25, 1820, succeeded his father as senior mem- 
ber of the firm. He, with Alexander, born Feb. 13, 1830, composed 
the firm known as James Boyd & Sons. John Curry died May 12, 
1862. Alexander succeeded him, and he formed a co-partnership 
with Michael J. Ward, who had been employed in the store as clerk 
from boyhood. 

On Aug. 30, 1859, John Curry obtained a patent for his inven- 
tion of copper-riveted fire-engine hose, made of a heavy woven 
fabric of cotton with India-rubber or other water-proof material. 

Not a note or claim against the house of James Boyd or James 
Boyd & Sons was ever dishonored during its existence of nearly sixty 
years. 

Three other of the children died when quite young. Those 
who reached maturity are James Patten, born May 16, 1818. 
William, born Dec. 3, 1822, learned the saddlery and harness trade, 
became a partner with his father; died Sept. 19, 1847. Margaret 
Curry, born Sept. 8, 1 826, married Edward Wyman, of Boston ; she 
died on March 22, 1854. Jane Louisa, born Sept. I, 1833, died on 
Oct. 14, 1857. 

James Boyd wrote much and delivered many public speeches. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



REPRESENTATIVE MEN OF OUR OWN 

TIMES. 



SKETCHES OF REPRESENTATIVE MEN OF OUR 

OWN TIMES. 



JOHN BOYLE O'REILLY. 

" I hate his Irish Nationalism, but I love his character and his 
poetry. He is your foremost man in America." This is a scholarly 
Anglo-American's estimate of John Boyle O'Reilly, the brilliant Irish 
patriot, poet, journalist, and orator. Thus regarded by a repre- 
sentative political opponent, who shall estimate his place in the hearts 
of that great constituency, coextensive not alone with America, but 
with the English speech, who love as life itself the cause he so 
worthily stands for? 

John Boyle O'Reilly was born at Dowth Castle, County Meath, 
Ireland, on June 28, 1844. His father, William David O'Reilly, was 
master of the Netterville Institution, and was a fine scholar with a 
strong mathematical bent. His mother, Eliza Boyle, was nearly 
related to Col. John Allen, a famous name among the Irish rebels of 
'98. He commanded a company in the French legion in the siege of 
Astorga, and risked his life to plant the French flag on the ramparts. 
The fine literary taste of this gifted mother became talent, nay, 
genius, in the son. Her passionate patriotism was reproduced in him 
intensified. Some of John Boyle O'Reilly's sweetest poems are of 
his much-loved and unforgotten mother, who suffered with his 
dangers and sorrows, but was not spared to enjoy his triumphs. She 
died while he was in prison; and shall we err in believing that 
anxiety for her favorite son, the successive shocks of his arrest, trial, 
and death-sentence, had a share in bringing her to a premature grave? 

But we anticipate: Young O'Reilly had from his father that 
thorough training in the foundation studies by which Old-World lads 

(207) 



208 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

of fourteen are in point of real education ahead of American boys 
of eighteen. At an early age the future journalist learned type- 
setting in the office of the Drogheda " Argus." Afterwards we find 
him earning his living as a short-hand reporter on newspapers in 
various English cities. 

He joined the Fenian movement at its inception. " A desperate 
game, that Fenianism ! " one said to him a few years ago. " Yes," 
he answered, with thoughtful face and glowing eyes ; " they could 
only say to us, ' Come, boys, it is prison or death ; but it is for 
Ireland,' and we came." And he looked as if he would gladly go 
the same perilous road again at the same appeal. 

In 1863 O'Reilly returned to Ireland and enlisted in the Tenth 
Hussars, in which he spent three years, furthering the revolutionary 
cause and mastering the art of war for future use. In 1866, on the 
secret evidence of the informer, he was arrested in Dublin, tried by 
special military commission for treason, in company with Sergeant- 
Major McCarthy and Corporal Thomas Chambers, and sentenced to 
twenty years' penal servitude. For the next two years he, with the 
two others named, was an inmate of the imperial prisons of England 
at Pentonville, Millbank, Chatham, Portsmouth, Dartmoor, and Port- 
land. In October, 1 867, he was transported to the penal colony of 
Western Australia, with sixty other political prisoners. In February, 
1869, he escaped from the penal colony in a boat, assisted by the 
Rev. Patrick McCabe, a Catholic priest stationed in his district, and 
some other devoted Irish-Australians. He was picked up at sea, 
after many hardships ashore and afloat, by the American, whaling 
bark " Gazelle," commanded by Captain David R. Gifford, of New 
Bedford, who treated him with the greatest kindness for the six 
months he remained on board, and who lent him twenty guineas (all 
the money he had with him) when they separated off the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Captain Gifford put O'Reilly on board another American ship 
(the " Sapphire," of Boston, bound to Liverpool), off the Cape. 
This vessel carried him safely to England, where, by the aid of her 
Yankee officers, he was shipped as an American sailor on board the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 209 

"Bombay," of Bath, Me. (Capt. Frank Jordan), which landed him 
in Philadelphia in November, 1 869. He was twenty-five years of age, 
strong and hopeful; but he did not know a single soul on the 
American continent. 

Need we say how O'Reilly gratefully kept the thought of Captain 
Gifford in his heart. His first book, " Songs from the Southern 
Seas," published in Boston in 1873, bears a touching dedication to 
Capt. David R. Gififord. The saddest part of it was, however, that 
the book reached his dwelling just two hours after his death. " A 
Tribute Too Late," wrote O'Reilly, at the head of one of the most 
touching memorials that was ever penned. 

O'Reilly landed in Philadelphia on Nov. 23, 1869, and made 
application for American citizenship the same day, at the United 
States Court in that city. He made but a brief stay here ; then went 
on to New York, where he gave a lecture and wrote some articles 
for the press. Thence he came to Boston on the 2d of January, 
1870. He accompanied the Fenian raid into Canada in the same 
year, and sent descriptive letters thereof to the Boston papers. In 
the summer of 1870 he secured editorial employment on the "Pilot; " 
and, in his intervals of leisure, began to give to the world, in poems 
of singular strength, depth, and beauty, the results of the action, 
observation, and endurance of the crowded years of his short ex- 
istence. His Australian poems glowed with color and throbbed with 
life. He was recognized at once as a new and original presence in 
the literary world. Horace Greeley was much taken with O'Reilly's 
personality and work, and some of the latter's best narrative poems 
appeared in the New York " Tribune." The " Dark Blue," the mag- 
azine of the University of Oxford, England, gladly welcomed him to 
its exclusive pages, till it found out that he was a Fenian and an ex- 
political convict. He became a contributor to the " Galaxy," 
" Scribner's," the " Atlantic Monthly," " Harper's," and others of the 
best American literary publications. 

Emphatically a man's man, his frank, earnest, and attractive 
personality, his broad humanity, added to his eminent literary gifts, 
drew to him the admiration and friendship of Wendell Phillips, John 



210 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Greenleaf Whittier, William Lloyd Garrison, and others of God's 
noblemen in New England. It is pleasant to add here that this 
Irishman, who himself was the victim of tyranny, has a heart for 
oppressed people everywhere, and has won in the affections of the 
colored people of America, by his outspoken and sympathetic advo- 
cacy of their interests, a place very near the three great names above 
mentioned. 

John Boyle O'Reilly has done much in his own single person 
to destroy the anti-Irish prejudices that lingered in New England 
long after they had practically disappeared from the rest of the 
country, as the snow-drifts linger in the clefts of her stony-hearted 
old hills. He has made plain to the nation, as well as to the 
rather timid and self-distrustful New England Irish themselves, that 
the least part of the Irish strength in that section is in mere force 
of numbers. 

In 1876 Mr. O'Reilly, already for some years editor of the 
"Pilot," became its proprietor, with Archbishop Williams. His 
paper is universally regarded as a foremost exponent of Irish- 
American thought, and as one of the stanchest and most capable 
defenders of Catholic interests. A live newspaper, it has unique 
features of literary and domestic interest; and such competent judges 
as the New York " Independent " and the Springfield " Republican " 
declare that some of the best poetry of the day appears in the 
" Pilot." In journalism, as out of it, Mr. O'Reilly is a faithful friend 
and a courteous and magnanimous opponent. 

In the midst of his journalistic work and every detail of his 
paper has the benefit of his personal supervision Mr. O'Reilly has 
brought out four volumes of poems, as follows : " Songs of the 
Southern Seas," 1873; "Songs, Legends, and Ballads," 1878; 
" Statues in the Block," 1881 ; and " In Bohemia," 1886. All these 
books have gone through many editions. 

This is not the place for a critical estimate of Mr. O'Reilly's 
rank as a poet. The critical mind is debauched in this day of literary 
small things by the habit of solemn contemplation and silly Wer- 
praise of trifles. We turn our backs on the great literary standards, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 211 

put on our keenest magnifying-glasses, and spend precious hours in 
ascertaining the relative size of a crowd of pigmies. The great 
words " poet," " genius," " literary immortality," and the like, are 
flying about with such childish recklessness and lack of sense of pro- 
portion, that when a true poet, a real genius, appears, we are all out 
of language. Let us be honest. We have as yet no great poets in 
America. But of the small number of our true poets, John Boyle 
O'Reilly is one of the two or three who have the divine fire, whose 
words are in the hearts of the people, and who give promise of 
becoming great. 

He has written a novel, "Moondyne," based on his Australian 
experience, which is dramatic, forceful, as all his work is. It has 
had seven large editions. He has also edited a number of works, 
and prefaced not a few, among the latter George Makepeace Towle's 
"Young People's History of Ireland" (Lee & Shepard, Boston), and 
Justin McCarthy's " Ireland's Cause and England's Parliament," just 
published by the Ticknors, Boston. He has several works in 
preparation, among them "The Country with a Roof," an alle- 
gory, illustrating the defects in the American social system ; "The 
Evolution of Straight Weapons," which covers the whole ground of 
athletics ; and a work on the material resources of Ireland. 

For the past decade Mr. O'Reilly has been in great demand as a 
lecturer, and has been the chosen spokesman of the city of his home 
on some notable occasions. The best, perhaps, of his orations is 
" The Common Citizen Soldier," delivered in Boston on Memorial 
day, 1886. 

He is a famous athlete, and the serious, humane, and patriotic 
purpose which underlies all the doings of this man, who is making the 
most of his life, can be found even in his pastimes. 

Mr. O'Reilly is one of the founders, and was the president, of 
the Papyrus Club, which brings together a rather striking group of 
authors, artists, musicians, and actors ; and he is a member of the St. 
Botolph, the Round Table, and other literary clubs of the modern 
Athens. He is blessed with a charming wife and children. " Her 
rare and loving judgment has been a standard I have tried to reach," 



212 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

writes the poet, inscribing to this gifted wife his " Songs, Legends, 
and Ballads." 

What is the secret of the marvellous success of this man, not yet 
at his prime, who, little more than a decade and a half ago, was a 
friendless, penniless, political refugee ? It is not native genius alone, 
nor patience and method, those best allies of genius, nor vigorous 
health, nor an impressive and pleasing personality. It is sterling 
character, which, when all is said and done, must ever outshine the 
dazzle of natural gifts or shrewd achievements. 

" It is sad to see the man overshadowed by the artisan." " I 
have never seen," said the subject of this sketch, " a human being in 
whose individuality I did not find something to respect." That 
earnest and reverent sympathy with all humanity is the key-note of 
his character and the secret of his wide-reaching influence, and the 
popular affection which he won in overflowing measure. He is 
generous ; he has a long memory for kindnesses and a short one for 
injuries ; he delights in others' gifts and successes. The literary men 
and women, the journalists, artists, musicians, and business men who 
owe their first fortunate impulse to his direction, or who have had 
his substantial aid over rough places, would make, if gathered 
together, a large and respectable assemblage. It is much to say of 
any man what is true of him, that he is most loved and honored by 
those who have known him longest and nearest. 

And now, our last word of him must be as our first has been 
of his work for Ireland. Through voice, through pen, through 
worldly substance, through the flame enkindled from his own heart 
in the hearts of others, he has labored unweariedly all these years for 
the cause of Irish freedom r that holy cause, for which he offered 
life itself when life was new and sweet. " For Ireland," that is the 
thread of gold which runs through all he writes and does. 



" For thee the past and future days ; 

For thee the will to trample wrong and strike for slaves ; 
For thee the hope that ere mine arm be weak 
And ere my heart be dry may close the strife 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 213 

In which thy colors shall be borne through fire, 
And all thy griefs washed out in manly blood, 
And I shall see thee crowned and bound with love, 
Thy strong sons round thee guarding thee." 

May the patriot-poet's hope soon be realized, and may God 
spare him many years thereafter to the causes that need him and the 
hearts that love him ! 

PATRICK A. COLLINS. 

He is the foremost Democratic legislator in New England, 
and possesses many of the strongly marked characteristics of his 
race, combined with those of the true American citizen. His ability, 
both at the bar and in public life, has attracted the attention of all 
classes of citizens throughout the United States. His eloquence 
on the platform has been admired and praised by press and people 
at home and abroad. As a lawyer, he has distinguished himself by 
his successful management of many important cases which have 
involved large interests. 

The story of his life is eventful. He was born near Fermoy, 
County Cork, Ireland, March 12, 1844; the same year, by the 
way, in which his compatriots, John Boyle O'Reilly and John E. 
Fitzgerald, were born. His parents were Bartholomew and Mary 
Leahey Collins. Patrick was the youngest of a large family, and his 
father died when he was an infant. 

In 1848 his mother immigrated to America; first settled in 
Boston, afterwards in Chelsea. Young Collins attended the public 
schools of the latter place, but at the early age of twelve years 
obtained employment as an errand-boy in the office of a Boston 
lawyer. He left there to work in a Chelsea store, where he remained 
during the following winter. His brief experience in the law-office 
kindled within him a desire for the legal profession, and doubtless 
shaped his later course. 

The family subsequently removed to the West, and at fourteen 
years of age he was delving in the coal-fields of Ohio; eight 



214 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

years later he was an upholsterer in Boston, and a member of the 
Massachusetts Legislature; at twenty-six years, a member of the 
Massachusetts State Senate, to which body he was reflected the fol- 
lowing year ; and in his fortieth year he was elected to Congress. 
He began life under the most unpromising circumstances : from the 
law-office and store, to the farm, coal-mine, machine-shop, and 
grindstone-mill of Ohio, he rose gradually, but positively, by hard 
work, patient and steady application, extensive reading, judicious 
cultivation, and careful development of innate talent, to an honorable 
and useful position. His sympathies have always been with the 
working-people, he having enjoyed their few attendant advantages 
and suffered their many hardships. In 1866 he joined the Fenian 
Brotherhood, serving the cause with voice and pen, and did effective 
work as an organizer. 

He began the study of law in the following year. In 1870 he 
enjoyed the unique distinction of being the youngest member then 
elected to the State Senate. The excitement and fascination of politi- 
cal life, however, did not distract him from the study of law, as he 
graduated with honors from the Harvard Law School with the class 
of 1871. He was admitted to the Bar the same year, and has prac- 
tised extensively ever since. During his service at the State House 
he became identified with most liberal and beneficent legislation, 
notably .the ten-hour law, admission of Catholic clergymen to re- 
formatory, correctional, and charitable institutions, abolition of a 
distinct oath for Catholics, the improvement and development of 
public parks in Boston, and also legislation favorable towards secur- 
ing equal rights for foreign-born citizens. He was for many years 
a member of the Democratic City Central Committee of Boston, 
perfecting and strengthening the efficiency of that organization 
during his term as president, in 18734. He was for a time Judge- 
Advocate of the First Brigade, M.V.M. ; and was appointed by 
Governor Gaston as Judge-Advocate-General of Massachusetts in 
1875, whence comes his title of General. He was twice the 
Democratic candidate for State Auditor, and in 1881 was nomi- 
nated for the position of Attorney-General. He was elected at 




X. 




BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 215 

large from Massachusetts to the National Democratic Conventions 
of 1876 and 1880. 

In the latter year he became a member of the Democratic State 
Committee, and has been its chairman since 1884. General Collins 
was elected to represent the Fourth Massachusetts District in Con- 
gress in 1882, reelected in 1884, and although early in 1886 he 
issued a letter declining to be considered as a candidate, he was, 
nevertheless, unanimously renominated and reelected that year. 

Notwithstanding his activity in American politics, much of his 
time and ability have been devoted to the cause of Ireland. His 
connection with the Fenian Brotherhood, from 1862 to 1870, secre- 
tary of the Philadelphia Convention, chairman of a subsequent one, 
and the distinction of being elected the first president of the Irish 
National Land League of America, all bespeak his loyalty. 

Charles Stewart Parnell, the great Irish leader, has repeatedly 
thanked General Collins for his valuable assistance rendered to suf- 
fering Erin, and at the League headquarters in Dublin his portrait 
hangs beside that of Parnell, to speak for the Irish in America. 

In the summer of 1887 General Collins visited Ireland and 
England. He was received with a perfect ovation by the people 
everywhere, his fame having preceded him. In London a compli- 
mentary dinner was tendered him by Parnell, at which all members 
of the Irish Pcrliamentary party, as well as English and Scotch 
members, were \ resent. He was also banqueted by the Lord Mayor 
of Dublin and Corporation, and the great and rare distinction of the 
freedom of the cit> r for distinguished services was conferred upon 
him. In Cork he was also received with every mark of honor and 
esteem. He was an honored guest at the Ancients' ceremony of 
casting the dart, and at the festivities following. 

In 1888 he peremptorily declined the use of his name for con- 
gressional honors. He was a member of the Judiciary Committee 
during his whole service in Congress, and was prominently engaged 
with many proposed acts of legislation ; among others, the Bank- 
ruptcy Bill. He headed the Massachusetts delegation to the National 
Democratic Convention at St. Louis in 1888; he was unanimously 



216 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

chosen permanent chairman, and presented with the silver gavel 
which he wielded on that occasion. He possesses the magnetic 
qualities that typify our most eminent public speakers ; his command- 
ing presence, dignified and pleasing, is no less attractive than the 
tones of his resonant voice, which is clearly heard in the largest halls. 
His style of oratory is forceful, terse, and convincing, impressing an 
audience with the sincerity of an honest man whose utterances are 
full of good purposes, supported by logical proofs, and devoid of 
false coloring. General Collins has resided at Mt. Ida, Dorchester, 
since 1887, having removed there from South Boston. There, with 
his devoted wife and three children, his best days of peace and 
happiness are enjoyed within their home. 

HUGH O'BRIEN. 

Hon. Hugh O'Brien enjoys the proud distinction of having been 
elevated to the position of Mayor of Boston four successive years. 
During his administration he performed his duties fearlessly, faith- 
fully, and well. Born in Ireland, July 13, 1827, his childhood was 
passed there until he was five years old, when he was brought to 
America, and was sent to the Old Grammar School on Fort Hill, in 
Boston, where he graduated. Young O'Brien was as notional and 
studious as the typical Boston boy of his day. Boston ideas grew 
with him, and, later in life, the strong part which th< / formed in his 
mentality was made manifest in his sagacious publ'c deeds. 

The solid foundation of his education, which was laid at school, 
was builded upon in a way that should teach a valuable lesson to the 
youths of to-day. The Public Library was his sanctum sanctorum. 
He browsed among the books, eagerly read useful works, especially 
historical, biographical, and statistical books, which he studied with 
avidity. He entered the office of the Boston " Courier," to learn the 
printer's trade, at the age of twelve years, and made rapid progress 
while there. Later we find him in the book and job printing office 
of Messrs. Turtle, Dennett, & Chisholm, on School street, where he 
became foreman at the age of fifteen. He remained there several 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 217 

years, until he originated and published the " Shipping and Com- 
mercial List," and has always been its editor. 

The experience which Mr. O'Brien received while in newspaper 
work would school any young man to a high degree who was desirous 
to advance in life. Mr. O'Brien's youthful life was a compeer to his 
manhood : diligent, persevering, determined, full of hope and pur- 
pose, combined with integrity, efficiency, and a steady application to 
study. These manly characteristics have made him an honored 
and respected man. Educational matters, literary societies, and 
charitable undertakings have always found in him a ready patron 
and a strong supporter. Mr. O'Brien placed the " Shipping and 
Commercial List" in a commanding position before the mercantile 
and commercial markets. Merchants relied upon it for accurate 
trade reference. The first annual reports of Boston's trade and com- 
merce were issued by Mr. O'Brien ; that volume has been adopted for 
years by the Merchants' Exchange. 

He met the wealthiest and most prominent merchants of Boston 
while engaged on his newspaper work. These gentlemen, whose 
intimacy with him enabled them to gain an insight into his methods 
and study his character, during the past forty years, praise him highly 
for his honesty, business sagacity, and successful management of 
affairs. While the city's population increased from 75,000 inhab- 
itants to over 400,000, Mr. O'Brien familiarized himself with the 
many changes in business arrangements, and the almost countless 
enterprises which have been managed in Boston. He has been the 
custodian of trust-funds for many purposes, which have been placed 
in his hands by prominent business men. He has kept sacred every 
trust His ability as a financier is unquestionable, and as president of 
the Union Institution for Savings, treasurer of the Franklin Typo- 
graphical Society, and a director in various charitable institutions, his 
record is excellent. His natural abilities and business training fitted 
him for public life. He attracted the attention of the people, and in 
1875 was elected to the Board of Aldermen, when the Boston 
" Advertiser" referred to him as " well known in the community, and 
has the respect and confidence of every one." He served as alderman 



218 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

during seven years, from 1874, and he was chairman of the Board 
four years. 

The people scrutinized his public actions while on the Board, 
and approved of his course throughout. His official attention was 
always promptly given to all matters relating to the welfare of 
Boston or to the people thereof. Good pay for laborers, purification 
and improvement of the water-supply, a useful system of parks, 
sanitary reforms, schools, abolition of the poll-tax, and low taxation, 
all received his earnest advocacy and support. His successful efforts 
are well known to all Bostonians. Alderman O'Brien was elected 
Mayor in December, 1884, for the year 1885. The old city charter 
was in force, and his splendid work under that instrument was full of 
serviceable deeds. Mayor O'Brien's sterling qualities of mind and 
heart were efficiently applied to stimulating and accomplishing the 
work of good government in its various branches. The citizens ap- 
preciated his services, and substantially sanctioned his management, 
by reelecting him Mayor, to serve during the years 1885, 1886, 1887, 
and 1888. Anew city charter was established during his adminis- 
tration, which made him directly responsible for the honest and 
efficient regulation of the city's business. He proved equal to the 
task, and was much admired and praised by the press and public for 
his meritorious achievements. His public speaking is of the earnest, 
forcible, and argumentative style, and his honest utterances and solid 
reasoning often carry conviction to his hearers where the brilliant 
orator would fail to produce the same effect. 

The cause of labor and the men who toil have ever found a 
champion in Mayor O'Brien, and while most eloquent when defending 
their interests, the memories of his own past years of labor have 
ever been present to his mind and impelled him to demand justice for 
the working-men of to-day. In November, 1888, the people again 
nominated him for Mayor ; he received a large vote, but was defeated 
by the Republican candidate, Mr. Thomas N. Hart. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 219 



PATRICK SARSFIELD GILMORE. 

Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore, musician and bandmaster, was born 
in Ballygar, County Galway, Ireland, Dec. 25, 1829. He received a 
common-school education in his native place from one of the Irish 
schoolmasters of that period. Like most boys who were born on 
the Emerald Isle, his school-days did not last many years, and while 
quite young he was sent to work. He was first employed by a whole- 
sale grocer, with whom he served an apprenticeship of seven years. 
He displayed an early liking for drums and fifes, and was looked 
upon by those who knew him as a musical prodigy. Every spare 
moment after working-hours was devoted to musical instruments, and 
by the time that he was sixteen years of age he was a member of the 
Athlone Amateur Band, and had composed music of a military kind 
for his townsmen. At the age of nineteen, however, he sailed for 
America, and landed in Boston. In 1848, a few weeks after his 
arrival here, he became a cornet player for the Charlestown Band. 
A short time afterward he was engaged as leader of the Suffolk 
Band, succeeding Edward Kendall, the bugler. Later he made 
another change, this time to join the Brigade Band, and take the 
place of John Bartlett, who had held the position of trumpeter. 
Finally, he left Boston for a while, and accepted a position made 
vacant by Jerome Smith, of the Salem Band. The young musician 
had by this period made a reputation as the E-flat cornet player of 
the country. He remained with the Salem Band for about three 
years, and while there conceived the idea of fathering the Boston 
Common Fourth-of-July concerts, also the promenade concerts after- 
ward given at Music Hall. In 1858 he returned to Boston, where his 
projects were worked out. During the Civil War he enlisted in the 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment Band, going with the Burn- 
side Expedition to North Carolina. In about a year the band was 
mustered out of service and returned to Boston, where he aided in 
the organization of a number of bands to be attached to the brigades, 
under general orders from the War Department. Governor Andrew 



220 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

also commissioned him as Bandmaster-General and Chief Musician 
of the State of Massachusetts, clothing him with the authority to 
enlist musicians for military service. He recruited bands for the 
Department of the Gulf, under command of Major-Gerieral Banks, 
and, upon request of the State authorities, went in charge of those 
bands to New Orleans. While there, General Banks gave him the 
position of director of all the musical organizations connected 
with the department. At New Orleans he was as energetic as 
ever, and projected the plan of having a chorus of ten thousand 
school children and five hundred musicians, with infantry and 
artillery accompaniments, in a grand national concert, to aid 
in the inauguration of Michael Hahn, the first governor of 
Louisiana elected under the Union administration, March 4, 1864, 
just before the close of the war. Notwithstanding the prejudice 
of the parents, the " Star- Spangled Banner" was sung by ten 
thousand Southern children, and the success of the affair in 
every way was made complete. Later he returned to Boston and 
inaugurated a series of concerts, introducing to the public Madame 
Legrange, Gazzamuyi, Johannsen, Frederich, Guerrabella, Carlotta, 
Patti, Adelaide Phillips, Camilla Urso, Teresa Carreno, Brignoli, 
Stigelli, Carl Formes, and others. In 1 868 he was invited to arrange 
a ball and series of concerts at Crosby's Opera House, Chicago. In 
1869 he carried through successfully the great National Peace Jubilee 
in Boston, at which there was a chorus of ten thousand voices and 
one thousand musical instruments, the attendance numbering about 
sixty thousand persons daily. He also engineered with masterly skill 
the gigantic Music Jubilee of All Nations, 1872, which was partici- 
pated in by a chorus of twenty thousand voices and two thousand 
musical instruments. Never before in the world's history had there 
been such a gathering of musicians, and the attendance was estimated 
at about one hundred and twenty thousand daily. The executive 
committee gave Mr. Gilmore $50,000, as a present, at the close of 
the jubilee. About 1873 he left Boston and took up his residence 
in New York, where he organized the Twenty-second Regiment 
Band, which is now considered the best military band in the country. 






GOV. THOMAS TALBOT. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 221 

In recent years the band, under the direction of its accomplished 
band-master, has given concerts in all the principal cities of this 
country and Europe, and during the summer months of each year 
render a high order of sea-shore music at Manhattan Beach, New 
York. 

GOV. THOMAS TALBOT. 

Thomas Talbot was born in Cambridge, N.Y., Sept. 7, 1818 ; died 
at Billerica, Mass., Oct. 6, 1885. His parents were both natives of 
Ireland, who, shortly after marriage, immigrated to this country. The 
father was a weaver, and first obtained employment at his trade in 
Cambridge, N.Y. The family moved about from place to place,, and 
finally located in Northampton, Mass., where the subject of this sketch 
was sent to work, at the age of thirteen, in the carding-room of a 
woollen factory in the town. When he had earned money enough he 
secured what schooling privileges the vicinity allowed, studying fully 
as faithfully as he had worked. In the meantime, two of his 
brothers, Charles P. and Edward, had embarked in the business of 
the manufacture of broadcloths, in Williamsburg, and the family 
subsequently removed to that place, where Thomas accepted a 
situation in their mill. Through assiduous attention to his duties, 
and a marked fidelity to the advancement of the interests of his 
employers, he rose rapidly in their esteem and confidence, and, 
when twenty years of age, was given the overseership of the finishing- 
room. During the winter terms of 1838 and 1839 young Talbot 
managed to attend Cunningham Academy, which was the only high- 
school experience, and the last educational opportunity of the kind, 
that he was favored with. In the spring of 1839 he went to Pitts- 
field, where he worked for a short time as a finisher of broadcloths 
for the Pontoosuc Manufacturing Company. In December of that 
year his brother Charles removed from Lowell to North Billerica, 
rented an old grist-mill, and transferred his business of grinding 
dyestuffs to that place. Shortly after, he invited Thomas to join 
him, and the brothers associated themselves in business, under 



222 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

the style of C. P. Talbot & Co. The business was a success 
from the start, and in 1851 the firm was enabled to purchase 
the water-power of the Middlesex Canal Company of that town. 
This investment proving to be a very advantageous one, the 
brothers increased their business in 1857 by the erection of a new 
mill for the manufacture of woollen flannels. In 1848 Mr. Talbot 
was united in marriage to Miss Mary Rogers, of Billerica, who died 
three years later. He remained a widower until 1855, when he 
formed a second union, with Miss Isabella W. Hayden. Mr. Talbot 
first entered public life when thirty-three years old, and from that 
time he was often called upon to fill positions of honor and trust, 
until he became the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts. At the fall election in 1851 he was chosen to represent 
the Billerica district in the Legislature, and in 1852 he was elected 
as a member of the convention to revise the constitution of the State, 
in both of which positions he made an excellent record. In 1 864 
Mr. Talbot was elected a member of the Executive Council. For 
five consecutive years he held that honorable position in association 
with Governors Andrew, Bullock, and Claflin. There he enjoyed 
the most abundant opportunities for acquainting himself with all the 
affairs of the State, and in those years proved himself to be one of 
the best of councillors. In 1872 he received the Republican nomi- 
nation for Lieutenant-Governor, the ticket being headed by Hon. 
William B. Washburn. The ticket came off victorious, and Mr. 
Talbot was reflected the following year. During the session of the 
Legislature of 1874 Governor Washburn was chosen to fill the vacancy 
in the Senate of the United States caused by the death of Mr. 
Sumner, and from the ist of May in that year until Governor Gaston 
was inaugurated, Lieutenant-Governor Talbot was the acting-gov- 
efnor of the State. Soon after he assumed the duties of the guber- 
natorial office, the ten-hcur law was presented to him for approval, 
and he readily gave his signature to the act, which has since been the 
law of the State. For the next three years he devoted himself 
principally to his manufacturing business. In 1878 Mr. Talbot was 
nominated by the Republicans of the State as their candidate for 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 223 

Governor, and in a bitter political contest defeated his opponent, 
Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, the Democratic candidate. The record of 
Governor Talbot's administration was a brilliant one, and in every 
public act he showed himself in favor of economy and retrenchment, 
and in strong opposition to all unnecessary expenditure of public 
money. He also approved the bill to extend to public charitable 
and reformatory institutions the provisions of an act of 1875, which 
provided the inmates liberty of worship according to the dictates of 
their conscience. After rendering efficient service to the State as 
governor during 1879, Mr. Talbot retired to private life, and con- 
tinued his usefulness in the community as mill-owner and em- 
ployer. 

THE MILMORES. 

Joseph Milmore, sculptor, was born in Sligo, Ireland, Oct. 22, 
1842, and died in Geneva, Switzerland, Jan. 10, 1886. His residence 
in Boston dates back to the time of his infancy, and he was a pupil 
at the Brimmer and Quincy Grammar schools. During his boyhood 
he was apprenticed to a cabinet-maker. He disliked the occupation, 
and afterwards became a marble-cutter, and developed an admirable 
taste for architectural work. He and his brother Martin associated 
themselves, and together they executed the " Sphinx," now in Mount 
Auburn Cemetery, and designed and executed the statuary on Hor- 
ticultural Hall building in Boston. A large number of soldiers' 
monuments were done by these talented brothers, and they stand in 
many places throughout the country, including the one on Boston 
Common, which cost $80,000, and is the most noteworthy of all. 

Martin Milmore, sculptor, was born in Sligo, Ireland, Sept. 
14, 1844, and died in Boston Highlands, Mass., July 21, 1883. 
He came from Ireland to Boston in 1851, and was taught 
lessons in wood-carving, when quite young, by his elder brother, 
Joseph. Martin graduated from the Latin School in 1860, and 
afterwards entered the studio of Thomas Ball. Many years later 
he established himself in his own studio in Boston. He cut a 
statuette, entitled "Devotion," for the Sanitary Fair in 1863, and 



224 . THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

received the contract from the city for the Soldiers and Sailors' 
Monument on the Common. He then sailed for Rome, where he 
spent some time in study, completing designs for parts of the monu- 
ment while there. It was unveiled in 1877. Mr. Milmore led a 
very busy life while in Rome, modelling the busts of Pope Pius IX., 
Wendell Phillips, Charles Sumner, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and other 
eminent men. He designed the soldiers' monument at Charlestown, 
and also the one at Forest Hills Cemetery. His works include busts 
of Longfellow, Theodore Parker, and George Ticknor, in the Public 
Library, and the large ideal figures, " Ceres," " Flora," and " Pomona," 
in granite, on Horticultural Hall. His bust of Charles Sumner, 
which was presented to George William Curtis by the State of Massa- 
chusetts, after the delivery of the latter's eulogy before the Legislature 
in 1878, has been placed by Mr. Curtis in the Metropolitan Museum. 
Among Milmore's other public works are his statue of " Amer- 
ica," at Fitchburg; his statue of Gen. Sylvanus Thayer, at West 
Point; and the "Weeping Lion," at Waterville, Me. His last work 
was a bust of Daniel Webster, which had been ordered by New 
Hampshire for the State House at Concord. 

HON. WILLIAM PARSONS. 

He was one of the best representatives of the Irish race that 
has crossed the Atlantic to the Western World. By his scholarship, 
vigor of thought, and chastity of expression, he had everywhere 
attracted and captivated the intellectual classes, and with them was 
the accepted favorite of the platform. At the same time his elo- 
quence and genial humor made him a source of universal attraction. 
Everywhere he lectured he was recalled, without a single excep- 
tion. He had the most brilliant record ever achieved in this country 
by any transatlantic literary orator. He was engaged every night 
throughout the lecture season in the different large cities of this 
country, when not bent on European travel. 

He was the only European lecturer who -had held his American 
audiences for a consecutive number of years. For nearly twenty 



BIO GRA PHICA L SKE TCffES. 



years he had regularly come to America, and his rare eloquence 
was welcomed by large audiences in all our cities. He was a 
lecturer of the first order, an orator who ranked with the greatest 
names of the lyceum, eloquent, graceful, learned, witty, and im- 
pressive, an Irishman proud of his country and devoted to her 
cause. 

Mr. Parsons be- 
longed to the ancient 
Protestant house of Par- 
sons, Earls of Rosse, and 
was closely related to the 
well-known constructor 
of the great telescope, 
the late Earl of Rosse, 
president of the British 
Association, whose name 
may be associated with 
those of Franklin, Arago, 
Humbolclt, and the great 
luminaries of the philo- 
sophic fields of science. 
He was born at Clontarf, 
near Dublin, in 1823, and 
received his education at 
the Academy of Edin- 
burgh under Dr. Wil- 
liams, the famous Hom- 
eric scholar, the friend and associate of Sydney Smith, founder of 
"The Edinburgh Review." He graduated at the University of Edin- 
burgh, under Professor Wilson, the " Christopher North" of "Black- 
wood," and the erudite Pillans ; subsequently entering Lincoln's Inn, 
London, to prepare for the bar. He was then engaged on one of 
the leading metropolitan newspapers, and on many occasions con- 
tributed papers of eminent ability to the magazine literature of the 
day. 





22> THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Following the natural bent of his tastes and talents, he devoted 
himself to the lecture platform of Great Britain and Ireland, where 
he at once achieved a signal success, and became, perhaps, the most 
popular public lecturer in the United Kingdom. Meanwhile, the 
national movement taking place for an extension of the franchise, 
eventuating in Mr. Disraeli's bill for household suffrage, Mr. Parsons 
entered the political arena, where he became a stanch supporter of 
the people's rights, and one of the most powerful advocates of the 
reform. Here he attracted the attention of the leading men of the 
popular cause, and of its chief inspirer, John Bright, who was so 
struck by the peculiar force and vivacity of his style as to emphati- 
cally declare that Mr. Parsons' oratory electrified his hearers. The 
Reform League considered him as by far their most effective speaker, 
and always placed him where they anticipated the strongest oppo- 
sition to their views. As an evidence of the appreciation in which 
he was held, he was earnestly solicited to put himself in nomination 
as a candidate for a seat in the British Parliament, to represent one 
of the Yorkshire boroughs. At Bradford, England, he was held the 
champion of the workmen, who frequently testified their gratitude 
for his advocacy of their cause. 

There was a novel power and freshness in his style, eminently 
his own, which rendered it captivating to his hearers ; the treatment 
of his subject, whether literary or political, was picturesque and lucid. 
He had a keen sense of humor and a poetic fancy, and, above all 
an earnest sincerity pervaded the varied graces of an accomplished, 
speaker. Illustration and anecdote were poured forth with consum- 
mate skill, throwing light and shade upon the topic under 
consideration. In the description of natural scenery he was graphic 
in the extreme. In the close and analytical delineation of character 
Mr. Parsons exhibited rare power, and portrayed his principal figures 
in a manner life-like and vivid. 

When but recently arrived, a stranger in this country, he had 
ready acceptance at once yielded to him from the American press f 
vying with the eulogies of the press of their transatlantic brethren. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 227 

The New York " Herald," in its report of his debut in the Cooper 
Institute, said : 

He spoke without notes or manuscript, and with a vigor, fluency, and 
beauty of language that evoked repeated rounds of applause, such as is rarely 
heard in the Cooper Institute. His peroration might very well answer for a classic 
model of scholastic declamation. 

He brought to this country the most cordial commendations 
from distinguished Englishmen and leading British journals. His 
great popularity in the New England States is well known ; in Boston 
he lectured eighty times, and wherever he spoke in the West and 
Middle States, as well as in the East, he was invited to return the 
following season ; and he was repeatedly recalled in the same course. 

Mr. Parsons died in the city of Boston. The deceased passed 
away on the evening of Jan. I, 1888, aged 65 years. Throughout 
the United States the name of " Hon. William Parsons, of Ireland," 
as he was usually announced, was mourned. 

In his last illness, which was brief, confining him only a few 
days, he asked for the services of a Catholic priest, saying, " My 
mother was a Catholic, and I want to die in her religion." He was 
attended by a good priest, who was also his old friend, Rev. Denis 
O'Callaghan, of St. Augustine's Church, South Boston, whom he 
wished to hear his confession ; and before his death he received from 
his hand the sacraments of the Church. 

PATRICK DONAHOE. 

Patrick Donahoe, the founder of the "Pilot" and the Nestor of 
Catholic journalism in New England, was born in Munnery, Parish 
of Kilmore, County Cavan, Ireland, March 17, 1814. He came to 
this country in 1825, and located in Boston. After a few years' 
schooling here, while still in his teens he entered the printing-office 
of the " Columbian Sentinel," where he acquired the art of type- 
setting and other branches of the business. The prejudice was very 
great against Irish Catholics in those days, and amounted to almost 



228 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

an exclusion from the social circle. There were but few Catholics in 
Boston at that time, and only one little church to accommodate the 
Catholics for miles around. In no way discouraged by the prevail- 
ing proscription, however, the youth fought his way until he reached 
manhood, all the time having in view the establishment of a paper 
to defend his religion and race ; and the opportunity finally arrived. 

" The Jesuit," a paper established by Bishop Fenwick, of 
Boston, was about to be discontinued, and Mr. Donahoe, with Mr. 
Devereaux, secured the paper, and changed the name to the 
"Literary and Catholic Sentinel." This paper did not prove 
successful, however, and was subsequently abandoned. Repulsed, 
but not defeated, Messrs. Donahoe and Devereaux, in a few years 
later, again began the publication of another Catholic paper, the 
Boston " Pilot," which, under his management, reached a popularity 
probably not surpassed by any Catholic or Irish paper on the 
continent. At the breaking out of the Civil War Mr. Donahoe took 
an active part in the organization of the Irish troops for the defence 
of the Union. He was treasurer of the funds for equipping and 
preparing the gallant old Irish Ninth Massachusetts Regiment, com- 
manded by Col. Thomas Cass, for service, and on the day of their 
departure presented the regiment with ten bags of gold, each con- 
taining one hundred gold dollars, one gold dollar for each man. 

He also assisted in the formation of the Faugh-a-Ballagh, 
Twenty-eighth Massachusetts Regiment, and aided the boys at 
Camp Cameron, Cambridge, during the early period of the war. 
His paper, the " Pilot," also took a leading part in encouraging and 
sustaining the Federal cause. 

Mr. Donahoe accumulated a large fortune, notwithstanding he 
gave away large sums to various charitable purposes; to one 
institution alone, in Boston, he gave not far from ten thousand 
dollars. In 1872, St. John's Church, on Moore street, this city, 
was offered for sale, the congregation having purchased another 
on Hanover street. He saw the great need of a school in that 
section of the city, and purchased the building, and made it over to 
the Rt. Rev. Bishop Williams. On this estate he paid some six or 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. * 229 

seven thousand dollars, interest on the original purchase, $20,000. 
His intention was to pay the purchase-money, and he probably would 
have done so were it not for the great fire and other financial disas- 
ters. There is now a flourishing school in the building, of some nine 
or ten hundred children (girls), under the charge of the good Sisters 
of Notre Dame. Scarcely a church in New England that did not 
receive of his bounty. The poor priest from Ireland experienced 
his charity and hospitality. The American College at Rome, Mill 
Hill College, England, for the education of priests for the colored 
race, and other foreign institutions, partook of his charity. 

The great fire in Boston, in November, 1872, destroyed his 
splendid granite block, which cost to erect $150,000. His book 
stock, stereotype plates, etc., to the value of $100,000, were 
destroyed. Mr. Donahoe had a fine catalogue of Catholic works, 
and books relating to Ireland. . All were swept away in a few 
hours. The building was one of the finest in the city. This was 
a terrible blow. The work of a lifetime swept away by the fire 
fiend ! A few weeks after the great fire, Mr. Donahoe was burnt 
out a second time; his bookstore on Washington street was de- 
stroyed in May, 1873. 

Nothing daunted, Mr. Donahoe commenced to erect a suitable 
place for his business, and built a large and commodious structure on 
Boylston street, which he occupied in seven or eight months after the 
great November fire. 

The severe financial losses which he incurred, however, were so 
extended that he was compelled to fail in business shortly afterwards. 
In addition to his large newspaper and publishing business, he had 
previously opened a private bank, where he took money on deposit. 
At the time of his failure he was indebted to depositors to the 
amount of $73,000. His Grace Archbishop Williams came to 
the* rescue, and purchased a three-fourths interest in the " Pilot." 

He placed it under the editorial and business management of 
John Boyle O'Reilly, and from that time forward yearly instalments 
from the earnings of the paper were paid to the depositors, until 
1883, when the full principal was returned. The business adversity 



230 THE IRISH IN BOSTON, 

which Mr. Patrick Donahoe was subjected to was due to many un- 
fortunate causes. 

He was in the habit of assisting his friends by indorsing their 
paper, to enable them to carry on their business, and in this way he 
lost about $250,000. In the great Boston fire he lost over $350,000. 
To these may be added the losses of two other fires, which took 
away all his surplus capital. He had still the means to pay every 
dollar he owed; but when the panic came, and the friends who had 
lent him money to carry on his business were forced to call in their 
assets, he was compelled to go under. The " Pilot" office and book- 
store, that cost, with fixtures, nearly $140,000, sold for $105,000, 
and the journal (worth $100,000), the machinery of which cost over 
$38,000, sold for $28,000. And so it was with his residence, and 
other property which he had mortgaged after the fires to enable 
him to carry on his business, they shrunk in value so that they did 
not realize what they were mortgaged for. 

Mr. Donahoe was twice married, first on Nov. 23, 1836, and 
four children were the result of this union, one of whom survives. 
His second marriage occurred April 17, 1853; he has since be- 
come the father of three sons and one daughter, all of whom are 
living. 

He has filled many positions of trust. He was one of the 
Board of Directors for Public Institutions for nine years, President 
of the Emigrant Savings Bank, President of the Home for Desti- 
tute Catholic Children, etc. The latter institution is partly indebted 
to him for the splendid building now situated on Harrison avenue, 
East Concord, and Stoughton streets. 

He is at present engaged in the passenger and foreign exchange 
business, in which he has been interested for upwards of forty years. 
This was the only branch of his business that he was able to save 
from the wreck of his vast enterprises. 

He also publishes " Donahoe's Magazine," which has attained a 
very large circulation, and is increasing in favor with the Irish people 
at home and abroad. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



231 



THOMAS D'ARCY McGEE. 

A poet, orator, and statesman of brilliant mind was Thomas 
D'Arcy McGce. He was born at Carlingford, County Louth, Ire- 
land, April 13, 1825. When very young he was left an orphan, and 
was cared for by his relatives in Ireland. After he had received a 
limited course of study in the ordinary day-schools of Wexford, he 
came to the United States, with 
his sister, in his seventeenth year. 
When he arrived here, in June, 
1842, the agitation of the Repeal 
Movement was exciting the pa- 
triotism of his countrymen in 
America, and although but a 
mere boy in years he exerted 
much influence in behalf of the 
cause. 

The Fourth of July came, 
and it brought to his poetic mind 
the grandeur of free America. 
On that day he was present at an 
assemblage of his countrymen. 
He was called to the front, and 
his speech fairly carried the house by storm. His brilliant words 
and impassioned eloquence earned for him the title of " the boy 
orator." 

A few days later he was offered a position on the Boston "Pilot," 
and in less than two years he became its editor-in-chief, being then but 
nineteen years of age. The Native-Americanism movement then ran 
rampant, and our young editor's powerful pen and eloquent tongue 
attacked the un-American and unmanly insult, and every part of New 
England echoed with his scathing denunciations. In the Repeal 
agitation, McGee was actively interested, his editorials on the Irish 
question were masterly specimens of a gifted mind. In the old 




THOMAS D ARCY McGEE. 



232 THE IKISII LV BOSTON. 

country his people were attracted and encouraged by them, and 
Daniel O'Conncll paid him a public tribute of praise. 

He left Boston during the agitation to fill the editor's chair 
of the Dublin " Freeman," one of the ablest papers in Ireland, be- 
ing then only twenty-two years of age. The policy of the paper 
was tame, much unsuited to the mind of McGee, who transferred 
his duties to the "Irish Nation," the organ of the Young Ireland 
party, where he met a staff of brilliant editors, and every man a star, 
Davis, Duffy, Dcvin, Mitchell, and Reilly. What a galaxy! Per- 
haps no other paper ever had such a talented corps of brilliant 
men attached to it as the " Nation " of McGec's day. 

The cause of the Irish patriots ended disastrously, and the old 
story of treachery, imprisonment, and death was repeated, and many 
brave Irish fellows fell victims to England's hatred. 

McGce escaped from Ireland and arrived in New York Oct. 10, 
1848, and on the 26th of the same month the first number of the 
New York " Nation " appeared. McGce was then a disappointed 
man, and charged the failure of the rising to the Irish prelates and 
priests. A long and disagreeable controversy ensued between 
McGce and Archbishop Hughes, of New York, who took up the 
defence, and maintained that the action of the Irish clergy was right, 
just, and patriotic in saving from indiscriminate slaughter those who 
had no means of cither offence or defence. McGce's standing was 
very much injured and his influence weakened with the best portion 
of his countrymen in America, and his paper suffered thereby. He 
started the " American Celt" in Boston in 1850, but afterwards trans- 
ferred it to Buffalo, and later to New York City. 

The tone of the new journal was more conservative, the mis- 
haps, disappointments, and difficulties which McGec had met soft- 
ened his aspirations and brought deeper and more mature thought 
to his solution of political questions and policies. The " American 
Celt " became popular, and had a beneficent influence on the Irish 
in America and Ireland. He became engaged in the colonization 
scheme, which has since been successfully carried on by Bishops 
Ireland, Spaulding, and others. It is claimed that McGce was the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 233 

original projector of this enterprise. Archbishop Hughes, it is said, 
denounced the plan of colonization as mapped out by McGee, for 
reasons which his wisdom foresaw. This opposition, together with 
financial embarrassment, led McGee to accept an invitation from the 
Irish in Montreal to come and reside among them. They gave him 
sufficient real estate to make him eligible to Parliament, and he was 
successfully elected, after a hot contest. 

He started a paper, the " New Era ; " also studied law, and was 
admitted to the Lower Canadian Bar. His masterly abilities and 
breadth of statesmanship won him place and fame in Parliament 
above all his contemporaries. In 1 865 he was presented by his con- 
stituents in Montreal with a beautiful residence in that city, as a sub- 
stantial mark of their high esteem. He was President of the 
Executive Council, and also acting Provincial Secretary in 1862. 
He was sent to Paris in 1867 as one of the Canadian Commissioners 
to the great Exposition, and afterwards travelled over portions of the 
Continent. At that time he was Minister of Agriculture and Emi- 
gration ; before he returned home he was a leader in the delibera- 
tions which the representatives of the Canadian government had with 
the home government in regard to the plan of confederation, which 
McGee had developed and urged throughout the provinces. The 
project was approved and perfected, the Dominion of Canada 
was established. McGee was offered a seat in the Cabinet, but he 
declined, in order that a fellow-Celt from Nova Scotia might have 
the honor. 

McGee antagonized the Fenians of his day by denouncing them, 
especially those who had advocated the invasion of Canada. It is 
alleged that he was regarded by them as a traitor to his country and 
its cause. They induced Barney Devlin, an able Montreal advocate, 
to contest McGee's seat in Parliament ; a bitter contest followed ; 
McGee was returned, but not by a majority of his countrymen, and 
he took his seat in the first Parliament of the Dominion Government. 
The anxieties, irritations, labors, and sorrows of those years at length 
impaired his health and confined him for some three months to his 
room. 



234 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Shortly after his recovery, his brilliant life was brought to an 
untimely end. He was assassinated on April 7, 1867, on his way 
home from the Parliament House, Ottawa, after having delivered one 
of his wonderful speeches. 

The career of this remarkable man is unique and striking. 
As an unknown boy he came to America, not having had the advan- 
tage of a collegiate education, and only the training and experience 
which could be had in those days in an unimportant town in Ireland. 
Yet, although but just seventeen, he leaps into an important position 
in the cultivated city of Boston, and develops a power as a strong, 
able, vigorous, and classical writer, that placed him with the best in 
the land. As a statesman, orator, poet, and writer, he has had few 
equals. His vast fund of knowledge on every conceivable subject 
was supplemented by an inexhaustible command of language, chaste, 
beautiful, felicitous, and pointed, illumined by a brilliant imagination 
and filled with poetic fancies. He was unrivalled as a conversation- 
alist, overflowing with wit, humor, anecdotes; consonant with this 
was his wonderful popularity as an after-dinner speaker, in which he 
was unapproachable. But while these qualities gave softness to his 
character, they did not take away from the intenseness of his oratory 
or the breadth, massiveness, and solidity of his political views. 

REV. HENRY GILES. 

Henry Giles, an able and distinguished divine, was born at 
Crockford, in the County Wexford, Ireland, Nov. I, 1809; died near 
Boston, July, 1882. He was educated at home, amidst various 
religious beliefs. This unsettled his religious views for awhile ; but 
he finally joined the Unitarians, and was called to the pastorate of a 
church at Greenock, Scotland, afterwards to Liverpool. He came 
to the United States in 1841, and his solid talents were quickly 
recognized, and he became a popular preacher and lecturer. His 
works include " Irish Lectures and Essays " (2 vols., Boston, 1845), 
" Christian Thoughts in Life," " Illustrations on Genius in Some of 
its Applications to Society and Culture." Giles was a clear, versatile, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 235 

and powerful writer. He wrote a great deal for contemporary litera- 
ture in the best periodicals of the country. He passed many days 
here in Boston, and those of us who can remember him on the 
lecture platform, as he first stepped forward to speak, will agree that 
the delightful and genuine surprise he gave grew to singularly strong 
admiration, when, from a commonplace-appearing citizen he grandly 
rose to oratorical heights. 

THOMAS J. GARGAN. 

Among the able men of Boston who have become distinguished 
for their superior achievements in public life and by their eminent 
abilities at the bar, few indeed of the Irish race have attained 
so deservedly conspicuous a place as Thomas J. Gargan. His wise 
counsel and good judgment in political affairs have been sought and 
followed by leading Democrats, and they have affixed the seal of com- 
mendation to his many valuable acts. Mr. Gargan was born of Irish 
parents, at the West End, in Boston, 1844. His parents emigrated 
from Ireland and settled in Boston in 1825. Thomas was one of 
nine children, and he attended the public schools until he graduated 
as a medal scholar from the Phillips Grammar School. He continued 
his studies under the private instructions of the Rev. Peter Kruse, 
S.J., and subsequently attended the Boston University Law School, 
where he graduated, receiving the degree of LL.B., after which he 
studied law in the office of Hon. Henry W. Paine, and in due time 
was admitted to practice. 

Early in life he displayed the oratorical gifts which have won the 
admiration of distinguished men both at home and abroad. He was 
not seventeen years old when he delivered an " Essay on the Irish in the 
War for the Union," under the auspices of the Cheverus Literary Insti- 
tute, an organization of which he was a leading member, and which 
brought out many interesting exhibitions at that time in Boston, 
notably one given at the Boston Theatre for the poor of Ireland. He 
engaged in the United States service at the breaking out of the late war, 
being then only eighteen years of age. He enlisted in Company C, 



236 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Fifty-fifth Mass. Volunteers an Irish regiment; he was elected and 
commissioned as lieutenant of Company C, which was afterwards 
consolidated with the Forty-eighth Massachusetts. He received an 
honorable discharge from the War Department. 

After his return from the war, Mr. Gargan entered into the duties 
of his profession, and his practice steadily grew to proportions 
and success far beyond his own anticipations. He first appeared as 
a public speaker during the war, before he had reached his majority. 
A war meeting was held, at which Hon. Otis Norcross presided ; and 
during the proceedings an attack was made by an ex-Know-Nothing 
upon the loyalty and patriotism of adopted citizens, to which Mr. 
Gargan replied with so much ability and eloquence, citing examples 
and statistics to prove their devotion to their adopted country, that 
at the suggestion of Mr. Norcross, and by the unanimous vote of the 
meeting, Mr. Gargan's name was added to the Union committee. 
The first year that he voted, he was nominated and elected by both 
parties as warden of the ward wherein he resided (old Ward 3), and 
shortly afterwards he was chosen to the Legislature, serving in the 
years 1868, 1870, and 1876. During these terms he served on the 
Committees of Public Charities, Probate and Chancery, Rules and 
Orders, .and Manufactures, besides several important special com- 
mittees. In 1872 he was a delegate-at-large from this State to the 
National Convention at Baltimore, Md. 

For two years (1873-74) he was the President of the Charitable 
Irish Society, and is still a member of that, as well as many other 
important charitable associations. He was mainly instrumental in 
obtaining the charter for the Emigrant Savings Bank, after a hard 
fight and severe opposition ; he was its treasurer for two years 
and a half. In 1875 he served as a member of the Board of 
Overseers of the Poor of Boston. His legal practice has extended 
to cases of some of the most prominent and wealthy men, and also 
to large and powerful corporations, in the management of which he 
has been very successful. 

Mr. Gargan, when a young man, had few superiors of his age as 
a debater, then being very ready in reply, and fortifying any position 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 237 

which he took by a strong array of facts. In February, 1876, he de- 
livered the annual oration before the Mechanic Apprentices' Library 
Association, an address which has been pronounced by competent 
critics as one of the best ever delivered before the society ; and 
another very powerful speech of his was that made in opposition to 
the bill brought up in the House, a year earlier, taxing church 
property. 

He rapidly developed his oratorical power, and carefully culti- 
vated the best points in public speaking which were used by the 
masters of the rostrum ; and he is recognized to-day by the press and 
people as an orator, eloquent, masterly, and learned. His manner 
before a jury or public assemblage is pleasing and graceful; with 
finely modulated voice, that commands immediate attention, he 
interests his hearers at once, and wins their sympathy from the be- 
ginning to the close of his discourses, which, by the way, always 
afford abundant evidence of extensive reading, much thought and 
culture, besides being strong in facts, sound and logical in argu- 
ment. 

In the spring of 1881 Mr. Gargan met General Grant, and 
spent many pleasant hours with him in Mexico. His impressions 
of General Grant, which appeared in the Boston " Daily Globe " of 
August 3, 1885, were uniquely descriptive of the dead hero, and 
caused considerable and favorable comment throughout the country. 
At the banquet given in honor of General Grant by the Mexican 
Government, in the Tivoli of San Cosme, in May, 1881, the Mexican 
dignitaries attended in a body ; Mr. Gargan was present, with Col. 
Thomas B. Lewis and Mr. Albert K. Owen. Mr. Gargan had the 
honor of acting as president of the feast ; he presided most hand- 
somely, and made a characteristic speech, full of wit and wisdom. 
Among his many speeches, the most notable are the following : The 
one made at Marblehead in 1882, at the ratification meeting of Butler 
and Bowerman; the Bay State dinner speech, in 1884, on which 
occasion Washington's birthday was commemorated by the Demo- 
cratic State Central Committee ; the argument made by him on be- 
half of Archbishop Williams, in the Lawrence Church case, upon the 



238 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

decision of which rested the title of all the Catholic Church property 
in New England. The case went to the Supreme Court, and was 
won by Mr. Gargan. The Memorial-day oration, delivered at Win- 
chendon, May 30, 1883. He made a spirited, eloquent, and telling 
arraignment of Elaine in a speech delivered at Faneuil Hall during 
the campaign of 1884. 

He delivered the Fourth of July oration in 1885, which, for the 
beauty and newness of its summary, brilliancy of style, and copious- 
ness of historical minutiae, ranks among the best ever given to Bos- 
tonians. Mr. Gargan's witty extempore speech at Tremont Temple, 
Oct. 21, 1885, ratifying the candidacy of Hon. Frederick O. Prince, 
attracted much attention; his oration at Halifax, in January, 1886, at 
the banquet given by the Charitable Irish Society of that place, to 
celebrate the centenary of the organization, and at which he responded 
for the Charitable Irish Society of Boston, was eventful, and won en- 
comiums for him from both the foreign and American press. His 
versatility in the field of journalism has been shown by numerous 
articles written for the Boston press on Irish subjects, and special 
correspondence relating to the Franco-Prussian War, which he penned 
jvhile sojourning in Ireland and France. 

THE MOST REV. JOHN J. WILLIAMS. 

The Most Rev. John J. Williams, the fourth Bishop and first 
Archbishop of Boston, was born in Boston, Mass., April 27, 1822. 
A-fter the usual classical education in Montreal and at St. Sulpice in 
Paris, he was elevated to the priesthood by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Fen- 
wick, in 1843. Among his other missions was that of the chapel on 
Beach street, Boston (January, 1852), which had been built in 1850 to 
meet the increasing Catholic population in the vicinity of the South 
- Cove. Under his ministration the congregation grew so rapidly that 
in one year it was found necessary to erect a large Gothic church, which 
was dedicated, in 1855, by Bishop Fitzpatrick. The Very Rev. J. J. 
Williams was Vicar-General and pastor of this church at the time he 
was made Coadjutor Bishop of Boston, having also been rector of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 239 

the old Cathedral in Franklin street, which was pulled down in the 
fall of 1860, the last Mass being celebrated on Sunday, September 
1 6, of that year, on which occasion the present Archbishop acted as 
assistant priest. In 1866 the Very Rev. John J. Williams, on account 
of the failing health of Bishop Fitzpatrick, was appointed Coadjutor 
Bishop of Boston, with the right of succession. Bishop Fitzpatrick 
died on Feb. 13, 1 866, and on March II of the same year Bishop 
Williams was consecrated at St. James' Church, of which he had been 
so long the pastor. From Oct. 19, 1869, to June 27, 1870, Bishop 
Williams was in Europe attending the Vatican Council. On May 2, 
1875, he received the pallium at the hands of the late Cardinal 
McCloskey. The Solemn High Mass was celebrated by Bishop 
McNierny, of Albany ; Bishop De Goesbriand, of Burlington, Vt., 
preaching the sermon. It was the grandest religious ceremony ever 
seen in New England. On the same day the first American Cardinal 
celebrated his first Mass in Boston. The Cathedral of the Holy 
Cross was solemnly dedicated by Archbishop Williams, Dec. 8, 1875, 
the feast of the Immaculate Conception. 

At the time of his consecration the diocese of Boston included 
all the State of Massachusetts. Since then the diocese of Spring- 
field (including the counties of Berkshire, Franklin, Hampshire, 
Hampden, and Worcester) and part of the diocese of Providence 
(including Bristol, Barnstable, and part of Plymouth counties) were 
created. To-day the archdiocese of Boston has over one hundred 
and sixty churches, three hundred and twenty priests, and twenty-five 
thousand children in the parochial schools. The churches through- 
out the archdiocese are, for the most part, objects of pride to the 
Catholic heart, because of their beauty and elegance. After years of 
patient struggle, their financial condition is such as to warrant the 
belief that before many years have passed they will be entirely 
relieved of debt Schools are multiplying every year ; the sick, the 
orphan, and the outcast are provided for ; while last, but not least, 
the new Seminary at Brighton is doing excellent work in preparing 
candidates for the work of the priesthood. This work has been for 
years the subject of the Archbishop's thoughts. Not a detail of its 



240 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

construction escaped his notice ; and it stands to-day a monument to 
the zeal and piety of the clergy of Boston, their tribute of love and 
affection to their well-beloved Archbishop. In the building of the 
Cathedral he received valuable aid from the late Vicar-General P. F. 
Lyndon ; but the Seminary is his own work, to which he has given 
his heart and brain. 

RIGHT REV. MATTHEW HARKINS. 

The Right Rev. Matthew Harkins, the second bishop of the 
diocese of Providence, is of Irish parentage. He was born in Boston, 
Nov. 17, 1845, and his parents resided in the parish of which he has 
recently been pastor. He attended the Brimmer and Quincy Schools, 
and then the Latin School, from which he graduated, with a Franklin 
medal, in 1862. The next scholastic year was spent in completing 
his classical education at Holy Cross College, Worcester, Mass. De- 
ciding that he had a vocation for the priesthood, Bishop Fitzpatrick, 
then the ordinary of the Boston diocese, sent him to France to pursue 
his philosophico-theological studies in the English College of Douay 
and at the Seminary of St. Sulpice in Paris. Here he studied with 
the most eminent teachers and divines of the Catholic Church. In 
1869, after six years' study, he was ordained, and left Paris for Rome, 
for additional study. On his return to America, his first appointment 
was as curate of the Church of the Immaculate Conception, Salem, 
Mass. After six years' labor at Salem, he was appointed, in 1876, 
to his first pastorate, St. Malachi's Church, Arlington, his parish also 
including Lexington and Belmont. Here he remained until April, 
1 884, when he was transferred to the large and important parish of 
St. James', Boston. From this church, also, Archbishop Williams 
and Bishop Healy were raised to Sees. Bishop Harkins is the sixth 
bishop which the diocese of Boston has given to the Church in New 
England. 

He is a sound theological scholar, and was selected by Arch- 
bishop Williams as his theologian at the recent Plenary Council 
of Baltimore, where he was appointed one of the notaries. His 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 241 

powers are most strongly felt as an organizer and administrator, 
qualities which he possesses to an unusual degree, and which won for 
him his appointment as Bishop. He is of medium height, and strong 
and compact in build. His forehead is high, and his eyes beam with 
intelligence. He speaks with ease and fluency, and commands the 
earnest attention of an audience. 

He severed many ties in leaving Boston, but accepted the charge 
of an important field, to which he was warmly welcomed, 

REV. ROBERT FULTON, S.J. 

Honored and respected by the citizens of Boston of all creeds 
for his many virtues, his modesty, and profound learning, Father 
Fulton, the distinguished Catholic priest of the Society of Jesus, 
stands without a peer in this city among the ministers of religion, as 
a successful scholar and financier. Born at Alexandria, Va., June 
28, 1826, his Irish ancestry can be traced to his grandfather, James 
O'Brien, who was sent to Spain while engaged in the diplomatic ser- 
vice of the United States. The" vessel on which he sailed was wrecked 
off Cape Hatteras, and O'Brien perished. His widow received a pen- 
sion from the Spanish Government. Young Fulton was an orphan 
at seven years of age. During his boyhood he was a page in the 
United States Senate. He met the intellectual giants of those days, 
and he now relates the characteristics of Webster, Clay, Calhoun, and 
Thomas Benton, as he saw them, nearly half a century ago. 

The boy Fulton entered Georgetown College at sixteen years of 
age, ostensibly to receive a preparatory course of studies to fit him 
for West Point. His life at Georgetown College shaped his early 
course, and in his seventeenth year he communicated his desire to 
enter the Society of Jesus to his mother. The latter then resolved 
to consecrate her life also to the service of God. She accordingly 
entered the order of the Visitation Nuns, at whose convent in George- 
town she was known in religion as Sister Olympian 

She died at the convent on the morning of Feb. 22, 1888, at the 
ripe old age of eighty-nine years and ten months. 



242 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

On the completion of his novitiate, Mr. Fulton, then a scholastic, 
taught the class of rhetoric at St. John's, Frederick, Md., and Loyola 
College, Baltimore, Md. Thence he went to Georgetown College, and 
taught with great success the classes of poetry and r,hetoric for a 
number of years, and had for his pupils many distinguished scholars 
of the present day. In the year 1856 he was ordained to the priest- 
hood at Georgetown, and in 1861 came to Boston, and remained 
here, excepting one year spent in Frederick, until January, 1880. 

He was prominent in the foundation of Boston College, and in 
1864 fulfilled the duties of prefect of schools and studies. From a 
very discouraging beginning he raised Boston College to the high 
position which that institution now holds. Twelve years elapsed 
before he introduced the first class of philosophy, and by thus going 
slowly he was enabled to strengthen all the departments, and place 
the college on a firm basis. 

In 1870 Father Fulton was appointed rector of Boston College, 
and during the time of his residence in Boston he became a friend 
of some of the most distinguished literary men of the city, and 
exerted a wide influence in the advancement of Catholic education. 

He founded the Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston 
College in 1875, which was one of the greatest works that he has 
ever engaged in. In 1880 Father Fulton was appointed pastor of St. 
Lawrence's Church, New York, and held that position for one year. 

Owing to his financial success in the administration of affairs at 
Boston College and the Church of the Immaculate Conception, he 
was called upon by the then provincial of the Society, Rev. R. W. 
Brady, S.J., to undertake the almost herculean task of freeing St. 
Aloysius' Church, of Washington, from a debt of $200,000. Though 
naturally averse to such tasks, he obeyed the voice of his superior, 
and under great difficulties he was enabled in less than one year to 
place the Washington church out of all danger of financial ruin, 
paying off in that time about $100,000. In May, 1882, he was ap- 
pointed provincial of New York, Maryland province, and held that 
office for six years. His administration was marked by great success, 
both in a financial and literary point of view. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 243 

In September, 1883, Father Fulton went to Rome as a delegate 
from this province to the general Congregation, whose suffrage 
elected the present general, Very Rev. A. M. Anderledy, S.J. In 
December, 1 886, he was called to Ireland, receiving the appointment 
to the supreme office of Visitor, and having power to regulate all 
matters affecting that portion of the Society, including Australia and 
New Zealand. He returned to America in April, 1887, but in Sep- 
tember of the same year he visited Ireland in order to complete the 
discharge of his duties. In April, 1888, he returned once again to 
America. His appointment to the important position of Provincial 
for this country was earned by his world-wide administrative ability 
and business foresight. In June, 1888, his second term of office 
having expired, he was succeeded by Very Rev. Thomas Campbell, 
S.J., formerly rector of St. John's College, Fordham, New York. 
On July 4, 1888, he was announced at Boston College as its rector; 
he immediately assumed the duties incumbent upon him, and con- 
tinues his excellent work there. He is now actively engaged in 
remodelling and enlarging the present buildings connected with the 
College and the rooms of the Young Men's Catholic Association on 
James street, which, when completed, will more than double their 
present dimensions. Plans for alterations have been drawn, and the 
building is in process of reconstruction. 

ROBERT DWYER JOYCE. 

Robert Dwyer Joyce, author, poet, and physician, was born in 
the County of Limerick, Ireland, and died in Dublin, Ireland, 
October 23, 1883. He was a descendant of the elder branch of 
the ancient family of Joyce (De Jorse), of Galway. His father 
was born in County Limerick, and married Elizabeth, daughter of 
John O'Dwyer, of Glendarragh, the last lineal descendant of the 
celebrated John O'Dwyer, of the Glen, Baron of Kilmana, whose title 
was forfeited after the Williamite wars, and who subsequently died a 
general in the French service. His mother's family numbered many 
renowned Celtic military geniuses of Europe. One, Count William 



244 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

O'Dwyer, died a marshal in Russia; another, John O'Dwyer, was 
made hereditary Count of the Austrian Empire for saving the life of 
the Emperor Joseph in action ; and the present count, Jean Haudois 
(O'Dwyer), commanded part of the advance of the French cavalry 
at the battle of Solferino. 

Dr. Joyce received his rudimentary education at the ordinary 
country English and classical school near his father's home. He 
was sent to Dublin to complete his studies, and afterwards studied 
medicine at the Queen's University, where he received his degree, 
and was then appointed Professor of English Literature in the Pre- 
paratory College of the Catholic University, Dublin. He practised 
his profession for several years in Dublin with success, and in 1 866 
came to America and located in Boston. 

Early in life he displayed rare poetic ability, and later his bril- 
liant historical and legendary ballads appeared in some of the best 
Irish magazines and newspapers. He was a leading contributor to 
" The Harp," a Cork magazine, under the nom de plume of " Fear- 
dana," and also to the " Dublin Hibernian Magazine " and the 
"National Monthly." He was the author of "The Blacksmith of 
Limerick," " Ballads, Romances, and Songs," and other literary pro- 
ductions. He was a Celt in disposition and spirit, and in his writings, 
from the inception of Fenianism to its close, he exerted an inspiring 
influence in favor of resistance against the English government. 

In 1862 he wrote a number of miscellaneous poems and stories 
for the " Weekly Illustrated Journal," of Dublin, and later a serial 
entitled " The Squire of Castleton," for the Dublin " Irishman." In 
1865 he became a regular contributor to the Dublin " Irish People," 
under the signature of " Merelon," and his busy pen for a time 
directed the thoughts that animated the loyal minds for the cause of 
national freedom and Irish liberty. In Boston he secured quite an 
extensive practice as a physician, and was phenomenally successful 
from the start. In 1872 his poems were published in book form, 
complete to that year, known as " Ballads of Irish Chivalry, Songs, 
and Poems," and the Irish and American press eulogized the volume 
with one accord. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 245 

His "Deirdre" and "Blanid," two beautiful epics, won him 
considerable literary fame in this country. People wondered how a 
busy physician could find time to produce these two exhaustive 
poems, in addition to his many other duties. Indeed, it was remark- 
able then, as it is indicative of his genius now. He has left us an 
Irish epic, based on the traditions and glory of the Irish race, and 
the only land of which he could sing. 

" Though many a field I've searched of foreign lore, 

And found great themes for song, yet ne'er would I 
Seek Greece, or Araby, or Persia's shore 

For heroes and the deeds of days gone by ; 
To my own native land my heart would fly, 

Howe'er my fancy wandered, and I gave 
My thoughts to her, and to the heroes high 

She nursed in ages gone, and strove to save 
Some memory of their deeds from dark oblivion's wave." 

PATRICK R. GUINEY. 

General Patrick R. Guiney, lawyer, soldier, and patriot, was born 
in Parkstown, Tipperary, Ireland, Jan. 15, 1835, died in Boston, March 
21, 1877. He was brought to the United States by his parents in 
1842, and for a while located in Portland, Me., where he attended 
the public schools, and later Holy Cross College, Worcester, Mass. 
He came to Boston in 1855, studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1856. In 1859 he was married in this city. At the beginning 
of the late Civil War he enlisted as private, in April, 1861 ; he was 
promoted to a Captaincy, June 11, 1861, and went as such to the 
field ; he helped largely in organizing the Ninth Massachusetts Volun- 
teers; he was commissioned Major, Oct. 24, 1862 ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
July 28, 1862 ; complimented in special orders for bravery at Games' 
Mills, June 27, 1862; promoted to Colonel for service in the field, 
July 26, 1863 ; commanded the Second Brigade, First Division, Fifth 
Corps, most of the following year ; he lost his left eye by a terrible 
wound in the forehead, at the battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864; 
mustered out with the regiment ; promoted Brevet Brigadier-General, 



246 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

March 13, 1865. He was Assistant District Attorney for Suffolk 
County from 1866 to 1870, and held the position of Register of 
Probate and Insolvency from 1869 until his death, in 1877, which 
was caused by disease incurred by his head-wound in the war. He 
was Major-General Commander of the Veteran Military League, and 
a "member of the Loyal Legion. The esteem and regard which his 
fellow-citizens had for him is aptly described by his friend and asso- 
ciate, Dr. John G. Blake, in the following lines', and by the poem by 
his excellent wife : 

" In the long list of names that deserve commemoration for the 
honor done their native land, none justly stands higher than that of 
Patrick R. Guiney. A brave, fearless, and successful soldier, who 
carried through his broken life, with a smiling face, the shattered 
constitution resulting from wounds received in the service of his 
adopted country; a pure, able, and honest public official, and an 
estimable private citizen, he combined all the qualities that the most 
exacting friendship could ask for. Life to him meant earnest, soul- 
felt endeavor. Chivalrous, pure-minded, the personification of in- 
tegrity, it used to be said of him that he stood so straight that he 
bent backward. 

" A man whose deep religious feeling permeated his life ; free 
from narrowness, and broadly catholic, he was a true and loyal son of 
Mother Church in the highest and fullest sense. In private life a 
devoted husband, a loving father, a fast friend, and delightful com- 
panion, his memory will live in the hearts of those who knew him 
best while life endures. 

" So much of heroism blended with his character, and is so 
well expressed in this little poem, that it seems appropriate to 
append it" 

This touching poetical tribute to General Guiney is fresh from 
the pen of our Boston poet, Mrs. Mary E. Blake : 

"Large heart and brave! tried soul and true! 

How thickly in thy life's short span 
All strong, sweet virtues throve and grew 
As friend, as hero, and as man. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 247 

Unmoved by thought of blame or praise, 

Unbought by gifts of power or pride, 
Thy feet still trod Time's devious ways, 

With Duty as thy law and guide. 

" God breaks no mould so nobly rare 

As shrined of old heroic men. 
In lives like thine, as pure as fair, 

Earth's golden knighthood breathes again 
Amid a world of sordid greed, 

Of paltry aims, of perjured trust ; 
With soul as stainless as thy creed, 

We know thee strong, and pure, and just. 

" And still shall know, O friend beloved ! 

Thy spirit holds no place with death; 
Our eyes are dim, our hearts are moved, 

But thou hast felt His kindly breath. 
So short, so swift thy pang of birth 

Ere dawned the heaven you longed to see, 
We bear the pain, who wait on earth, 

But all the glory fell to thee 1 " 

Maj. Daniel G. McNamara, a staff-officer and a life-long friend 
of General Guiney, gives the following reminiscences : 

"Nothing redounds more to a soldier's credit for gallant and 
meritorious conduct on the battlefield than the commendation of his 
superior officer. Gen. Fitz-John Porter, commander of the Fifth 
Corps, Army of the Potomac, to which the Ninth Regiment belonged, 
recommended, in special orders, Colonel Guiney for brevet commis- 
sion for gallant services at the battle of Gaines's Mills, and in his 
graphic account of that battle, published in the ' Century ' magazine 
of June, 1885, thus speaks of the Ninth Regiment while under fire: 
'At Gaines's Mills Cass's gallant Ninth Massachusetts Volunteers 
(General Guiney was then lieutenant-colonel of the regiment), 
of Griffin's brigade, obstinately resisted A. P. Hill's crossing, and 
were so successful in delaying his advance after crossing as to com- 
pel him to employ large bodies to force the regiment back to the 
main line. This brought on a contest which extended to Morell's 
centre, and over Martin's front, on his right, and lasted from 12.30 



248 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

to near 2 o'clock, Cass and his immediate supports falling back 
south of the swamps. This persistent and prolonged resistance 
gave to this battle one of its well-known names, i.e., Gaines's 
Mills.' 

" After passing through the campaigns of nearly two years 
more, memory brings us vividly to the battle of the 'Wilderness,' 
May 5, 1864, under General Grant. Again the Ninth Regiment 
suffered terribly in killed and wounded. It was on that day that 
General Guiney fell at the head of his regiment with that terrible 
wound through his eye. The cruel bullet crushed through the eye 
down into his head. Nothing but his splendid physique and strong 
vitality saved his life. The doctors declared he could not survive ; 
that the wound was of so terrible a nature that it was only a ques- 
tion of time, and rather than attempt an operation it was in their judg- 
ment better to let him die without unnecessary pain. Not so with 
the general; although wounded nigh unto death, he still retained 
within his bosom all his native courage and indomitable pluck. Call- 
ing to his side, as he lay on the floor of the temporary hospital near 
the battlefield, Father Egan, chaplain of the Ninth, he said : ' Father, 
if you will find a surgeon on this field who will undertake to remove 
this bullet I will get better, for the longer it remains as it is the 
worse for me.' Father Egan, with his accustomed kindness, promptly 
secured the attendance of several surgeons from the hospital quarters. 
One among them agreed to undertake the operation, and in a com- 
paratively short time, in the presence of the other doctors, extracted 
the bullet, which proved to be a fifty-nine calibre rifle ball. Under 
all his sufferings the general was patient, never complaining of his 
rude surroundings and poor accommodations. In the course of a 
few days he reached Washington, where his loving wife awaited him 
to nurse and attend him on his painful journey home. After weeks 
of suffering, and when only partially recovered, he met his regiment 
at the depot in Boston on its return home for muster out, and rode 
at its head on its march to Faneuil Hall. Though time partly healed 
the jagged wound, it eventually shortened his brilliant life, and ended 
the bright future that was before him. 



' BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 249 

" It can be said of General Guiney that he was a brave soldier, 
a firm disciplinarian, a true friend, and a generous, warm-hearted 
officer. He was loved and respected by his regiment, and his recog- 
nized ability and uniform manliness endeared him to his comrades 
and associates through life. While he loved his friends warmly and 
truly, he never harbored animosity against those who might exhibit 
unfriendliness towards him. His Christian training taught him to 
treat his fellows with Christian kindness, firmness, and forbearance. 
These traits of character carried him successfully through the diffi- 
culties that were to be encountered by a commander of volunteers in 
the army, and they won for him in after-life the esteem of all who 
knew him." 

He rendered able services to the cause of dumb animals while 
he was a district attorney, and won a case in which the Massachu- 
setts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals werjas the 
prosecutors. His lofty and eloquent appeal for the dumb was 
publicly admired and praised. 



JOHN E. FITZGERALD. 

Familiar to all Bostonians is John E. Fitzgerald, an able lawyer, 
and the Collector of Internal Revenue for Massachusetts. He was 
born in Dingle, County Kerry, Ireland, Nov. 17, 1844, where he 
attended the schools of the Christian Brothers, and he also went to 
school in Dublin. When about nineteen years of age he took pas- 
sage on the steamship " Bohemian," bound for America ; but the 
vessel was wrecked off Cape Elizabeth, near Portland, Me., and over 
one hundred lives were lost. Young Fitzgerald took refuge in a 
boat, and, after considerable hardship and suffering, was one of the 
three surviving passengers who landed on the shores of Cape Eliza- 
beth, Me., on the night of Feb. 21, 1864. 

Shortly after his arrival in this country he became engaged as a 
school teacher in Salem, Mass., where he remained about one year 
and six months. While occupied as a pedagogue he employed his 
leisure hours in the study of law in the office of William D. 



250 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Northend. In January, 1866, he removed to Boston, and continued 
his law studies in the office of George W. Earle, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1868. 

During 1865 and 1866, when the interest in Fenianism was at 
its height, he did active work for the cause. The vigor of youth, 
and his characteristic Irish enthusiasm, enabled him to do excellent 
service, and he made many effective and patriotic speeches. Since 
that period he has continued to be identified with Irish affairs, is 
always ready to assist in the welfare of the Irish people, and is one 
of the recognized leaders of the race in this country. 

He represented old Ward 7 (now 13) in the Common Council 
of 1 872-75, and in the Legislature of 1870-71-73-74; was a Master 
in Chancery for Suffolk County from 1873 to 1878. He was a 
member of the School Committee in 1873-74-75-76, and resigned 
in the latter year when elected to the Board of Aldermen of 1877. 
He was later appointed a member of the Board of Fire Commis- 
sioners of the city of Boston, which position he held from 1879 to 
1886. In the latter year he was appointed Collector of Internal Rev- 
enue for Massachusetts, and was specially requested by President 
Cleveland to accept the appointment. 

During his service to the city as a Fire Commissioner he did val- 
uable work in perfecting the efficiency of the department, and, there- 
fore, did not wish to sever his connection to engage in a new field. 
The request was so urgent, however, that after much hesitancy he 
accepted his present position under the Democratic administration. 

During his legislative experience he advocated the ten-hour 
law, and introduced the bill which allowed women to be eligible as 
members of the School Board. While in the aldermanic chamber he 
drafted the Horse Railway bill, and was instrumental in the passage 
of the law relating to the transfer from year to year of department 
appropriations instead of to the Sinking-fund. He framed the law 
which secured pensions for firemen, and inaugurated the annual fire- 
men's ball, which every year nets such a substantial sum. He was 
also a member of the committee which drafted the law that made 
the School Board of this city consist of twenty-four members. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 251 

He has had considerable practice in the legal profession in the 
past, and one of his notable cases was that of Thomas Cahill vs. 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This was an instance where his 
client was extradited from Ireland as the supposed murderer of 
Bridget Lanergan, but was afterwards discharged from jail when 
Thomas Piper, the real murderer, made his confession. 

In politics he has been conspicuous as a Democratic leader, and 
has served the party and rendered valuable assistance on the plat- 
form in every campaign since 1868. He was chairman of the Dem- 
ocratic City Committee in 1877-78, and presided at the Democratic 
State Convention in 1885, where he made a masterly address favor- 
able to the administration of President Cleveland and Civil-Service 
Reform. In 1887 he delivered the Fourth-of-July oration before 
the Boston City Government. 

He is a member of the Irish Charitable Society, National Land 
League, Bay State, Massachusetts Reform, Tariff Reform, Massachu- 
setts Young Men's Democratic, Central, clubs, and a life member 
of the Boston Young Men's Catholic Association. He is also a 
member of the Massachusetts State Fire Association, Barnicoat Vet- 
eran Association, and was selected to write a history of the Boston 
Fire Department, which was deposited in the box of the Ancient 
and Honorable Artillery Company, to be opened upon their 35Oth 
anniversary. 

REV. JOHN CORDNER. 

Rev. John Cordner, LL.D., is a Unitarian minister. He was 
born in the parish of Hillsborough, County Down, Ireland, July 3, 
1816. By the removal of his parents, during his infancy, to Newry, 
in the same county, he passed his boyhood and early manhood in 
that town, receiving such education there as the best local schools 
afforded. While quite young Mr. Cordner was a frequent contributor 
to a liberal newspaper published in the town, of which Thomas 
O'Hagan, afterwards Lord Chancellor of Ireland, was editor. As a 
writer, young Cordner was- so successful that he was almost per- 
suaded by Editor O'Hagan to adopt journalism as a profession, but, 



252 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

as he had a tendency towards the Christian ministry, he concluded to 
pursue his studies for the latter calling. He was brought up in the 
First Presbyterian Congregation of Newry, which was non-subscribing 
in principle and Unitarian in belief. The congregation was connected 
with the Remonstrant Synod of Ulster, and Dr. Cordner's studies 
were carried on under the direction of that body, at the Royal 
College, Belfast. He was licensed by the Remonstrant Presbytery 
of Bangor, and was ordained in September, 1843. He first took 
charge of a Unitarian congregation in the city of Montreal, Canada, 
where he had sole charge for thirty years, and became prominent 
among the clergy of that city. In 1852 he married a daughter of 
Rev. Dr. Francis Parkman, of Boston, and, upon his retirement from 
the ministry, owing to failing strength, he removed with his family to 
this city, where he now resides. 

Dr. Cordner has always taken an active part in public and 
charitable matters, both as a writer and preacher. He edited the 
" Liberal Christian," of Montreal, for several years ; he is the author 
of many published sermons, and, during the Rebellion, he advocated 
the case of the Federal Government as against the insurgent States 
of the South. By request of the New England Society of Montreal, 
he delivered an address on the " American Conflict," which was 
reprinted in England and widely circulated there. Dr. Cordner is a 
very popular Unitarian of this city ; he is always interested in re- 
ligious progress, and was an assiduous worker, with others, in securing 
the erection of the present magnificent building of the American 
Unitarian Association. 

REV. ROBERT R. MEREDITH. 

Rev. Robert R. Meredith, was born in Ireland, Feb. 8, 1838. 
He came to this country with his parents when quite young, and 
located in New York. From eighteen to twenty-seven years of age 
he followed the sea, and during his experience was a boatswain on 
the ill-fated steamer " Central America," which sailed from Aspinwall, 
over thirty years ago, with five hundred passengers, for New York. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 253 

The steamer sprung aleak one stormy night, when nearing Cape 
Hatteras, and many of the passengers were drowned. Young 
Meredith managed to lash himself to a portion of the wheel-house, 
which was washed away, and drifted for about six days, without 
food or water, until he was picked up, in an unconscious state, by 
a foreign brig bound for Quebec, and soon after he returned to 
New York. He later attended the Methodist Seminary at Concord, 
N.H., where he studied for the ministry. He served as chaplain in 
the One Hundred and Fifty-third Regiment of New York Volunteers 
during the war, and afterwards became attached to the missionary 
corps of the Methodist Church, and labored successively in Troy, 
N.Y., Newark, N.J., Cincinnati, Ohio, and Springfield, Mass. In 
April, 1876, he came to Boston, as pastor of the Temple-street 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He next became pastor of the Phillips 
Congregational Church, of South Boston, where he remained five 
years, during which time he had the church enlarged at an expense 
of $30,000. In 1880 he became identified with the Sunday-school 
class work in Wesleyan Hall, and in a short time, under his super- 
vision, the attendance was so large that Tremont Temple was engaged 
for meetings every Saturday afternoon, where between two thousand 
and three thousand persons assembled. On Oct. 16, 1883, he 
accepted the pastorate of the Union Church, which he held until the 
spring of 1887, when he received a call from the Tompkins-avenue 
Congregational Church, of Brooklyn, N.Y. In 1882 he had the 
degree of D.D. conferred upon him by Dartmouth College. 

EDWARD C. CARRIGAN. 

Edward C. Carrigan was born in Chatham, England, in 1853, 
of Irish parents, they having moved there some years previous to 
the time of his birth. He died on Nov." 7, 1888, while on his way to 
Colorado Springs. When he was six years old his parents came to this 
country, landing in Quebec, where they died. He was early left to 
depend upon his own unaided efforts, and found his way to Woodstock, 
Vt., where he attended the village school. Acquiring a taste for study, 



254 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

he determined to fit himself for college, and at the age of sixteen he 
began his career as a pedagogue in the district shools of Vermont in 
order to obtain funds for that purpose. While at Woodstock he 
enlisted for the war in the last year of the struggle, and was one of 
the youngest volunteers of the North. He entered Dartmouth 
College in 1874, having prepared himself by hard study. He paid 
his way by teaching in many places, and graduated in 1877. He 
came to Boston, and later entered the office of General Butler, where 
he followed his profession. 

He entered and graduated from the Boston University Law 
School. In 1 88 1 he became principal of the Boston Evening High 
School, and held that place till Oct. 10, 1886. He had previously 
been for three years principal of the Wells School at the West End. 
Mr. Carrigan contributed to the press after leaving college, and has 
at times served the " Herald " and other Boston papers. He had 
been a member of the State Board of Education since 1883. His 
name will long be a monument to the advancement of education in 
the State, and his reputation as one of its best promoters has become 
national. He was the framer of our present evening-school law, one 
of the principal promoters of the free text-book, author of the 
illiteracy bill, and, in fact, every reform for good in our schools in 
recent years has been greatly due to the efforts of Mr. Carrigan. 
He served as a member of the School Committee of Boston, where 
he exerted great influence. One of the last and valuable acts of his 
life was an ably-written letter to the Boston press, which appeared in 
the Boston papers and attracted great attention. It was a strong 
refutation against the prejudiced and bigoted arguments of certain 
anti-Irish celebrities, whose sole aim in life seems to be the dis- 
franchisement of the Irish. An extract from the letter should pass 
into history, and the subject will prove particularly interesting to 
Irish readers. Mr. Carrigan headed his letter, " How many Irish- 
Americans live in Boston?" and the following authoritative and re- 
markable statement appeared : 

"As a wholesale disfranchisement of the Irish in the city and State 
is proposed by our British-American friends, I have thought that I 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



255 



might be of service to those who are seriously contemplating ' Irish 
extermination ' by calling their attention to some interesting, if not 
valuable, data found in the census of the Commonwealth for the 
period ending 1885. By this census it will be seen that the children 
of Irish parentage now residing in Boston numerically exceed those 
of the children of Massachusetts parentage by 89,763 ; while the 
same report, for the State, shows an excess of 69,790 children of 
Irish parentage over those whose parents were natives of Massachu- 
setts. No one should be misled by these figures, for I have simply 
taken the two highest classes of people in the Commonwealth to 
show the ratio of the so-called ' Irish-American ' to that of the ' native- 
Americans,' whose fathers and mothers are to the manor born. If 
now we add the 8,508 children who are half Irish, and whose mother 
or father was born in Massachusetts, the ratio will be 98,271 to 
50,977, or nearly two to one. 

" So much for Boston, where, as we have observed, it is determined 
that in the coming election for School Committee and other depart- 
ments of the City Government ' the Irish shall be swept from the 
board.' It is not necessary to print the census of other cities in the 
State which show like ratios, the whole number of persons in the 
Commonwealth whose parents were both Irish being 518,931, and 
those whose parents were both natives of Massachusetts being 
449,141. That there may be no doubt as to the correctness of these 
statistics I will quote directly from the report, and first as to our 
Jesuit Boston : 

BOSTON. 



Place of Birth. 


Males. 


Females. 


Both 
Sexes. 


Father. 


Mother. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


Ireland 


Ireland 


33,528 
24,976 


30,933 
60 


34,084 
25,865 


42,195 
7 6 


140,740 
50,977 
3.323 
5,^5 


Massachusetts . . 
Massachusetts . . 
Ireland 


Massachusetts . . 

























256 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



THE STATE. 



Place of Birth. 


Children. 


Both 
Sexes. 


Males. 


Females. 


Father. 


Mother. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


Ireland 




127,187 
217,500 


112,496 
268 


I3I.45 2 
231,058 


I3M52 
3H 


5*8,931 

i 

449,141 


Massachusetts . . 


Massachusetts . . 



" It is not necessary to discuss probabilities of a growth of these 
ratios, nor comment upon the right of class representation, yet, in 
view of the rapid increase of the ' foreign element,' I have thought 
that it might not be unwise for our friends who are marshalling their 
anti-Irish forces to look philosophically at the facts, and, having 
reviewed the Constitution and Bill of Rights, to suggest the follow- 
ing as a fitting topic for a Sunday lesson in Tremont Temple : l 

" All religious sects and denominations demeaning themselves peaceably and 
as good citizens of the Commonwealth shall be equal under the protection of the 
law, and no subordination of any one sect or denomination to another shall ever be 
established by law." 

HENRY BERNARD CARPENTER. 

The brilliant and many-gifted man whose name we have just 
written is, first of all, a typical Celt. He has the sensitive, poetic 
temperament ; the fervor of eloquence ; the generosity, enthusiasm, 
and kindly expansiveness, and the natural religiousness, to coin a 
word, which are racial traits. But in this man, and individualizing 
him, there is, over the poetic instinct, the poet's creative gift; and 
behind the natural orator, the scholar steeped in old classic lore, and 
abreast of all modern intellectual progress. In religion a Unitarian, 
and a clergyman of that communion as well, yet is he singularly 
drawn by the spiritual and material beauty of the Catholic church, 



1 An anti-Catholic demonstration was held at Tremont Temple at this time. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 257 

whom he loves to call " The Mother-Church," and to whom he has 
paid tribute of almost filial love in poem and oration. He is a 
dreamer, who would find his most congenial environment far enough 
either from battle-field or forum ; and yet, withal, a man of militant 
spirit, natural champion of the oppressed. He is intensely proud of 
his Irish birth, and has testified in helpful ways his devotion to the 
cause of Irish Home Rule. 

Henry Bernard Carpenter was born in Dublin, Ire., in 1840. 
His father and mother were each members of very old and honorable 
Irish families ; the one of Kilkenny, the other of Derry. On neither 
side is there any intermixture of English blood. The father was a 
clergyman of the then Established (Protestant) Church of Ireland, 
in whose principles, as well as in the high Tory and Orange tenets of 
his mother's family, the Boyds of Derry, young Carpenter was 
brought up. His father was his first teacher, and grounded him well 
in the Greek and Latin classics. 

In his eighteenth year he entered Oxford University, and made 
his course with most distinguishing success. He won prizes and a 
scholarship in Greek and Latin classical studies, and here first began 
to manifest his poetic gift. His brilliant University course is the 
more to be noted as it was made under difficulties. He suffered 
much then, as he has since, from a malformation of the eyes and 
weak sight, and often had to depend on readers. 

He graduated and left Oxford in 1862, and received the ap- 
pointment, under the Royal Commissioners of Education for Ireland, 
of Assistant Master in Classics and English Literature at Portora 
Royal School, Enniskillen, well called " the Eden of Ireland." 
William and Oscar Wilde, sons of Sir William Wilde, and other boys 
who have since become prominent men, were pupils of Mr. Carpenter 
at Portora. The ode written by Mr. Carpenter for the vice-regal visit 
of the Earl of Carlisle attracted attention, not alone from the man 
who was honored in being the subject of it, but from many others, 
who noted how gracefully his muse could move even in the fettering 
lines of the poem of an occasion. He was ordained afterwards as 
chaplain to the school, and later became chaplain to an Earl and 



258 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

his tenantry, near Enniskillen. His first ventures in the lecture field 
were made at this time, and with great success. 

We have touched on the stern Tory and Protestant influences 
under which Mr. Carpenter was brought up. Little by little, and 
yielding every point only in deference to irresistible conviction, the 
young man departed from the old landlord and aristocratic ideas of 
his heritage and training, and in 1870 allied himself with the Irish 
Home Rule movement. His religious, as well as his political, sen- 
timents underwent a radical change. 

In 1 874 he came to New England. Here he found congenial 
occupation, first as lecturer and contributor to the magazines and 
journals, later as pastor of congregations in Yarmouth and Bridge- 
ton, Me. In 1878, in response to repeated and urgent overtures, 
he accepted the pastorate of the Hollis-st. Unitarian Church, Boston. 
Mr. Carpenter greatly endeared himself to his congregation, and 
became also a favorite in Boston's social and literary circles. 

Mr. Carpenter published his first volume, "Liber Amoris," in 
1887, with the Messrs. Ticknor & Co., of Boston. It is a mediaeval 
romance in blank verse, divided into four books, each with an ex- 
quisite lyrical prelude. The story itself is lovely ; instinct with the 
spirit of the chivalric ages, which were also the Ages of Faith. The 
key-note of it all is Love perfected by Sacrifice. The expression is 
well-nigh perfect; like the thought, full of serious beauty, both 
rising sometimes into grandeur. How beautiful this invocation to 
Sleep ! 

" Sleep, Sleep, sweet Sleep, father of Life and Death, 
Thy twin-born children ; source and end of all ; 
Heaven's porter, who, with bright, smooth key of gold, 
Warm from the breast of God's dumb daughter, Peace, 
Openest, through darkness, for world-wearied man, 
A door to fields of light and starry streams, 
Where he may greet his dead whom he deems lost, 
And in one minute taste eternity ; 
Sweet Sleep, dear, easeful nurse of toil and woe, 
Who gatherest all thy children one by one, 
Whether in earth or sky or soundless sea, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 259 

In thy warm folds of painless lullabies, 

And layest them soft upon the knees of God, 

Yet comest never near God's hands or eyes. 

For God, he only, slumbers not nor sleeps : 

Dear Sleep, upon whose heart, the home of dreams, 

Life wakes and wonders, weeps and sinks to rest." 

Here is another typical passage : 

" If the love within thee, 

However holy, live for its own sake, 

More than for those it loves, oh, then, farewell 

Love's triumph over Death, farewell Love's last 

Fidelity made mightier by despair ; 

Farewell the faith that follows its lost star 

Down through Hell's whirlpools and great gulfs of night ! 

Love, living for himself, is but a dead, 

Kingdomless god, shorn of his deity." 

"Liber Amoris" proved not only a poem for the poets, but 
a poem for the people as well. It has passed through several 
editions. 

Of Mr. Carpenter's shorter poems, few have been more ad- 
mired than the " Vive Valeque," written after the departure of 
another beloved poet, the late Dr. Robert Dwyer Joyce, on his 
unhappily fruitless quest for health in his native land. These 
stanzas may fitly be given to the honor of the two poets : 

" Oh, saddest of all the sea's daughters, lerne, sweet mother isle, 

Say, how canst thou heal at thy waters the son whom we lend thee awhile? 
When the gathering cries implore thee to help and to heal thy kind, 
When the dying are strewn before thee, thy living ones crouch behind ; 
When about thee thy perishing children cling, crying, ' Thou only art fair ! * 
We have seen through Life's mazes bewildering how the earth-gods never spare. 
And the wolves, blood-ripe with slaughter, gnaw at thee with fangs of steel, 
Thou, Niobe-land of the water, hast many children to heal. 
Yet heal him, lerne, dear mother, thy days with his days shall jncrease ; 
At the song of this Delphic brother, nigh half of thy pangs shall cease. 

" Nor art thou, sweet friend, in a far land all places are near on the globe ; 
Our greeting wear for thy garland, our love for thy festival robe, 
While we keep through glory and gloom two altar-candles for thee, 



260 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Thy ' Blanid 1 of deathless doom, and thy dead but undying ' Deirdre.' 
And may He who builds in His patience the houses which death reveals, 
Round whom the fair constellations are dust from His chariot wheels ; 
Who showers His coin without scorning, each day as He issues it bright, 
The sun as His gold in the morning, the stars as His silver at night, 
The love which feedeth the sparrow and watcheth the little leaf, 
Which guideth the death-laden arrow and counteth each grain of grief, 
Change thy life-chant from its minor, and spread thy spirit serene, 
As gold before the refiner whose face is reflected therein." 

Mr. Carpenter went abroad in the fall of 1887, and spent nearly 
a year in Greece and Italy. He gave to delighted Boston audiences 
during the season of 1888-89 the fruit of his loving study of the 
sacred places of poetry and art, in a series of lectures which have 
never been equalled here in intrinsic interest, literary merit, and 
eloquent delivery since the days of Wendell Phillips. 

Mr. Carpenter retired from the pastorate of the Hollis-street 
church on its union with the Shawmut-avenue Unitarian church, in 
1887.. He has now charge of a large Unitarian congregation, which 
has its services in Steinert Hall, Boston. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



NOTED WOMEN 



SKETCHES OF NOTED WOMEN. 



LOUISE IMOGEN GUINEY. 

ABOUT eight years ago there appeared in the Boston " Pilot " 
a little narrative poem of quite notable freshness and vigor, 
entitled " Charondas." The story of the old Greek soldier and law- 
giver was presented sympathetically, and with the even strength of a 
practised writer; yet there was more than a suggestion of high- 
minded, college-bred young manhood about it. " A bright Harvard 
boy," we said, and smiled at the ineffective disguise of the flippant 
initials " P. O. L." appended to the poem. The same day a letter 
from a friend enclosed one of her notes from a late pupil, of whose 
literary promise much had been said. Two lines of this especial 
note, however, arrested attention : " I am contributing verses to the 
'Pilot' over a string of bogus initials, 'P. O. L.' and the signature 
' Louise Imogen Guiney.' " Here was the Harvard boy a graduate 
of the Convent of the Sacred Heart, Providence. 

Born in Roxbury, Mass., Jan. 7, 1861, she passed through a 
course of studies at the Notre Dame Academy of Roxbury, the 
Everett Grammar School, Boston, and latterly at the Convent of the 
Sacred Heart, " Elmhurst," Providence, R.I., where she graduated 
in 1879. She is one of the youngest and brightest writers engaged 
in current literary work, and possessing great intellectual ability and 
uncommon scholarship, gives promise of high literary achievements 
and extended popularity. 

Her first book " Songs at the Start " was published in Boston 
in 1884, and has been followed by "Goose-Quill Papers," 1885; 
"The White Sail," 1887; and "Brownies and Bogies," 1888. 

Much of her earlier work appeared in the "Pilot;" for John 
Boyle O'Reilly was among the first to recognize her budding talent, 

(263) 



264 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

and was the most sedulous in fostering it. In literature, at least, 
one cannot separate the artist from the man or woman ; for God's 
truth is in the saying, that whatever one incidentally writes, he in- 
evitably writes himself. Miss Guiney comes naturally by her aptitude 
for grasping and voicing the heroic, and this is the dominant char- 
acteristic in her poetry. Her father, Gen. Patrick R. Guiney, him- 
self a man of marked literary tastes, which, in a more leisurely life 
might have developed into talents, enlisted at the first call to arms 
in the late Civil War, and was active in raising the famous Ninth 
Regiment of Massachusetts. He participated in thirty-six fierce 
engagements, but was wounded and incapacitated for further service 
in the Battle of the Wilderness. He survived the war some years, 
always a sufferer, but a brave and uncomplaining one ; and died in 
the flower of his age, from disease engendered by the wounds re- 
ceived in his last battle. There is a thought of him and of the 
grandfather who fought in the Irish uprising of '98, in the sonnet 
on the flags in the Massachusetts State House, in the little volume 
" Songs at the Start," already referred to : 

" Dear witnesses, all luminous, eloquent, 

Stacked thickly on the tessellated floor! 

The soldier-blood stirs in me as of yore 
In sire and grandsire who to battle went ; 
I seem to know the shaded valley-tent, 

The armed and bearded men, the thrill of war, 

Horses that prance to hear the cannon roar, 
Shrill bugle-calls and camp-fire merriment." 

She did, indeed, know something of " the camp-fire merriment" 
by actual experience ; for, when a toddling child, she went with her 
mother to Virginia, where the Army of the Potomac was encamped. 
In a delightful sketch, " A Child in Camp," the sketch, indeed, 
which gives her little volume of prose essays, " Goose-Quill Papers," 
brought out by Roberts Brothers in 1885, its best reason for being, 
she records her morning twilight impressions of a portentous era 
in American history. 

The heroism which appeals to our poet is of what may be called 




LOUISE IMOGEN GUINBY 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 265 

the objective order. This is as is natural for a strong, self-reliant, 
self-centred life, that has budded and bloomed out-of-doors, like the 
lithe young willow of her native New England, which her straight, 
slender, supple form suggests. She is not a laureate of the out-of- 
sight heroism of which so many women poets have sung bravely and 
sweetly, if sometimes monotonously. A mood like that voiced in Rosa 
Mulholland's famous little poem, " Failure," would meet scant sympa- 
thy from this sunny young Greek. Indeed, her poetry shows a ten- 
dency to look on the loves and losses of ordinary humanity in a 
calm, judicial way, as if they concerned the dwellers in another 
planet, and were quite unlikely ever to cast a shadow upon her own 
morning path. A tendency, only, we say; for there is a queer, 
wistful, pathetic touch, which is not altogether human, in some of 
the poems in her second volume, " The White Sail ; " notably in the 
legend of " The Wooing Pine,". in the "Last Faun," " Youth," and 
" The Atoning Yesterday," as if a wood-nymph of the golden Hel- 
lenic age, called to take on the earthly risks and the immortal 
guerdons of humanity, should shrink and waver, half doubting that 
the new life held full compensation for the groves and grottoes and 
fountains, and the blithe, irresponsible play-fellows of her passing 
natural beatitude. 

" The White Sail," with which her latest volume of poems opens, 
is the old classic story of Theseus freeing Athens from the yearly 
maiden-tribute to the Minotaur of Crete ; and of his fatal forgetful- 
ness to hoist the promised white sail on his triumphant return to his 
father, ^Egeus. It is in blank verse, which is almost invariably 
smooth and melodious, with here and there a grand Tennysonian 
line. Though the poem nowhere rises to the dramatic force and fire 
which permeate the legend of " Tarpeia," by all odds the best 
thing in the book, yet it abounds in strong passages. A fine, 
foreshadowing touch is this incident of the childhood of Theseus, 
when he sees his pet turtle-pigeon dead through his neglect : 

"Then the child 

Bewailed his darling, lying stiff and mute. 
Arid -dEthra held his innocent han dand hers 



266 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

With solemn lessoning; for she foresaw 

Remorse, and irremediable ache, 

And ruin, following him whose manhood swerves 

To the eased by-ways of forgetfulness. 

She, his hot brow caressing, so besought 

The weeping Prince : ' If thou, O little son ! 

Wilt lay hereafter duties on thyself, 

Stand mindful of them, all thy vows observe. 

Be a trust broken but a small, small thing, 

Its possible shadow slaves this world in woe.' " 

There is a touch of grim humor in the recounting of the pun- 
ishments which Theseus, in later years, meted out to the monsters 
who oppressed the " realms distressed," through which he passed to 
find his father: 

" He harsh Procrustes bedded ; limb from limb 
Rent the Pine-bender on recoiling boughs ; 
And him that thrust the lavers of his feet 
Headlong in chasms, Theseus likewise served 
By dint of hospitable precedent." 

Take it all in all, we are glad of " The White Sail," were it only for 
this delicious lyric, with which our poet makes Alcamenes soothe 
the last vigil of ^Egeus : 

" Thy voice is like the moon, revealed by stealthy paces, 

Thy silver margined voice like the ample moon and free ; 
Ah, beautiful ! ah, mighty ! the stars fall on their faces, 
The warring world is silent, for love and awe of thee. 

My soul is but a sailor, to whom thy wonder-singing 
Is anchorage, and haven, and unimagined day ! 

And who, in angry ocean, to thine enchantment clinging, 
Forgets the helm for rapture, and drifts to doom away." 

" Tarpeia " is the story, told first by Livy, of the Roman girl, 
daughter of the aged keeper of the Citadel, who, straying outside 
the gates into the camp of the besieging Sabines, is tempted by the 
jewels of the chief: 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 267 

" The armlets he wore were thrice royal and wondrous to see : 

Exquisite artifice, whorls of barbaric design, 
Frost's fixed mimicry ; orbic imaginings fine 

In sevenfold coils : and in orient glimmer from them, 
The variform voluble swinging of gem upon gem. 

And the glory thereof sent fever and fire to her eye. 

' I had never such trinkets,' she sighed, like a lute was her sigh." 

She offers, if he will but give them to her, to unbar the city 
gates for him and his host. He promises, and his followers likewise 
promise her their all ; but when the act was done, the poor little 
traitor 

" Repulsed where they passed her, half tearful for wounded belief, 
' The bracelets ! ' she pleaded. Then faced her the leonine chief, 

And answered her : ' Even as I promised, maid-merchant, I do.' 
Down from his dark shoulder the baubles he sullenly drew. 

' This left arm shall nothing begrudge thee. Accept. Find it sweet. 
Give, too, O my brothers ! ' The jewels he flung at her feet. 

The jewels hard, heavy; she stooped to them, flushing with dread, 
But the shield he flung after: it clanged on her beautiful head. 

Like the Apennine bells when the villagers 1 warnings begin, 
Athwart the first lull broke the ominous din upon din ; 

With a ' Hail benefactress ! ' upon her they heaped in their zeal 
Death : agate and iron ; death ; chrysoprase, beryl, and steel. 

A mountain of shields! and the gemmy bright tangle in links, 
A torrent-like gush, pouring out on the grass from the chinks, 

Pyramidal gold ! the sumptuous monument won 

By the deed they had loved her for, doing, and loathed her for, done." 

These magnificent lines speak for themselves. The highest 
tribute to the poet's skill in handling the terrible story is that one 



268 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

turns from Tarpeia with pity and horror, rather than with contempt. 
Freedom, strength, and simplicity mark every line of this noble 
poem. 

" Moustache " ought to go into school-readers with Father 
Prout's " Dog of the Three Days," and Campbell's patriotic " Spanish 
Parrot." The historical ballads of " Chaluz Castle " and " A Chouan" 
are in the martial vein she loves. In the appended poem, she 
touches high-water mark of the heroic. It proves that she has a 
heart for her heritage of patriot-blood, and on its sole strength she 
wins a high place among the poets of America. Whittier might 
have owned it with pride ; and it would have been heard, had he 
lived, on the eloquent lips of Wendell Phillips. 

JOHN BROWN: A PARADOX. 

Compassionate eyes had our brave John Brown, 

And a craggy, stern forehead, a militant frown; 

He, the storm-bow of peace. Give him volley on volley, 

The fool who redeemed us once of our folly, 

And the smiter that healed us, our right John Brown! 

Too vehement, verily, was John Brown! 
For waiting is statesmanlike ; his the renown 
Of the holy rash arm, the equipper and starter 
Of freedom ; aye, call him fanatic and martyr ; 
He can carry both halos, our plain John Brown. 

A scandalous stumbling-block was John Brown, 
And a jeer ; but, ah ! soon from the terrified town, 
In his bleeding track made over hilltop and hollow, 
Wise armies and councils were eager to follow, 
And the children's lips chanted our lost John Brown. 

Star-led for us stumbled and groped John Brown, 

Star-led in the awful morasses to drown ; 

And the trumpet that rang for a nation's upheaval, 

From the thought that was just, thro 1 the deed that was evil, 

Was blown with the breath of this dumb John Brown ! 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 269 

Bared heads and a pledge unto mad John Brown! 
Now the curse is allayed, now the dragon is down, 
Now we see, clear enough, looking back at the onset, 
Christianity's flood-tide and Chivalry's sunset 
In the old broken heart of our hanged John Brown. 

We have touched on the out-of-door life of our poet. It has 
enabled her to embody the bracing breath, the music, and the deli- 
cate colors of the New England spring in many a charming poem. 
The critical Richard Watson Gilder gave unstinted praise to a tiny 
spring-time lyric in her earlier volume ; and her " Gloucester Harbor," 
which has an unwonted note of human pathos, too, has won promi- 
nence among poems of places. Her eyes for the shyer beauties of 
woodland or riverside are keener now, and her touch is surer. What 
a lovely picture is this : 

"As a shy brook wheels from jutting boughs, 
And in a sidelong glimmer sobs away." 

" Down Stream " is exquisite, and so is " Garden Chidings ; " 
and as much must be said for " Temptation," where the sight of a 
gypsy camp sets our poet wishing to 

" Break the lens and the plane, 

To burn the pen and the brush," 

that she might be 

"Abroad with the rain, 

And at home with the forest hush, 
With the crag, and the flower-urn." 

Her verse is nearly always notably musical ; but " The Knights 
of Weather " is one of the best examples we have ever noted of a 
poem which sings itself. 

" The White Sail " is dedicated to the memory of Keats ; and 
we find frequent traces of his influence, notably in " Cyclamen." 
How Keatsish, but how beautiful, are these lines : 



270 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

" To thee my carol now ! albeit no lark 
Hath for thy praise a throat too exquisite. 

Oh would that song might fit 
These harsh north slopes for thine inhabiting, 
Or shelter lend thy loveliest laggard wing, 
Thou undefiled estray of earth's o'ervanished Spring ! " 

And then from another poem, " On Some Old Music " : 

" How, like an angel, it effaced the crime, 
The moil and heat of our tempestuous time, 

And brought from dewier air, to us who waited, 
The breath of peace, the healing breath sublime ! 

As falls, at midnight's chime 
To an old pilgrim, plodding on belated. 
The thought of Love's remote sunshining prime." 

Our poet is uncompanioned among the singers of our day 
except by Edith Thomas in this, that she sings no love songs. 
There is a suggestion, though, of latent capabilities in that direction 
in the lyric from " The White Sail," already quoted. She differs 
from other woman poets, too, in that she almost never writes a dis- 
tinctively religious poem. " Ranieri " and " Frederic Ozanam " are 
the nearest approaches ; unless, indeed, we take " Saint Cadoc's 
Bell," which is as weird in its way as Mrs. Browning's " Lay of the 
Brown Rosary." 

We miss from this collection the noble Grant Memorial poem 
which Miss Guiney wrote, by invitation of the city of Boston, for 
the Grant Eulogy, Oct. 22, 1885 ; and " Sergeant Jasper," written 
a few months later, and which was widely republished at the time 
of the unveiling of the monument to the hero of Fort Moultrie, 
in Savannah, Feb. 22, 1888. 

Miss Guiney's latest volume is " Brownies and Bogies," D. Lo- 
throp & Co., Boston, 1888. It is a veritable compendium of the 
fairy-tales and folk-lore of all times and peoples. She is a con- 
tributor to the " Atlantic Monthly," " Harpers' Magazine," the 
" Catholic World," the " Century," " Scribner's," " Wide Awake," 
" The Critic," the New York " Independent," etc. A fascinating 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 271 

sketch of hers, " Dr. Johnson's Favorites," was published anony- 
mously, a few months ago, in " Macmillan's Magazine," London, 
England, and attracted much favorable comment in literary circles 
on both sides of the water. 

Miss Guiney is versed in English literature far beyond the wont 
even of professed literary people. She is a good Latin scholar, 
fluent in French and Italian, an accomplished musician. She has 
just set out on a visit to Europe, which will probably be pro- 
longed over two years. With youth, energy, and industry, a noble 
character and an attractive personality, with an honorable place 
achieved in letters, while her resources are still but half developed, 
it is not rash to predict that within the next decade Louise Imogen 
Guiney will make for herself a great and enduring name in English 
literature. K. E. C. 

MARY ELIZABETH BLAKE. 

Mary Elizabeth M'Grath was born in Dungarvan, County Water- 
ford, Ireland, in 1840. In 1849 sne came with her parents to Quincy, 
Mass., where her father started the since well-known M'Grath marble 
works. Her father was a man of scholarly tastes and extensive 
reading, and his daughter received most of her early education at 
home. Later, she made the regular course at the Quincy High 
School, attended George B. Emerson's private school in Boston for a 
few years, and finally devoted some years to music and the languages 
at the Academy of the Sacred Heart, Manhattanville, N.Y. In 
1865 she was married to Dr. John G. Blake, of Boston. 

While Mrs. Blake was still in her teens, her graceful poems and 
sketches, contributed to " The Pilot " over the pen-name of " Marie," 
attracted much favorable notice. A little later, the Boston " Gazette," 
then under the editorship of P. B. Shillaber, secured her promising 
pen. She wrote also for " The Transcript " and other Boston dailies. 
She scored an immediate success with her "Rambling Talks," in 
"The Boston Journal." These have since become one of the most 
popular features of that paper. 



272 THE IRISH Ifi BOSTON. 

But Mrs. Blake is preeminently a poet, with a very sweet and 
distinct voice, akin to none of the American sisterhood of singers, 
except, perhaps, Mrs. Sarah M. B. Piatt. Her poems for children, 
most of which appeared first in the " Wide Awake," have made " M. 
E. B." a dear name and L. familiar in thousands of American homes. 

We find among Mrs. Blake's collected poems a cluster on which 
her poetic fame might safely rest, albeit they were penned with no 
thought of fame, and their author, like many another, but sang to 
ease her sorrow. They are the poems evoked by the great and in- 
effaceable grief of her young motherhood, the deaths of three lovely 
children within a week. The cluster is named, " In Sorrow," and the 
tears of bereaved mothers whose hearts have yearned to the author 
through fellowship of desolation is their all-sufficing eulogy. We 
quote : 

A DEAD SUMMER. 

What lacks the summer? 

Not roses blowing, 

Nor tall white lilies with fragrance rife, 

Nor green things gay with the bliss of growing, 

Nor glad things drunk with the wine of life, 

Nor flushing of cloud in blue skies shining, 

Nor soft wind murmurs to rise and fall. 

Nor birds for singing, nor vines for twining, 
Three little buds I miss, no more, 
That blossomed last year at my garden door, 
And that is all. 

What lacks the summer? 

Not waves a-quiver 

With arrows of light from the hand of dawn, 

Nor drooping of boughs by the dimpling river, 

Nor nodding of grass on the windy lawn, 

Nor tides upswept upon silver beaches, 

Nor rustle of leaves on tree-tops tall, 

Nor dapple of shade in woodland reaches, 
Life pulses gladly on vale and hill, 
But three little hearts that I love are still, 
And that is all. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 273 

What lacks the summer? 

Oh, light and savor, 

And message of healing the world above ! 

Gone is the old-time strength and flavor, 

Gone is the old-time peace and love, 

Gone is the bloom of the shimmering meadows, 

Music of birds as they sweep and fall, 

All the great world is dim with shadows, 

Because no longer mine eyes can see 
The eyes that made summer and life for me, 
And that is all. 



The later development of Mrs. Blake's poetic gift, as shown in 
her " Wendell Phillips," written by invitation of the city of Boston for 
his memorial in 1884; "How Ireland Answered," and " Women of 
the Revolution," both in 1885, reveal splendid strength and fervor. 
Mrs. Blake was the poet of the Golden Jubilee celebration of the Sis- 
ters of Charity in 1882, and of the Catholic Union's Festival in 
honor of Pope Pius IX. in 1873. Here is a poem of Mrs. Blake's, a 
favorite at Irish patriotic festivals, reproduced hundreds of times in 
Irish publications, which cannot be omitted from this sketch. She 
calls it 

OUR RECORD. 

Who casts a slur on Irish worth, a stain on Irish fame? 
Who dreads to own his Irish blood, or wear his Irish name? 
Who scorns the warmth of Irish hearts, the clasp of Irish hands? 
Let us but raise the veil to-night and shame him as he stands. 

The Irish fame ! It rests enshrined within its own proud light, 
Wherever sword, or tongue, or pen has fashioned deed of might; 
From battle-charge of Fontenoy to Grattan's thunder tone, 
It holds its storied past on high, unrivalled and alone. 

The Irish blood ! Its crimson tide has watered hill and plain 
Wherever there were wrongs to crush, or freeman's rights to gain ; 
No dastard thought, no coward fear, has held it tamely by 
When there were noble deeds to do, or noble deaths to die ! 



274 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

The Irish heart ! the Irish heart ! God keep it fair and free ; 
The fulness of its kindly thought, its wealth of honest glee, 
Its generous strength, its ardent faith, its uncomplaining trust, 
Though every worshipped idol breaks and crumbles into dust. 

And Irish hands, aye, lift them up, embrowned by honest toil, 
The champions of our Western World, the guardians of the soil ! 
When flashed their battle-swords aloft, a waiting world might see 
What Irish hands could do and dare to keep a nation free. 

They bore our starry flag above through bastion, gate, and wall ; 
They stood before the foremost rank, the bravest of them all ; 
And when before the cannon's mouth they held the foe at bay, 
Oh, never could old Ireland's heart beat prouder than that day ! 

So when a craven fain would hide the birth-mark of his race, 

Or slightly speak of Erin's sons before her children's face, 

Breathe no weak word of scorn or shame, but crush him where he stands 

With Irish worth and Irish fame as won by Irish hands. 

Mrs. Blake's prose is clear, picturesque, and vivacious. . She 
is a favorite contributor both of prose and poetry to the New 
York " Independent," " Catholic World," " Ladies' Home Journal," 
of Philadelphia, " Wide-Awake," " St. Nicholas," Providence 
" Journal," Chicago " Herald," and other publications. Her pub- 
lished works include: "Poems," Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., 1882; 
" On the Wing," Lee, Shepard, & Co., the outcome of a tour to 
California, 1883; "The Merry Months Alt," 1885; "Youth in 
Twelve Centuries," D. Lothrop & Co., 1886, the two last-named 
are children's poems ; " Mexico : Picturesque, Political, Progres- 
sive," Lee, Shepard, & Co., 1888, which she wrote in conjunction 
with Mrs. Margaret F. Sullivan, of Chicago, after a sojourn in 
our neighbor republic which they made together. With this 
same devoted friend Mrs. Blake is, at present writing, making a 
five months' tour of Europe. 

Mrs. Blake's well-ordered and happy home is a standing 
refutation of the absurd old notion that a woman of letters is 
of necessity a failure in the higher office of wife and mother. In 
place of the portrait, which the editor of this volume regrets to 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 275 

have been unable to secure, the following pen-picture of Mrs. 
Blake, from the faithful and tender hand of her friend above- 
named, is given: 

" Here is a face that one. must linger on, pale but healthful, with 
a pair of brown riddles for eyes, the love in them chasing the laughter, 
and both love and laughter very deep in their liquid depths. Keen 
sensibility beneath habitual reserve, internal heat and exterior fri- 
gidity, humor that must be rollicking when relaxed, and imagination 
that must be superb when freed from restraint. The studious ex- 
pression bespeaks power of concentration ; the quick flashes of sensi- 
bility betray the hidden vivacity, and there is a deft mingling of 
gravity, satire, and levity on the face that would have made one ask 
who the lady is." 

Our sketch fitly closes with this poem, one of the best Mrs. 
Blake ever wrote : 

HOW IRELAND ANSWERED. 

A TRADITION OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 

Wheresoe'er in song or story 

Runs one theme of ancient glory, 
Wheresoe'er in word or action lives one spark for Freedom's shrine, 

Read it out before the people, 

Ring it loud in street and steeple, 
Till the hearts of those who listen thrill beneath its power divine ! 

And, as lives immortal, gracious, 

The great deed of young Horatius, 
Or that gauntlet of defiance flung by Tell in Gessler's face, 

So for him who claims as sireland 

The green hills of holy Ireland, 
Let the speech of old John Parnell speak its lesson to his race. 

'Twas in days when, sore tormenting, 

With a malice unrelenting, 
England pushed her youngest step-child past endurance into strife, 

'Til with weak, frail hands uplifted 

With but hate and courage gifted 
She began the desperate struggle that should end in death or life. 



276 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

'Twas the fourth long year of fighting ; 

Want and woe and famine, biting, 
Nipped the heart-strings of " the Rebels," chilled their pulse with cold despair; 

Southern swamp and Northern mountain 

Fed full streams to war's red fountain, 
And the gloom of hopeless struggle darkened all the heavy air. 

Lincoln's troops in wild disorder, 

Beaten on the Georgian border ; 
Fivescore craft, off Norfolk harbor, scuttled deep beneath the tide ; 

Hessian thieves, in swaggering sallies, 

Raiding fair New England valleys ; 
While before Savannah's trenches brave Pulaski, fighting, died I 

Indian allies war-whoops raising, 

Where Wyoming's roofs are blazing ; 
Clinton, full of pomp and bluster, sailing down on Charleston ; 

And the people, faint with striving, 

Worn with aimless, sad contriving, 
Tired at last of Freedom's battle, heedless if 'tis lost or won ! 

Shall now England pause in mercy, 

When the frozen plains of Jersey, 
Tracked with blood, show pathways trodden by bare feet of wounded men ? 

When the drained and tortured nation 

Holds no longer gold or ration 
To upbuild her broken fortune, or to fill her veins again? 

Nay ! but striking swift and surely, 

Now to gain the end securely, 
Stirring asks for reinforcements volunteers to speed the cause ; 

And King George, in mandate royal, 

Speeds amid his subjects loyal, 
Calls for dutiful assistance to avenge his outraged laws. 

In the name of law and order, 

Sends across the Irish border 
To the wild and reckless spirits of whose daring well he knows : 

" Ho ! brave fools who fight for pleasure ! 

Here is chance for fame and treasure ; 
Teach those brazen Yankee devils the full force of Irish blows ! " 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 277 

Old John Parnell, cool and quiet, 

Strange result on Celtic diet, 
Colonel he of volunteers, and well-beloved chief of men, 

Reads the royal proclamation, 

Answers for himself and nation 
Ye who heed the voice of honor, list the ringing words again : 

"Still, as in her ancient story, 

Ireland fights for right and glory ; 
Still her sons, through blood and danger, hold unstained their old renown ; 

But by God who reigneth o'er me, 

By the Motherland that bore me, 

Never Irish gold or valor helps to strike a patriot down ! " 
* 

Thus, 'mid themes immortal, gracious, 

Like the deed of young Horatius, 
Or that gauntlet of defiance flung by Tell in Gessler's face, 

Let the Celt who claims as sireland 

The green hills of holy Ireland, 
Place the speech of old John Parnell, for the glory of his race. 



KATHERINE ELEANOR CONWAY. 

Katharine Eleanor Conway was born in Rochester, N.Y., of Irish 
parents. Her father was a bridge-builder and railroad contractor, 
and active in the politics of his city and State. Her mother was a 
home-keeper and book-lover, and the environment of the childhood 
of the subject of this sketch was eminently conducive to early mental 
development and intelligent interest in public affairs. 

She studied successively in the schools of the Sisters of Charity 
and the Nuns of the Sacred Heart, in her native city, completing her 
course at St. Mary's Academy, Buffalo, N.Y. One of her teachers 
in this last-named school was an English lady, a convert, who had 
come into the Church on the high tide of the Tractarian movement. 
She was a singularly gifted woman, accomplished, earnest, who 
had known personally many of the famous people of the Dickens- 
Thackeray era ; and the glimpses she gave her young pupil into that 
golden time was a not-to-be-forgotten delight. She encouraged 



278 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

Katherine to write, indeed, her first published work (1868) was 
done in school, when she was about fifteen years of age. 

For several years thereafter she did reportorial work, verses, 
sketches, etc., for the Rochester " Daily Union," and correspondence 
for several New York papers. All this was more in the line of in- 
stinctive out-reaching, than the expression of any definite plan or 
purpose. She found at this time a judicious and helpful friend in 
Bishop M'Quaid, of Rochester, who, noting the aspiration, rather 
than the accomplishment, in some of the young girl's published work, 
opened his library to her, and by practical direction and suggestion 
greatly influenced the development of her aptitudes and the deter- 
mination of her life-work. 

From 1873-78 she edited in Rochester a little Catholic maga- 
zine, the " West End Journal." Serious family reverses occurring 
between these dates threw her on her own resources, and her ready 
pen became by degrees a source of revenue. She was for several 
years teacher of rhetoric and literature in the Normal School of 
Nazareth Convent, Rochester, and a contributor of short stories to 
the Philadelphia " Catholic Record " and various New York story 
papers and magazines. 

From 1878 till 1883 with one short break she was assistant 
editor on the " Catholic Union and Times," of Buffalo, N.Y. In 
1 883 she accepted a position on the editorial staff of " The Pilot," 
of Boston, where she has since remained. 

Her purely literary work includes a volume of poems, " On the 
Sunrise Slope," brought out by the Catholic Publication Society 
Company, of New York, in 1881, and quite successful. In 1886 
she edited for Mrs. Clara Erskine Clement, the art writer, " Christian 
Symbols and Stories of the Saints," published by Ticknor & Co., of 
Boston. This work has gone through several editions, winning warm 
approval from high Catholic authorities, and a recognition of marked 
and unusual kindness even from Pope Leo XIII., to whom a copy 
was presented near the time of his Golden Jubilee. 

Miss Conway has contributed literary criticisms, personal 
sketches, etc., to the Providence " Journal," Buffalo " Courier," and 





' U L 3 [ i 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 279 

other papers, besides doing much anonymous work in the way of 
book editing and compiling. In journalism she is accounted an 
adaptable and persistent worker. J. W. De Forest, the novelist and 
poet, says of her poems, that they are all marked by refreshing 
earnestness and sincerity; and not a few of them by wonderful 
passion, energy, and condensation. 

Miss Conway was the first Catholic to address the Women's 
Educational rand Industrial U,nion, of Boston, a society, non-secta- 
rian, it is true, but with a membership almost entirely Protestant. In- 
vited a year ago to prepare a paper on a distinctly Catholic theme, 
she chose " The Blessed Among Women," setting forth to her hearers 
the place of the Blessed Virgin in the Catholic Church, the grounds 
of Catholic devotion to her, her influence on the elevation of woman- 
hood, on poetry, art, music. The paper was exceedingly well 
received, and attracted general attention, at the time, for the novelty 
of the attendant circumstances. Later, the same society invited Miss 
Conway to address them again, and, under the head of " Some 
Christian Ideas," to explain the Catholic understanding of the Church 
Idea. This paper was even more widely noticed than the preceding 
one, and the author was requested to repeat it before several societies, 
both Catholic and non-Catholic. A new paper, " The Ideals of 
Christian Womanhood," written for the Boston Catholic Union, has 
been engaged also for several other associations. 

Miss Conway is a member of the executive council of the New 
England Woman's Press Club, and chairman of its literary committee. 

She is not more remarkable for her mental qualities than for 
their large balance and proportion. Her poetic gift, inborn and 
dominant, leaves her no less a woman of action, a natural helper, a 
publicist, one with whom all clan feelings are intense, and in whom 
no outer sympathy is lacking. With her habits of consistency and 
justice, her perfect temper, her zealous, aggressive pen, she has one 
distinct Grecian trait, the love for organization, and the personality 
which fits it and succeeds best through it. During her few journal- 
istic years in Boston she has made herself a place, special, and yet 
markedly representative, and has worked, with gracious modesty, for 



280 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

every good cause within reach. Though Miss Conway is too busy 
to delight us often with her thoughtful and thrilling poetry, yet she 
is very blessed in " a deedful life," incapable of any but the highest 
and gentlest ideals, and which, in itself, makes an eloquence and a 
music of every day. 

The appended poem is fairly representative : 

OUT OF THE SHADOW OF DEATH. 
IRELAND, 1800-1885. 

"She died from you," they said, "in the flush of her bridal bloom." 
But they lied with their hearts and lips beloved, thou could'st not die ! 

They lured thee out of my arms, and shut thee alive in the tomb, 
And guarded with fire and sword the place of thine agony. 

And they laughed but yester-eve, in their cruel strength and scorn, 
Saying, "Still through the years he seeks her O fondest, faithfullest ! 

And still are fools to follow his beck on a hope forlorn, 
And never a one a-weary and oh, the idle quest!" 

Did they dream their swords could sunder the bonds of soul to soul? 

Or that flames could daunt my purpose, though lit from the central Hell? 
Ah, they thought I grieved like a man that time would ease my dole, 

With a new fair face forgetting what late I loved so well ! 

They knew me not changeless, deathless, what time with heart grief riven, 

For thee in mortal seeming the paths of pain I trod 
But I am Freedom Freedom and I've stood in the highest heaven, 

With the seven armored angels who guard the throne of God. 

Courage, mine own, nor falter, but hold for thy life to me 

Look not back where the flames and the swords and the serpents were 

Look up ! for yon stars are the souls of the men who died for thee, 
Crushed under the stone they would roll from the door of thy sepulchre. 

Ah, me! but thy face is wan, and thy sweet eyes dimmed with tears, 
And the soul on thy pale lips flutters as if it were fain to flee 

Ah, God! for thy years of waiting thy tortured, murdered years 
Ere I rent thy tomb and fled through the Valley of Death with thee ! 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 281 

But oh! for our journey's end, and home, and the light of dawn, 
And the sweet green earth, the bird-singing, the balm of the soft sea air 

Oh, to hold thee close to my heart till the chill of the grave is gone, 
And kiss thy lips and thy hands and the strands of thy long fair hair ! 

Courage, mine own, nor falter, but cling for thy life to me 
Hear the home-welcoming music, nor faint nor far away 

And the conquering Cross ablaze in the heavens above us see! 
We are out of the Shadow of Death but one step more to the day! 



MARY CATHERINE CROWLEY. 

Mary Catherine Crowley is a native of Boston, and of a family 
prominent in its early and later Irish Catholic history. On her moth- 
er's side she is descended from the historic Scotch family of Cameron, 
of Lochiel and Lundavra. Miss Crowley's early education was con- 
ducted at home. Later she attended the Academy of Notre Dame, 
Roxbury, Mass., and finally made the full course at the Academy 
of the Sacred Heart, Manhattan ville, where her mother and aunts 
had also been educated. 

Miss Crowley's literary career began about four years ago. 
She was fortunate in reaching her public at once through excellent 
mediums. We find her early work in the " Catholic World," the 
" Pilot," and the " Wide Awake." She figures also in that rather 
famous nursery of young talent, Father Russell's " Irish Monthly," 
and is a contributor of short stories to the " M'Clure Syndicate." 
Still later she appears in the " St. Nicholas," the " Ave Maria," the 
"Ladies' Home Journal," of Philadelphia, as an occasional corre- 
spondent of the New York " Freeman," and other Catholic publica- 
tions. Her poems are graceful and musical, her prose sketches and 
stories sprightly and delicate, while certain of her frequent anony- 
mous contributions to the Boston press on household, social, and 
educational topics reveal real thought, sound sense, and breadth of 
mind, and a capacity for terse and direct expression. 

It is, however, as a writer of children's stories that Miss Crowley 
seems thus far destined to make her highest reputation. There is 



282 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

a superstition that any woman who can write at all ought to be able 
to write acceptably for children. Few realize that those characters 
are rare indeed that attain womanhood keeping the fragrance of 
their childhood still about them, and holding the clue whereby they 
can wander back at will to the lovely, innocent world of the child-heart. 
Miss Crowley is one of the fortunate few. Her first ventures, begun 
little more than a year ago in the line of stories from real life for 
children of to-day, were immediately successful. In response to a 
widely expressed demand, she gathered a few of these together from 
the pages of the "Ave Maria" and the "Ladies' Home Journal," 
and issued them in book form, under the title of " Merry Hearts and 
True," from the press of D. & J. Sadlier & Co., New York City. 
This charming little book had the unusual good fortune to go into 
its second edition the week it was published. Miss Crowley is at 
work on another volume of short stories, which will probably be 
ready for the Christmas holidays. There is evidently a very success- 
ful career before her in a department of literature where compara- 
tively few succeed. 

Miss Crowley is well versed in French, Spanish, and German ; 
is a brilliant musician, and gifted with all in character and acquire- 
ment that makes a woman attractive in home-life and society. 

K. E. C. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



BOSTON LAWYERS. 



SKETCHES OF BOSTON LAWYERS. 



AHERIN, JOHN H. P., lawyer, born in 
Boston, April u, 1858. He was educated 
at St. Mary's Parochial School, graduated in 
1872, and was employed as clerk in the office 
of the Registry of Deeds until 1877. He 
studied law in the office of Mr. F. W. Kit- 
tredge, and later became the conveyancer of 
Messrs. Crowley & Maxwell, with whom he 
remained until October, 1885, when he en- 
tered the Boston University Law School. 
He graduated in 1886, and was admitted to 
the Suffolk bar in June of the same year, 
and afterwards established himself in prac- 
tice. 

BARLOW, JAMES P., lawyer, born in North 
Easton, Mass., Feb. 22, 1863. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of that town, and 
was a graduate of the North Easton High 
School, June 28, 1879, and the Boston Uni- 
versity Law School, May 28, 1886. He was 
admitted to the bar July 20, 1886, and began 
the practice of his profession in Boston, July, 
1887. He ranks among the very young but 
promising lawyers in this vicinity. 

BARRY, THOMAS J., lawyer, born in South 
Boston, January I, 1857. He graduated 
from the Lawrence Grammar School in 
1869, and the English High School in 1873. 
He attended Comer's Commercial College 
and Holy Cross College. He afterwards 
received a special course of two years at the 
Boston Latin School, and a classical course 
of one year at the Chauncy Hall School. 
He graduated at the Harvard Law School 
in 1881, with the degree of LL.B. He 
subsequently studied law in a supplementary 
way, in the office of J. M. Baker, and was 



admitted to the bar in January, 1882. He 
has been actively engaged in politics since 
1884. He was counsel for the Journeymen 
Tailors at the time of the strike at Somer's 
store, obtaining for them the right to have 
delegates walk the street in front of the es- 
tablishment without causing an obstruction. 
Since 1883 he has been attorney and secre- 
tary of the Warm Springs Consolidated 
Mining Co. He is also a stockholder of 
the Canton Manufacturing Co. During the 
school season, since 1 88 1, he has filled the 
position of secretary of the Evening High 
School, of Boston. He is a member of the 
Charitable Irish Society, Clover Club, and 
Democratic City Committee, of Boston. He 
is, at present, the president of the latter 
organization, having been elected in 1887. 

BURKE, JOHN H., lawyer, born in Chelsea, 
Mass., September 6, 1856. He graduated 
at the Bigelow Grammar School, South Bos- 
ton, attended Boston College, and graduated 
from the Boston University Law School in 
1878, receiving the degree of LL.B. He 
was admitted to the Suffolk County bar in 
September, 1878. He practised law on his 
own account for five years, in the office of 
Hon. P. A. Collins, when, in 1883, he became 
a member of the law firm of Collins, Burke, 
& Griffin. He had entire management of 
the legal business of the office during Mr. 
Collins's terms in Congress. He is a mem- 
ber of the Montgomery Light Guard Veteran 
Association, and was recently elected the 
president of the Charitable Irish Society. 



BYRNE, PATRICK HENRY, lawyer, born in 
Lavagh, County Roscommon, Ireland, Feb. 



(285) 



286 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



5, 1844, died at Jamaica, Long Island, N.Y., 
July 31, 1 88 1, aged thirty -seven years five 
months and twenty-six days. He came to 
this country with his widowed mother when 
about five years old, and received bis primary 
and academic education in the schools of 
New York City and at the University of New 
York. 

He was employed by his uncle, Mr. 
H. Brennan, at the marble-worker's trade. 
He subsequently abandoned the business, 
however, and accepted a position as travel- 
ling salesman for a wholesale woollen house 
in Boston. He eventually became the senior 
member of the collection agency firm of 
Byrne, Everett, & Co., 9 Pemberton square, 
but later disposed of his interest there and 
removed to New York City, where he estab- 
lished the same business on a far more ex- 
tensive and systematic plan, with headquar- 
ters in the Bennett Building of that city. In 
addition to his business activity he also at- 
tended the law school of the University of 
New York, from which institution he received 
his diploma in 1875, and was soon afterward 
admitted to practice as an attorney-at-law. 
To the ambitious young man the law was 
his aim and life-work, and he devoted himself 
entirely to its extended study and practice, 
with an office at 67 Wall street. He acquired a 
prominent and promising reputation as a law- 
yer for one of his age, and his intelligence, 
geniality, and correct habits always won for 
him the admiration of his many friends. 
During his legal practice he was retained in 
a number of important cases involving large 
interests, and by his ability as a counsel and 
advocate his clients were always ably repre- 
sented. He was also associated in the 
manufacture of patent gas-fixtures at Mor- 
risana. He left a wife and four children. 

CANAVAN, MICHAEL J., lawyer, born in 
Somerville, Mass., resides in Lexington, 
Mass. He graduated at the Somerville High 
School in 1867, and later entered Harvard 
University, where he was graduated cum 
laudc. In 1871 he had the degree of A.B. 
conferred upon him at Harvard, and he 



afterwards went to Germany, where, from 
1871 to 1873, he spent much time at the 
University of Gottingen. On his return to 
this country he reentered Harvard Univer- 
sity and distinguished himself. He received 
the degree of LL.B. in 1876, and A.M. in 
the same year. He was a trustee of the 
Somerville Public Library, and is independent 
in politics. He is actively engaged in ma- 
nipulating and dealing in Western invest- 
ments, lands, and mortgages. 

CASEY, JOHN H., lawyer, born in Somer- 
ville, Mass., Dec. 7, 1860. He was educated 
in the public schools of Somerville, and re- 
moved to Boston in 1 880, where he attended 
the Boston University Law School. He 
studied law also in the office of Stearns & 
Butler, and was admitted to the Suffolk bar 
in December, 1884. After practising law for 
a few years in this city, on Jan. I, 1888, he 
accepted a position as clerk to the District 
Attorney of Suffolk County. He is a mem- 
ber of the Royal Society of Good Fellows. 

CASSIDY, WILLIAM E., lawyer, born in 
Boston in 1856. , He graduated at the Law- 
rence Grammar School and the Boston 
University Law School. Since his admission 
to the bar he has practised law in Boston, 
and during i884-'85-'86 was a commissioner 
of insolvency. 

COLLINS, JOHN A., lawyer, born in Bos- 
ton, February 29, 1860. He graduated at 
the Lincoln Grammar School and the English 
High School, attended the law schools of both 
Harvard College and Boston University, and 
received the degree of LL.B. from the latter. 
He began the practice of law in Boston in 
1883. He was elected to the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives of 1885, and again 
of 1886, and during his second term was the 
youngest member of that body. He repre- 
sented South Boston in the Senate of 1888,' 
and was also honored with being the young- 
est member of the upper branch of the Leg- 
islature. He has been a member of the 
Democratic City Central Committee for three 



BIO GRAPHICAL SKE TCHES. 



287 



years, and also a member of the Executive 
Committee. He is president of the local 
conference of the Society of St Vincent 
de Paul. 

COLLINS, JOHN J., lawyer, born in Boston, 
Aug. 28, 1862. He was educated in the 
public schools of this city, and at Holy Cross 
College, Worcester, from which he grad- 
uated in 1884. He afterward studied law at 
the Boston University Law School, grad- 
uated, and was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 
1886. He is located in the office of Hon. P. 
A. Collins. 

COLLINS, MARK C., lawyer, born in Bos- 
ton, September 24, 1849. He attended the 
public schools; graduated from the Boston 
University Law School in 1879, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar the following year. He 
has since been engaged in the practice of 
the legal profession in this city. 

COLLISON, HARVEY N., lawyer, born in 
Boston, March 22, 1 860. He attended the 
Boston public schools; graduated at Harvard 
College in 1881; graduated from the Boston 
University Law School in 1884, and was 
admitted to the Suffolk County bar the same 
year. He represented Ward 6 in the Com- 
mon Council of 1 883-'84-'85, and in the Legis- 
lature of 1 887-'88, serving on the committees 
on Election Laws, Probate, and Insolvency. 
In 1887 he was elected a member of the Bos- 
ton School Committee; is a Director of East 
Boston Ferries, a member of the Irish Char- 
itable Society, the Democratic Ward and City 
Committee, and Vice-President of the Young 
Men's Democratic Club of Massachusetts. 

COOGAN, MICHAEL B., lawyer, bora in 
New Bedford, Mass., March 21, 1858. He 
was educated in the public schools of Provi- 
dence, R.I., and the Phillips Grammar School, 
Boston. He subsequently studied law in the 
office of Hon. Owen A. Galvin, and was ad- 
mitted to the Suffolk County bar, July 10, 1 883. 
He was appointed clerk in the office of the 
United States Marshal by Gen. N. P. Banks, 



Aug. 8, 1887, and served in that capacity 
until July 7, 1888, when he was commissioned 
as a United States Secret Service Agent, in 
charge of the New England District, with 
headquarters at Room 132 Post-Office Build- 
ing, Boston. He was secretary of the Demo- 
cratic City Committee of Cambridge in 1886- 
89; and is a member of St. John's Court 
No. 33, Massachusetts Catholic Order of 
Foresters, and Anchor Assembly 30, Royal 
Society of Good Fellows. 

COONEY, PATRICK H., lawyer, born in 
Stockbridge, Mass., Dec. 20, 1845. He was 
educated in the Natick High School and 
West Newton English and Classical School. 
He subsequently studied law. He has been 
Assistant District Attorney for Middlesex 
County since Jan. I, 1880, and was a mem- 
ber of the School Committee of Natick for 
four years, from March, 1 880. He has a law 
office in Boston, and is a member of the 
Algonquin Club and Meridian Lodge of 
Masons, Natick. 

COTTER, JAMES E., lawyer, bora in County 
Cork, Ireland, in 1848. He was educated in 
the public schools of Marlboro' and the 
State Normal School of Bridgewater; began 
studying law August 28, 1871, with William 
B. Gale, at Marlboro', and was admitted to 
the bar at Cambridge, January 2, 1874. 
Five days later he removed to Hyde Park, 
Mass. Since that period he has practised law 
in Norfolk and Suffolk counties. He was 
chairman of Registrars of Voters of Hyde 
Park in 1884-85 ; member of the School Com- 
mittee for five years, beginning March, 1886; 
he served as Chairman of the Board in 1888, 
and declined a renomination, although ear- 
nestly urged to accept by the citizens of the 
town, even those who differed with him po- 
litically; town counsel for Hyde Park from 
1878 to 1889, and for Walpole since 1886. 
He was the Democratic nominee for district 
attorney for the south-eastern district, com- 
prising Norfolk and Plymouth counties, in 
1874, and again in 1877; a candidate for 
Presidential Elector on the Democratic ticket 



288 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



in 1884, receiving 122,000 votes; he is a 
member of the Norfolk and Suffolk bar as- 
sociations, of the Charitable Irish Society, 
and the Massachusetts Order of Foresters. 

COURTNEY, WILLIAM F., lawyer, born in 
Lowell, Mass., Dec. 10, 1855. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Lowell, is a 
graduate of the Lowell Commercial College 
and the Harvard Law School of 1878. He 
was admitted to the bar July 8, 1878, and 
practised the legal profession in his native 
city. He was a member of the Legislature 
in 1882. In 1886 he entered into partner- 
ship with Mr. Isaac S. Morse, for the practice 
of law in Boston. During 1887 he acted as 
City Solicitor for Lowell. He was engaged 
as counsel for the defendant in the case of 
Commonwealth vs. Howe. This was a case 
of alleged ballot-stuffing on the license ques- 
tion. In the lower court his client was con- 
victed, but the case was carried to the Supreme 
Court, on the ground that there was no law 
to punish it, and the point was sustained. 
In view of this oversight, the Governor of 
Massachusetts sent a special message to the 
Legislature relative to the matter, and in 
1887 the present law covering such cases 
was enacted. 

CREED, MICHAEL J., lawyer, born in South 
Boston, Aug. 28, 1856. He graduated at 
the Bigelow Grammar School in 1869; at- 
tended the English High School; took a 
special classical course; graduated at Bos- 
ton University Law School in 1879, receiving 
the degree of LL.B., and was admitted to 
the bar shortly afterwards. He was a member 
of the Legislature of i884-'85-'86; is on the 
Finance Committee of the Democratic City 
Central Committee, 1889, and a Commis- 
sioner of Insolvency for Suffolk County. 

CRONAN, JOHN F., lawyer, born in Boston, 
April 9, 1856. He attended the public 
schools and the English High School; gradu- 
ated at the Boston University Law School in 
1879. He supplemented his legal studies in 
the office of F. A. Perry, and was admitted 



to the Suffolk bar when only twenty-three 
years of age. In 1876 he delivered a number 
of campaign speeches for Samuel J. Tilden, 
also for General Butler in the State campaign 
of 1878. He is one of the prominent young 
Democrats, and has resided in South Boston 
for a number of years. 

CRONIN, CORNELIUS F., lawyer, born in 
South Boston, April 9, 1856. He attended 
the public schools, French's Commercial 
College, and graduated from the Boston 
University Law School in 1879; was ad- 
mitted to the bar the same year. He was 
a member of the Legislature from Ward 13 
in i88i-'82-'83; represented the Fifth Suf- 
folk District in the Senate of 1884; the 
candidate of the Democratic party for City 
Solicitor of Boston in 1885, but was defeated 
by five votes; is a member of the Mechanic 
Apprentice's Association and the South Bos- 
ton Young Men's Catholic Association. 

CRONIN, CORNELIUS F., lawyer, born in the 
County Cork, Ireland, July 25, 185 1. He came 
to this country when but a few years old, and 
located in Boston. He graduated at the 
Dwight School (Franklin medal scholar) 
and the Boston University Law School, 
where he received the degree of LL.B. 
After leaving the grammar school he en- 
gaged for a time in the junk business, and 
travelled considerably through the United 
States and Canada. Upon his return to 
this city he studied law in the office of Wm. 
C. Greene, afterward with Messrs. Gargan, 
Swasey, & Adams, supplemented his legal 
studies at the Law School, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1878. He was a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Legislature in 1881- 
'82-'83, and the State Senate during 1884. 
He has been a resident of South Boston for 
several years, but is at present located in Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

DACEY, TIMOTHY J., born in Boston on 
the nth of October, 1849; died Dec. 15, 
1887. His parents came to this country 
from Ireland about fifty-five years ago. His 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



289 



father, John Dacey, afterwards took an active 
part in municipal affairs, serving in the 
Common Council in 1860 and 1861, and was 
elected to the lower branch of the Legisla- 
ture in 1863 and the year following. Young 
Dacey was a graduate of the Eliot Grammar 
School, receiving a Franklin medal in 1863. 
He passed through the English High School, 
and completed his education at Holy Cross 
College, Worcester. He subsequently be- 
gan the study of the law at the Harvard Law 
School, and graduated in 1871, being ad- 
mitted to the bar in the same year. Mr. 
Dacey early in life became interested in poli- 
tics, and first entered the public service as a 
member of the Common Council from old 
Ward 2 in 1872, being reflected in the fol- 
lowing year. He became a candidate for 
the lower branch of the General Court, and 
was elected for the session of 1874. In 1875 
he was elected a member of the State Senate, 
where he served two terms, winning the 
approbation of his constituents and the 
citizens at large by his admirable course 
while a member of that body. He was a 
member of the judiciary committee during 
both sessions. He was appointed a member 
of the Board of Trustees of the City Hospital 
on Feb. 7, 1873, and was a member till the 
time of his death, being president of the 
board during five years. He was a delegate 
to the National Democratic Convention at 
St. Louis in 1876, which nominated Samuel 
J. Tilden. In January, 1877, ^e was a P' 
pointed First Assistant District Attorney of 
Suffolk County. He first became a member 
of the School Board in 1880 for two years, 
and in 1883 he was again elected to the 
Board, his nomination being tendered by 
the Democrats and Republicans alike. Mr. 
Dacey was returned to the Board in 1885 for 
the term of four years, and for three years was 
president of that body. He also served on 
many of the important committees prior to 
his election as chairman. He was identified 
with a number of political and social organi- 
zations, and once was president of the Chari- 
table Irish Society. He was a member of 
the Ancient_and Honorable Artillery Com- 



pany of Boston, and was one of a special 
committee which visited Great Britain as 
guests of the Ancient and Honorable Ar- 
tillery Company of London on the occasion of 
the jubilee anniversary of the latter company. 

DALY, ANTHONY C., lawyer, born in Bos- 
ton, Oct. II, 1853. He was educated in 
the public schools of this city. He subse- 
quently studied law, and was admitted while 
quite a young man to practice at the Suffolk 
County bar. He represented Ward 6 in the 
Legislature of 1 878. A short time afterwards 
he accepted a position as attorney for a rail- 
road in the West, where he is now located. 

DOHERTY, PHILIP J., lawyer, born in 
Charlestown, Jan. 27, 1856, where he has 
always resided. He is of Irish parentage, 
and is the grandson of James and Mary 
Munnegle, of the Parish of Desertagney, 
Ireland. He graduated at the Harvard Gram- 
mar School in 1870, and at the Charlestown 
High School in 1874. At an early age he 
began the study of law, and completed his 
course at the Boston University Law School 
in 1876, receiving the degree of LL.B. He 
was admitted to the Suffolk bar, June 4, 1877, 
and has been an active practitioner ever since. 
He was elected by the Democrats of Ward 5 
to the Legislature of i884~'85-'86, and during 
his three years of service in the General Court 
did effective work for his constituency and 
the working-classes throughout the State 
generally. During his last term of legisla- 
tive experience he was the acknowledged 
leader of the Democratic side of the House, 
and his subsequent vigorous and eloquent 
campaign speeches for the Democratic party 
have placed him in a position of prominence 
throughout the Commonwealth. The first 
year that Mr. Doherty served in the Legisla- 
ture he worked hard for the passage of the 
bill to abolish contract convict labor; also in 
favor of the bill providing that no minor 
under eighteen years of age, and no woman, 
shall be obliged to work more than ten hours 
a day. He strongly advocated the Free Text- 
Book Bill and the bill for the establishment 



290 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



of benevolent building associations for the 
assistance of poor people in obtaining homes. 
In the year 1885 he was the only member of 
the Democratic party honored with a position 
on the Judiciary Committee; he strongly 
supported the Employers' Liability Bill, the 
abolition of the poll-tax as a prerequisite 
for voting, and took an active part in other 
matters of important legislation. At the 
Democratic State Convention, in the fall of 
that year, by an eloquent and masterly 
speech he nominated Hon. F. O. Prince as 
the candidate for governor. In 1886 Mr. 
Doherty was the nominee of his party for 
Speaker of the House. He advocated the 
Weekly Payment Bill, which became a law. 
He favored annual elections, the local rights 
bill, arbitration, soldiers' exemption bill, bill 
for employment of minors and women, and 
labor legislation. He was elected to the 
Board of Aldermen of 1888 by the Indepen- 
dent Democrats of Charlestown, and was a 
delegate to the National Democratic Conven- 
tion at St. Louis the same year. In 1889 he 
was appointed a member of the Water Board 
by Mayor Hart, his present position. 

DWYER, WILLIAM WHITTON, lawyer, born 
in Dublin, Ireland, Nov. 19, 1840. He 
graduated from the Dublin High School and 
Trinity College, and was admitted attorney 
to Superior Court of Law and a solicitor of 
High Court of Chancery in Ireland, January, 
1 86 1; practised law in Dublin for a short 
period; came to Boston June 15, 1872, and 
was admitted to Suffolk bar in 1875. He 
was appointed a justice of the Municipal 
Court for the East Boston District, May 23, 
1879. He is Judge- Advocate of the Mont- 
gomery Light Guards, and a member of the 
Irish National League. He is Past Grand 
Ruler and Representative from Massachu- 
setts to the Supreme Assembly of the Royal 
Society of Good Fellows; a Past Sachem and 
Representative to the Great Council of 
Massachusetts in the Improved Order of Red 
Men; a member of the Supreme Council 
Royal Conclave of Knights and Ladies, Iron 
Hall, Pilgrim Fathers, and Irish Charitable 



Society. He attended the funeral of Father 
Cahill, at New York, as a delegate of the 
latter society, and has several times acted 
as a delegate to the Democratic State con- 
ventions. 
* 

FARRELL MICHAEL F., lawyer, born in 
Kilkenny, Ireland, Sept. 13, 1848. He im- 
migrated from Ireland to New York, in 
1862, but did not settle in Boston until 
November, 1864. He was educated in the 
public schools of New York City and at 
Boston College. He was admitted to the 
Middlesex County bar, June, 1871, and to the 
United States Circuit Court in 1876. He 
was a member of the School Committee of 
Somerville from 1874 to '79. He is a mem- 
ber of the Irish Charitable Society. 

FITZGERALD, JAMES E., lawyer, born in 
Boston, April 25, -1855. **e graduated at 
the Lyman Grammar School, studied at the 
Boston English High School, at private 
schools, and afterwards entered the Boston 
University Law School. He was admitted to 
the Suffolk County bar in 1886, and made his 
headquarters at the law office of Swasey & 
Swasey, Boston. He has been a self-reliant 
man, and was engaged in the paper-stock 
and metal business from 1874 to 1882, the 
business success which followed enabling 
him to defray his educational expenses. His 
services in the City Council, from the year 
1882 to 1884, as well as a member of the 
House of Representatives, from 1886 to 1887, 
were of the most meritorious kind. He 
served on many important committees in 
both branches of the government, and nu- 
merous improvements were made in his dis- 
trict by his exertions. He had charge of and 
admirably forced the passage of a bill in the 
House for the appropriation of two million 
five hundred thousand dollars for the im- 
provement of public parks and squares. The 
bill was passed through a Republican House 
and Senate. He was the organizer and is 
the present president of the Democratic As- 
sociation of Ward 2. While in the House 
of Representatives he was appointed one of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



291 



a committee to attend the centennial cele- 
bration of the adoption of the Constitution 
at Philadelphia, Penn. He presented the 
order to the House which made Labor day a 
legal holiday. Senator Alpheus B. Alger 
introduced a similar order to the Senate on 
the same day. 

FLATLEY, THOMAS, lawyer, and Deputy 
Collector of the Port of Boston, was born at 
Claremorris, Ireland, in 1 85 1 . He graduated 
at a private classical school, and matricu- 
lated in Queen's College, Galway. While 
he was at college, the insurrection, or, as it 
was popularly known, " the rising," com- 
manded the attention of every Irishman, and 
fired the hearts of the Irish national patriots. 
Mr. Flatley was but a boy, and quite an in- 
spired one, for he took an active part in 
preparing for the movement against England. 
He mustered a battalion of patriotic young 
men, received a commission, and draughted 
a plan of campaign in his sectioji of the 
country. He planned a strategic movement 
whereby his men could capture arms and 
accoutrements, which they needed badly. 
Mr. Flatley was to order a number of his 
men to engage in a sham fight in the 
public square of the town, and while the 
police would be busy endeavoring to restore 
order, the remainder of the battalion would 
capture the police arsenal. Afterwards, the 
police were to be taken prisoners, and to be 
offered the alternative of being court-mar- 
tialled or swearing allegiance to the Irish 
republic. The order for " the rising " was 
countermanded on the eve of March 5, 1867, 
which was a fortunate occurrence for Ire- 
land. Flying columns of English soldiers 
were sent through the provinces with orders 
from the English commander to arrest " cen- 
tres" and suspects. Mr. Flatley, among 
others, fled the country. 

For a while after his arrival in this country 
he engaged in mercantile life, but his desire 
to perfect his studies impelled him to enter 
Georgetown College, Maryland, in 1868. 
He passed a brilliant examination there, and 
received his degree of Bachelor of Arts and 



a diploma, after acquitting himself most cred- 
itably in the law department. He subse- 
quently became a member of the college 
faculty. Later, he associated with his 
brother, P. J. Flatley, Esq., in law practice. 
He is a pronounced Democrat in politics, 
and was appointed Deputy Collector of the 
Port of Boston in 1885. Mr. Flatley was 
at one time secretary of the Irish national 
organization in America. 

FLYNN, EDWARD J., lawyer, born in Bos- 
ton, June 1 6, 1859. He graduated from the 
Eliot Grammar School, the English High 
School, Boston College, Class of '81, Boston 
University, and Harvard Law School. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1884, and has 
since practised law in Boston. He repre- 
sented Ward 6 in the Legislature of i885-'86, 
and was identified with the Metropolitan 
Police Bill, the Credibility of Witnesses' Bill, 
the resolve to abolish the poll-tax as a pre- 
requisite for voting, the Biennial Election 
Bill, and others. In 1888 he was also a 
member, serving on the Judiciary Committee 
and on Constitutional Amendments. He is 
a member of the Democratic Ward and City 
Committee, and one of the Board of Directors 
for East Boston Ferries. 

Fox, JAMES W., lawyer, born in Boston, 
August 15, 1849. He was educated in the 
public schools, and studied law in the office 
of Hon. Henry W. Paine. After his admis- 
sion to the bar he began the practice of law 
in this city. He was a member of the Com- 
mon Council from Ward 13 in 1876, and of 
the Legislature in 1877. 

GALVIN, JOHN E., lawyer, born in Boston, 
November 8, 1857. He was educated in 
the public schools; is a graduate of the Eng- 
lish High and Latin Schools and the Har- 
vard Law School. He was admitted to the 
Suffolk bar in 1879, and is now engaged in 
the active practice of law in this city. 

GALVIN, OWEN A., United States District 
Attorney, was born in Boston, of Irish par- 



292 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



ents, June 21, 1852. After studying in the 
Boston public schools he entered the law 
office of Charles F. Donnelly in 1872, where 
he made his preparatory law studies in con- 
junction with a course of study which he re- 
ceived at the Boston University Law School, 
from which institution he graduated with the 
Class of 1876. He was admitted to the bar 
Feb. 29, 1876, and remained in the office of 
Lawyer Donnelly until 1882, where he 
acquired a varied, extensive, and practical 
experience in the multifarious intricacies of 
civil law and its successful application to 
complex cases. Mr. Galvin opened an office 
immediately. His attainments and good 
qualities were quickly recognized and appre- 
ciated, his list of clients grew to flattering 
proportions, and his lucrative practice has 
constantly increased ever since. He was 
elected a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1 88 1, from Ward 8. He 
served in the Senate during the years 1882, 

1883, and 1884. He was a candidate of the 
minority for the presidency of the Senate in 

1884, a vice-president of the Democratic City 
Central Committee for two years, of which 
organization he has been a member for the 
past ten years. He has been one of the 
leading men in educational, benevolent, re- 
formatory, and political movements which 
have passed into the history of his native city. 
He was elected High Chief Ranger of the 
Massachusetts Catholic Order of Foresters, 
i882-'83, from Cheverus Court, No. 6. In 
1883 he was on the committee of investiga- 
tion who visited the State's penal institutions; 
on their report of the subsequent year the Re- 
formatory Prison at Concord, Mass., and the 
Homoeopathic Hospital for the Insane were 
established. Mr. Calvin's services on other 
committees, while in the public service, in- 
cluded Labor, Liquor, Harbor, Public Lands, 
Election, and Education; he was on the 
latter during four years. His appointment as 
First Assistant District Attorney by the Hon. 
George M. Stearns, then United States Attor- 
ney, placed him in a position of honor and 
trust. Mr. Stearns resigned his office Sep- 
tember, 1887, and the attention of President 



Cleveland was attracted to the jiigh qualifica- 
tions which Mr. Galvin possessed, and he 
accordingly appointed him a United States 
District Attorney, September, 1887. 

HOYNES, EDWARD F., lawyer, born in 
Boston, February 14, 1858. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Boston, and 
later attended Boston College, the Harvard 
Law School, and Boston University Law 
School, graduating at the latter institution 
in 1882. He represented Ward 14 in the 
General Court of 1884. He is at present 
engaged in the retail dry-goods trade in 
South Boston. 

JENKINS, EDWARD J., lawyer, born in 
London, England, of Irish parents, Dec. 
20, 1854. He came to Boston when but 
a few weeks old; was educated in the 
grammar schools of this city, and studied 
law at the Boston University Law School, 
was graduated in 1889, and he was admitted 
to the Suffolk bar on Nov. 30, 1881, and 
to the bar of the United States Court on 
Dec. 23, 1881. He was a member of the 
Boston School Committee and secretary of 
the Democratic Central Commiltee in 1876, 
during the famous Tilden campaign; was a 
member of the House of Representatives in 
i877-'78-'79, during the latter year he ten- 
dered his resignation as a member; was a 
Commissioner of Insolvency for the County 
of Suffolk during the years i879-'8o-'8i-'82- 
'83-'84'-8s, and he refused to act longer. 
While a member of the House of Representa- 
tives he was the candidate of the Democracy 
for the clerk of the House. During the year 
1 88 1 he was nominated by the Suffolk County 
Democratic Convention for clerk of the Su- 
perior Civil Court. In 1 885-'86-'88, he was 
elected as a member of the Common Council, 
and during that period served as its presiding 
officer; he was also Trustee for the Public Li- 
brary of Boston in 1885. He was a member 
of the Massachusetts Senate in 1887. Mr. 
Jenkins introduced the order for the abolition 
of the poll-tax as a prerequisite for voting; 
advocated the passage of the bill abolishing 




EDWARD J. JENKINS. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



the contract system of labor. He secured the 
passage of the'law relative to the practice of 
dentistry; favored the order authorizing the 
employment of matrons at police stations. 
He supported the act regulating the liabilities 
of employers to make compensations for 
personal injuries suffered by employees in 
their service. He introduced and voted for 
the order to authorize the city of Boston to 
operate the East Boston ferries free of tolls. 
He introduced and voted for orders to regu- 
late the observance of the Lord's day, the 
purport of which was to secure such modifi- 
cations as were necessary by the present 
social conditions of the community. He 
voted and advocated the making of Labor day 
a legal holiday. He supported and voted for 
the bill to establish the hours of labor of per- 
sons in the service of the Commonwealth, and 
the several cities and towns thereof, so that 
eight hours would constitute a working day. 
He introduced and favored orders to prevent 
fraud at primary meetings and at general elec- 
tions. He advocated the creation of a Board 
of Public Works for the city of Boston, con- 
sisting of nine members, to be elected by the 
City Council of Boston. He favored large 
appropriations for the construction of the 
public parks of Boston. He supported the 
bill giving preference in appointments to 
office to honorably discharged soldiers and 
sailors without civil-service examination. 
He voted for all appropriations for charitable 
institutions, such as the Carney Hospital at 
South Boston, Soldiers' Home in Chelsea, 
etc. His record in the Legislature on 
labor measures is well known. He voted for 
legislation relative to the better enforcement 
of the laws on labor; for the laws to secure 
uniform meal-times for children, young per- 
sons, and women employed in factories; for 
the order to secure legislation which would 
provide for the better ventilation and other 
sanitary improvements ; for the law limiting the 
hours of labor for minors and women in manu- 
facturing and mechanical establishments ; 
for the law which prohibits the employment 
of children cleaning dangerous machinery; 
for the law directing that employees in 



manufacturing, mechanical, and mercantile 
establishments be allowed sufficient time to 
rote; and for the bill, that became a law, 
causing contract labor in the penal institu- 
tions of the Commonwealth to be abolished. 
He is a member of the Central Club, Catholic 
Order of Foresters, Charitable Irish Society, 
and many other benevolent organizations. 
Was a member of the Montgomery Light 
Guards, being the drummer-boy of the 
company, and is now a member of the 
Veteran Association of that organization. 

KEATING, PATRICK M., lawyer, bora at 
Springfield, Mass., March 15, 1860. He 
was a graduate of the Houghton Grammar 
School in 1874, and also was graduate of the 
Springfield High School in 1878. He came 
to Boston, entered Harvard University, and 
was graduated in 1883. He entered the Har- 
vard Law School, and remained until 1885. 
He acquired a more complete and practical 
knowledge of law in the law office of Thomas 
J. Gargan, and was admitted to the Suffolk 
County bar in the summer of 1885. He has 
been associate counsel with Mr. Gargan in 
many cases. 

KIERNAN, PATRICK B., lawyer, bora in 
Boston, March 2, 1852. He was educated 
in the Boston public schools, also in a pri- 
vate school taught by a Mr. Carroll, of 
Providence, R.I., and later at Bryant & 
Stratton's Commercial College. He studied 
law, and after his admission to the bar began 
to practise in Boston and Chelsea. He is a 
member of the Charitable Irish Society and 
the Chelsea Yacht Club. 

LEAHY, JOHN PATRICK, lawyer, bom in 
Boston, 1860. Educated in the Boston pub- 
lic schools, and later received private instruc- 
tion. He studied law at Boston University 
Law School, and graduated with the Class 
of '84. He entered the law office of Mr. 
Charles F. Donnelly, where he acquired a 
knowledge of legal technique. Mr. Leahy 
has been in active practice since 1884, and 
he has an extensive clientage in the Civil, 



294 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



Equity, and Probate Courts concerning 
trusts, wills, and conveyances of real estate. 
He is a member of the Executive Committee 
of the Catholic Union of Boston, and is con- 
nected with the Young Men's Catholic Asso- 
ciation of Boston College. He gave religious 
instruction to the male adults at the House 
of Industry at Deer Island for over two 
years. He has been Vice-President of the 
Catholic Young Men's National Union, and 
also Vice-President of the Archdiocesan 
Union of Young Men's Societies. His repu- 
tation as a lecturer and a public speaker is 
good, and he has won praise as a writer. 
In two successive years he carried off the 
fifty-dollar prize offered by the Catholic 
Union of Boston for the best essay on the 
subject selected by the Union. He has been 
a contributor to the Catholic press and 
magazines. Among the subjects of his lect- 
ures are: "The American Catholic," " Some 
Strong Irish Characteristics," "Napoleon," 
" A Visit to the Roman Catacombs," " Elo- 
quence." 

LlBBY, PHILIP J., lawyer, born in Boston, 
Feb. 22, 1861. His elementary studies were 
made at the Boston public schools, and he 
graduated from Holy Cross College at 
Worcester, Mass., in 1881. He studied law 
at the office of Messrs. Crowley & Maxwell, 
and graduated from the Boston University 
Law School in 1886, having then received 
the degree of LL.B. He was admitted to 
the Suffolk bar in the same year. 

MAGEE, FRANK P., lawyer, born in Bos- 
ton, Jan. 27, 1859. He attended the public 
schools of this city and the Boston Univer- 
sity Law School, from which he graduated 
in 1883. On Feb. 23, 1*83, he was admitted 
a member of the Suffolk County bar, and 
was later appointed a Justice of the Peace. 
He represented Ward 18 as one of the mem- 
bers of the Democratic Ward and City Com- 
mittee of i884-'85-'86. He was elected a 
Commissioner of Insolvency for three years, 
from Jan. I, 1887, and is connected with sev- 



eral societies in this vicinity, notably the 
Charitable Irish, Ancient Order of Foresters, 
Roxbury Bachelor Club, and others. 

MAKER, PETER S., lawyer, born in South 
Boston, Dec. 21, 1847. He attended the 
public schools, and first entered the employ 
of J. M. Beebe & Co., dry-goods merchants, 
with whom he remained for five years, until 
the firm dissolved. He afterwards was en- 
gaged as clerk for two years in the banking 
business for William Chadborn. He subse- 
quently studied law with Geo. F. Verry at 
Worcester, and came to Boston in 1881, and 
is at present with Hon. C. J. Noyes. 

MANNING, JOHN P., Clerk of Superior 
Court, Criminal Session, in Suffolk County. 
Born in Boston, June 17, 1851, and has always 
resided there. He was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of Boston, and graduated from 
the Dwight Grammar School. He received 
limited instruction at a commercial college, 
and studied at home. He entered the office 
of Supreme Court as a copyist, in 1868; 
was appointed assistant clerk in 1873; was 
admitted to the bar in January, 1874, on the 
motion of the late Hon. Chas. R. Train, 
after three years' study; was elected Clerk 
the following November, to fill an unexpired 
term caused by the death of Henry Homer, 
Esq. Though a Democrat, he received a plu- 
rality of two thousand four hundred votes more 
than the opposing candidate. In two years 
afterward he received but one political nomi- 
nation, the Democratic, yet he received a plu- 
rality of eight thousand votes over his oppo- 
nent; the two last elections he received the 
nominations of all political parties. He is 
untiring in his efforts to perform his duties 
satisfactorily to the bench, the bar, and the 
public, and is patient and attentive to the 
wants of all who have business with him. 
His office and his duties are of the most 
trying nature. 

His knowledge of law is admitted by those 
acquainted with him to be excellent. He has 
been a member of the Young Men's Catho- 
lic Association of Boston College since its 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



295 



organization, also the Catholic Union, 
Charitable Irish Society, and Catholic Order 
of Foresters. 

McCAFFERTY, MATTHEW J., lawyer, born 
in Ireland, June 17, 1829; died, June 5, 1885. 

At a very early age his parents immigrated 
to this country, and located in Boston, where 
young McCafferty attended the public schools. 
In 1841 the family removed to Lowell, Mass., 
and Matthew, who was then twelve years old, 
obtained employment in one of the mills of 
that city, where he remained four or five 
years, and afterward learned the machinist's 
trade. In 1852 he commenced the study of 
law in the office of Brown & Alger. Two 
years later he removed to Worcester, and 
resumed work as a machinist, to obtain addi- 
tional funds. During that time he read law, 
evenings, in the office of Hon. Peter C. 
Bacon, having for a fellow-student Judge 
Hamilton B. Staples. He saved enough, 
during the mean time, to pay his expenses at 
college ; but upon making a visit to Lowell, 
prompted by filial duty, he expended the 
money he had accumulated in making his 
poor mother's homestead more comfortable, 
and was subsequently compelled to borrow 
from Gen. B. F. Butler to pay his way through 
Holy Cross College. After a three years' 
course he returned to his law studies in the 
office of Brown & Alger. In March, 1867, 
he was admitted to the bar in the Court of 
Common Pleas, at Lowell, and eventually 
opened an office in Worcester. At the out- 
break of the Civil War he took a decided 
stand, and, with characteristic Irish patriot- 
ism, urged his countrymen to rally in defence 
of the Union. He served as second lieu- 
tenant of Company C, Emmet Guards, Third 
Battalion of Rifles, during its enlistment, and 
was subsequently commissioned major of the 
Twenty- fifth Massachusetts Regiment. He 
was a member of the Legislature of 1866, 
"76. '77, and '79; also of the Worcester 
School Board; and in 1880 was a Demo- 
cratic candidate for Congress. In 1883 he 
was appointed, by Governor Butler, an Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Municipal Court at Bos- 



ton, which position he occupied at the time 
of his death. 

McGEOUGH, JAMES A., lawyer, born in the 
County Cavan, Ireland, June 15, 1854. He 
immigrated and came to Boston in 1859. His 
preparatory studies were made at the Boston 
public schools and at Boston College. He 
afterwards entered the Boston University 
Law School, and was graduated, with degree 
of LL.B., in 1874. He was admitted to 
the Suffolk County bar in the same year. 
He has won distinction in public life by his 
meritorious services to the people whom he 
has creditably represented. He served in 
the Common Council in 1878, and he was 
a member of the Massachusetts House of 
Representatives in 1879, 1880, and 1881. 
In the year 1883 he served in the Massa- 
chusetts Senate. While in the Legislature 
he made a notable speech, all the more 
remarkable on account of its improvisa- 
tion. It was directed against the Agnostic 
bill, which was introduced and ably sup- 
ported by CoL T. W. Higginson, in 1881. 
Mr. McGeough brought about the defeat 
of the bill by a majority of thirty-three votes. 
As a member of the State Central Com- 
mittee in 1887, a district member-at-large in 
1 888, and a delegate from the Fourth Dis- 
trict to the St. Louis Convention, he dis- 
played excellent qualifications for political 
leadership. He was counsel for the steer- 
age passengers in their suit against the Allan 
Line S.S. Co. His argument on behalf of 
his clients was forcible, positive, logical, 
which is characteristic of his public speaking. 
He is a regular Democrat in politics. 

McKELLEGET, R. J., lawyer, born in 
Boston, June 27, 1856. He attended the 
public schools of this city, also the English 
High School, and graduated from the Har- 
vard Law School of 1878. Since his admis- 
sion to the bar he has been engaged in the 
practice of law in Boston. 

MCLAUGHLIN, EDWARD A., lawyer, born 
in Boston, Sept. 25, 1853. He received his 



296 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



education at Boston College and at Loyola 
College, Baltimore, from which he graduated 
in 1871 with the degree of A.B. Boston Col- 
lege also honored him with the degree of 
A.M., in 1877. For the five years between 
1871 and 1876 he was engaged as professor 
at Loyola College, Maryland, and Seton Hall 
College, New Jersey. Returning to Boston, 
he studied law in the office of ex-Governor 
William Gaston, and also attended the Bos- 
ton University Law School, where he received 
the degree of LL.B. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1877. He was elected by the com- 
mittee who had in charge the general statute 
revision of 1880, to incorporate in the Public 
Statutes the amendments made by said com- 
mittee. He was highly complimented at the 
time for his valuable work by the present 
Judge Robert R. Bishop, who was president 
of the Senate during that year, and also 
chairman of the committee. He was also 
one of the two persons appointed under a 
resolve of the Legislature to superintend the 
printing of the Public Statutes. Mr. Mc- 
Laughlin was appointed Assistant Clerk of the 
Massachusetts House of Representatives in 
1878. Subsequently, upon the accession of 
Mr. Harden to the Speakership of the House, 
in 1883, he was chosen Clerk, which position 
he has held since. He is recognized as a 
gentleman of scholarly attainments, and is a 
very popular and efficient Clerk of the House 
of Representatives. 

MCLAUGHLIN, JOHN D., lawyer, born in 
Boston, Dec. 3, 1864. He received his early 
educational training in the public schools of 
this city, and later attended Georgetown 
College, at which he graduated in 1883. 
In 1886 he graduated from the Boston Uni- 
versity Law School, and was admitted to the 
Suffolk County bar of Massachusetts in the 
same year. 

MOORE, M. J., lawyer, born in South Bos- 
ton, May 20, 1864. He attended the Boston 
public schools, the English High School, 
graduated at the Boston University Law 
School in 1887, and was admitted to the 



bar in 1888. He extended his law studies 
in the office x>f J. F. Murphy, and is now in 
practice for himself, with an office at South 
Boston. He was appointed a Justice of the 
Peace in 1886, and is at present a member of 
the Democratic Ward and City Committee 
from Ward 13. 

MULCHINOCK, JOHN D., law student, born 
in Boston, July 9, 1855. He is a graduate 
of the Quincy Grammar School and the 
English High School. He studied three 
years at Holy Cross College, and also at 
Nicolet College, Canada, receiving a diploma 
from the latter. He represented Ward 12 
in the Legislature of 1880. 

MULLIGAN, HENRY C., lawyer, born in 
Natick, March 6, 1854. He is a graduate 
of Natick High School and Harvard Col- 
lege, Class of '79. Mr. Mulligan, after his 
admission to the bar, opened an office in 
Boston, where he is at present engaged in 
the practice of the legal profession. He was 
a member of the Natick School Committee 
in 1888-89; a trustee of Morse Institute and 
Natick Public Library since 1885. 

MURPHY, JAMES R., lawyer, born in Bos- 
ton, July 29, 1853. He attended the public 
schools, Boston College, Georgetown Col- 
lege, D.C., and graduated at the latter in 
1872. In 1873 he received the degree of 
A.M. from Loyola College, Baltimore, where 
he was engaged for a few years as a Latin 
instructor, and also at Seton Hall, N.J. 
He received the degree of LL.B. from 
Boston University in June, 1876, and was 
admitted to the Suffolk County bar in the fol- 
lowing month of October. He introduced into 
Massachusetts the process of casting wrought 
iron, a valuable invention of a Swede, which 
is now in successful operation in foundry- 
work in Boston. He was one of the foun- 
ders of the Young Men's Catholic Associa- 
tion, and is at present engaged in a lucra- 
tive law practice in this city. . 

NAPHEN, HENRY F., lawyer, born in Ire- 
land, Aug. 14, 1852, and came to this coun- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



297 



try with his parents when an infant. The 
family settled in Lowell, Mass., in 1855, 
where he received his early education at 
the public schools. After removing to Bos- 
ton he continued his studies under a private 
tutor, and entered the Harvard Law School, 
from which he graduated in 1878. Later he 
took a further course at Harvard University, 
as resident Bachelor of Laws, and finally 
completed his professional education at the 
Law School of the Boston University. In 
1881 he was admitted to the Suffolk bar, 
and has since practised his profession in 
this city. In 1882 he was elected a member 
of the School Committee for three years, 
and in 1883 was appointed Bail Commis- 
sioner. He represented the Fifth Suffolk 
District in the Senate of iSSs-'So-'S;. 
During his first year in the upper branch of 
the Legislature he served on the committees 
on Probate and Chancery, Election Laws, 
Drainage, and chairman of Committee on 
Engrossed Bills. During the same year he 
opposed the bill for transferring divorce 
cases from the Supreme to the Superior 
Court, worked against the Metropolitan 
Police Bill, and introduced a measure em- 
powering all courts of record to grant natu- 
ralization. In i886-'87 he opposed the 
introduction of an act that " No person 
hereafter naturalized in any court shall be 
entitled to be registered as a voter within 
thirty days of registration ; " and his action 
was sustained by the Supreme Court He 
advocated the abolition of the poll-tax as a 
prerequisite for voting, was adverse to the 
divisions of Hopedale and Beverly, and took 
a leading and influential part in the legisla- 
tion concerning credibility of witnesses and 
the use of opinion. He is a member of the 
Ward 14 Democratic Committee, Charitable 
Irish Society, Catholic Union, Royal Society 
of Good Fellows, Catholic Order of Forest- 
ers, and was one of the original incorpora- 
tors of Father Roche's Working Boys' 
Home. 

NOONAN, FRANCIS, lawyer, born in Bos- 
ton, June, 1860. He is a graduate of one of 



the Grammar schools and also the High" 
School of Charlestown. He was admitted 
to the Suffolk County bar, June 8, 1884, and 
has since that time been engaged in the 
practice of law. He was appointed a Notary 
Public by Governor Robinson, June 23, 1886. 

NOONAN, JOHN A., lawyer, born in South 
Boston, August 25, 1861. He attended the 
public schools, graduated from the Boston 
Latin School, took a course at Harvard Col- 
lege, graduated from the Boston University 
Law School in 1886, and was admitted to 
the Suffolk County bar the same year. He 
later continued his legal studies in the office 
of Burbank & Bennett in this city, where he 
is at present located in active practice. 

O'BRIEN, JAMES W., lawyer, born in the 
city of Charlestown, Mass, (now a part of 
Boston), May i, 1846, where he has since 
resided. Charlestown was then a part of 
Middlesex County, and he was admitted to 
the bar in that county in 1867. He was a 
member of the Charlestown City Council in 
the years 1870 and 1871, serving at the same 
time as a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the Public Library. He practised law in 
Charlestown until its annexation to Boston in 
1874, when he removed his office to the city 
proper. On July 6, 1883, Mr. O'Brien was 
nominated by Gov. Benjamin F. Butler 
Judge of the Charlestown District Court, to 
fill a vacancy caused by the death of Judge 
G. W. Warren. In Massachusetts the ap- 
pointment by the governor is non-conclusive 
unless the appointee be confirmed by the Gov- 
ernor's Council. Governor Butler's Council 
consisted of six Republicans and one Dem- 
ocrat, and they refused, in Mr. O'Brien's 
case, to confirm the Governor's appointment, 
by a party vote of six to one. The Boston 
papers condemned the partisan and unfair 
action of the Republican members of the 
Council in their treatment of Mr. O'Brien, 
whose qualifications made him worthy of the 
judgeship, and their conduct in voting 
against his confirmation because he was a 
Democrat was severely criticised. 



298 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



O'LOUGHLIN, P., lawyer, born in En- 
nistymore, County Clare, Ireland, July 16, 
1849. He came to Boston, June 5, 1864, 
and was educated in the public schools of 
this city. He worked in the furniture busi- 
ness several years, and obtained money 
enough to take a three years' course at the 
Boston University Law School, winning the 
degree of LL.D. in 1878, and was admitted 
to the Suffolk County bar in 1879. He was 
Superintendent of St. Joseph's Sunday-school 
at the West End for several years, Chief 
Ranger of St. Joseph's Court of Catholic 
Foresters, and President of the Charlestown 
Catholic Lyceum Association. 

PLUNKETT, CHRISTOPHER G., lawyer, born 
in Boston, Aug. 29, 1859. After the return 
of his father, Capt. Chris. Plunkett, from the 
war, his family removed to Medford, Mass. 
Young Plunkett was educated in the public 
schools of Medford, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1877. After graduating from the 
public schools of Medford he entered the 
Boston University Law School, from which 
he graduated in 1 880, in the meanwhile 
studying in the office of Hon. John F. Colby. 
After completing his course in the Law 
School, and passing a highly satisfactory ex- 
amination for the Suffolk County bar on 
June 15, 1 88 1, he was admitted to the Mas- 
sachusetts bar, upon motion of Hon. Nathan 
Morse. Since then he has been practising 
law in Boston. Mr. Plunkett has been elected 
by his towns-people in Medford to the office of 
auditor of the town, being the first descend- 
ant of an Irish-American ever elected to any 
office in the town of Medford. He has been 
twice nominated by the Democratic party as 
its candidate for Senator in the First Middle- 
sex District of Massachusetts, and is one of 
the leaders of the young Democracy of the 
State. On August 29, 1888, he was the 
orator of the day at the grand reunion of the 
Massachusetts Ninth Regiment, held at Oak 
Island, near Boston. 

REYNOLDS, JOHN P., lawyer, born in 
Charlestown, Mass., May 30, 1859. The 



public schools and Boston College founded 
his education, and he afterwards learned the 
harness-maker's trade, at which he worked 
for nine years, and at the same time read 
law. He entered the Boston University Law 
School, where he was graduated with the 
Class of 1886, and he was admitted to the Suf- 
folk bar in the same year. In 1883 and 1884 
he was secretary of the Ward 5 committee of 
the Democratic Ward and City Committee. 
In 1884-85 he took the school and prison 
census. He was the assistant registrar of 
voters for the Charlestown District in 1 884~'85, 
and served in the Legislature in l886-'87. 
While in the House he served on the 
committees on Probate, Insolvency, and 
Prisons. He is President of St. Mary's 
Mutual Relief Society, and a member of the 
Ninth Regiment, M.V.M. 

RILEY, THOMAS, lawyer, born in the County 
Cavan, Ireland, Dec. 4, 1849, and was brought 
from Ireland to Boston during his infancy. 
He was educated at the public schools, and 
graduated at the Harvard Law School in 
1870, and received the degree of LL.B. 
He studied law in the office of Gen. Benjamin 
F. Butler, and has been in active practice 
for eighteen years. He is a good pleader, a 
forcible speaker, and is noted for his tenacity 
to the interests of his clients. He early be- 
came interested in politics, and organized the 
Young Men's Democratic Club in 1871, was 
a delegate to the Baltimore Convention which 
nominated Horace Greeley in 1872, can- 
vassed Massachusetts and part of New York 
State for Samuel J. Tilden in 1876. In 
i879-'8o and '82 he was prominent in the 
Butler campaigns. 

SHEA, DANIEL J., lawyer, born in Boston, 
March 31, 1857; died, Sept. 3, 1888. Hewas 
a graduate of the Brimmer School in 1870, 
English High School of 1873, Boston Latin 
School, 1876 (being the first Catholic boy to 
win first prize for declamations), and studied 
two years at the Harvard Law School. He 
was admitted to the bar, practised law in 
Boston, and he was a Bail Commissioner. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



299 



SHEA, JOHN F., lawyer, born in Boston, 
June 2, 1859. He was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of this city, and after a course of 
study in the law he was admitted to the Suf- 
folk County bar, where he is al present a well- 
known practitioner. Mr. Shea is a Democrat 
in politics, and was a member of the Legisla- 
ture of 1886, where he distinguished himself 
as member of the Committee on Claims. 
During 1887 and 1888 he represented the 
eighth district in the State Senate. 

SHEA, R. W., lawyer, born in Halifax, N.S., 
March 14, 1851. While an infant he, with his 
parents, removed to Boston, where he obtained 
his early education in the public schools. He 
graduated from the Boston University Law 
School in 1877, anc ^ was admitted to the Nor- 
folk County bar in 1880. He was also 
admitted to the Chicago bar. He is now 
engaged in the practice of law in this city, 
and is a member of the Charitable Irish 
Society. 

STRANGE, THOMAS F., lawyer, born in 
Manchester, N.H., Dec. 24, 1859. His father 
was one of the organizers of the first Catholic 
church in the place of his birth. He came to 
Boston while very young, and was educated 
in the public schools of this city; graduated 
from the Boston University Law School in 
1882, receiving the degree of LL.B., and 
was admitted to the Suffolk County bar the 
same year. He has been a member of the 
Democratic Ward and City Committee for 
eight years, and in 1883 was appointed to fill 
a vacancy as a Commissioner of Insolvency. 
He was later elected to the office for three 
years. 

SULLIVAN, CORNELIUS P., lawyer, born in 
Boston, April 22, 1861. He is a graduate 
of the Quincy Grammar School, the English 
High School of 1876, Latin School, 1882, and 
the Harvard Law School, 1885. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in the latter year, and has 
since been engaged in legal practice. 

SULLIVAN, RICHARD, lawyer, born in Dur- 
ham, Conn., Feb. 24, 1856. In infancy he 



was brought to Boston. He graduated at 
the Comins Grammar School, Boston College, 
Boston University Law School in 1882, re- 
ceiving the degree of LL.B., and was ad- 
mitted to the Suffolk County bar in 1883. 
He was a member of the Harvard Law 
School. In 1881-82 he studied in the office 
of C. T. and T. H. Russell & Co. He was a 
member of the Common Council of i887~'88- 
'89, serving on the committees on Claims, 
Judiciary, etc., and is one of the Executive 
Committee of the Young Men's Democratic 
Club of Massachusetts. 

SULLIVAN, WILLIAM, lawyer, born in 
County Cork, Ireland, June 9, 1854. In 
the spring of 1866 he immigrated to this 
country, locating at Salem, Mass. He at- 
tended the public schools, graduated at 
the Salem High School in 1874, Harvard 
Law School in 1881, and was admitted to 
the Suffolk County bar, June 22, 1882. 
During the year between his graduation 
from the law school and admission to the 
bar he studied in the office of Hon. E. R. 
Hoar, where he has continued to practise 
ever since. 

SWEENEY, JAMES F., lawyer, born in May- 
nard, Mass., Sept. 19, 1863. The basis of 
his education was laid at the town school 
and the Maynard High School; he gradu- 
ated at the latter, and studied at Boston Col- 
lege for some time. He entered the law 
office of Mr. John F. Cronan, and attended 
the Boston University Law School. He was 
admitted to the Suffolk bar on Jan. 17, 1888. 
He was chairman of the Maynard School 
Committee for three years, ending in March, 
1888, and he was local editor of "The En- 
terprise," a Maynard newspaper. 

TAFF, JOHN H., lawyer, born in Boston, 
Aug. 20, 1859. He attended the public 
schools of this city, and graduated at the 
Boston Latin School in 1875, and Harvard 
College in 1879. He afterward studied law 
at the Harvard Law School; he graduated, 
and was admitted to the Suffolk County bar 



300 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON, 



in 1883. He supplemented his legal studies 
in the law office of Charles F. Donnelly, and 
is now engaged in active legal practice in 
Boston. 

WALSH, JAMES L., lawyer, born in East 
Boston, March 28, 1843. He graduated at 
the Lyman Grammar school, at Holy Cross 
College, 1 866, and at the Harvard Law School. 
He represented Ward 2 in the Legislature 
of 1877-78, serving on the Joint Standing 
Committee on Harbors and the Judiciary 
Committee. Upon the establishment of the 
East Boston District Court he was appointed 
a special justice. 

WARD, JOHN P. J., lawyer, born at the 
North End, Boston, Aug. 5, 1857. He at- 
tended the old Mayhew School and the Bos- 
ton High School. He studied law at the 
Boston University Law School, and received 
the degree of LL.B. in 1877. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in May, 1 878, and opened 
a law office shortly afterwards. He repre- 
sented Ward 7 in the Common Council for 



one year after his admission to the bar, but 
abandoned political life to give more atten- 
tion to the law. 

WHALL, WILLIAM B. F., lawyer, born in 
Boston, March 10, 1856. His early educa- 
tion was received at St. Mary's Parochial 
School. After graduation, he attended Bos- 
ton College, where he received a number of 
meritorious prizes. In 1874 he received the 
degree of A.B., and in 1876 the degree of 
A.M., from Holy Cross College. He was 
the recipient of the degree of LL.B. from 
Maryland University Law School in 1876, 
and was admitted to the Maryland bar July 
of the same year. He was honored with 
the degree of LL.B. from the Boston Uni- 
versity Law School in 1877, and was ad- 
mitted to the Suffolk County bar of Massa- 
chusetts in November, 1877. He was a 
member of the Common Council, represent- 
ing Ward 7, during 1886 and 1887. He was 
elected as a Commissioner of Insolvency in 
the fall of 1886, to hold office for three years, 
from 1887 to 1890. 



Names of lawyers whose biographical sketches were not written, owing to no fault of 



AMORY, THOMAS C. 
ANDREWS, AUGUSTUS. 
BARRY, THOMAS E. 
BURKE, FRANCIS. 
CAHILL, JOHN. 
CASEY, P. J. 
CAVANAGH, L. J. 
COAKLEY, T. W. 
COFFEY, JOHN A. 
COLLINS, EDWARD F. 
CONNOLLY, WILLIAM T. 
COONEY, JAMES, JR. 
CURLY, THOMAS. 
DALY, AUG. J. 
DILLON, J. T. 
DOHERTY, WILLIAM W. 
DOLAN, MATTHEW. 
DONAHOE, C. H. 
DONNELLY, CHARLES F. 
DRURY, WILLIAM H. 



DUFF, WILLIAM F. 
DWYER, RICHARD J. 
FAGIN, JAMES K. 
FALLON, JOSEPH D. 
FARLEY, JAMES F. 
FEELY, JOSEPH J. 
FLATLEY, P. J. 
GALLAGHER, CHARLES T. 
HARRINGTON, D. A. 
HARRINGTON, W. H. 
HEBRON, JOHN B. 
KENNEDY, JOHN C. 
MAGUIRE, THOMAS F. 
MCDONALD, J. W. 
MORAN, JOHN B. 
MULVEY, P. E. 
SULLIVAN, EDWARD. 
SULLIVAN, J. B. 
SULLIVAN, J. J. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



BOSTON PHYSICIANS. 



SKETCHES OF BOSTON PHYSICIANS. 



BURKE, JOHN, physician, born in Ireland. 
He was educated at Holy Cross College, 
Worcester, and the Harvard Medical School, 
of both of which he was a graduate. He 
resided in Natick, Mass., for a time, and was 
a member of the School Board of that town 
for one year. He subsequently removed to 
Boston, and located at the North End, where 
he is now engaged in the practice of medicine. 

CALLANAN, SAMSON A., physician, born at 
Port Jervis, N.Y., Nov. 7, 1862. He re- 
moved to Boston in 1872, and subsequently 
graduated from the Dwight School, Boston 
College (A.B. 1882), (A.M. 1883), and the 
Harvard Medical School. He is a member 
of Massachusetts Medical Society, Boston 
College Alumni Association, Young Men's 
Catholic Association of Boston College, and 
is the medical examiner of Cathedral, St. 
James, Holy Trinity, St. Peters, and Ameri- 
can courts of Catholic Order of Foresters; 
also of the Knights of St. Rose, Royal Society 
of Good Fellows, and the International Be- 
nevolent and Fraternal Co. 

DALY, BERNARD T., physician, born in 
Lawrence, Mass., Sept. 13, 1857. He at- 
tended St. Mary's and Oliver Grammar 
Schools of that place, College of St. Thomas 
of Villanova, Penn., and the Medical School 
of New York University. He removed to 
Boston Oct. 6, 1883. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Catholic Order of Foresters, 
A.O.H. Div. No. i, A. L. of H. Charitable 
Irish Society, M.U.B.A., and A.O.F. 



DEVINE, WILLIAM H., physician, born in 
Boston, June 21, 1860. He attended the 



public schools, graduated at the English High 
School and the Harvard Medical School, re- 
ceiving the degree of M.D. He has been for 
some time a practising physician in South 
Boston; he is a member of the Catholic Order 
of Foresters and the Legion of Honor. 

DORCEY, JAMES E., physician, born in 
Boston, Oct. 21, 1857. He attended the 
public schools, graduated at the Boston Latin 
School and the Harvard Medical School in 
1880, receiving the degree of M.D., and has 
practised in this city ever since. He is a 
member of the Catholic Order of Foresters 
and of the Royal Arcanum. 

DUNN, WILLIAM A., physician, born in 
Boston, Sept. 6, 1852. His people settled 
in this State more than half a century ago. 
His paternal grandmother was an old resident 
of Lawrence, Mass., and was buried there in 
1845. His mother, nee Julia Kearny, was 
related to the family of Gen. Phil. Kearny. 
Dr. Dunn graduated as a Franklin Medal 
scholar from the Eliot School at the age of 
thirteen years. He possessed a rich and 
beautiful contralto voice, and was the soloist 
of his school. He sang in a choir of adults 
when but eleven years of age, and was very 
frequently heard in concerts, and became 
known as " the boy contralto." The position 
of soloist in the choir of the Church of the 
Advent was tendered him, which he did not 
accept. He passed a successful examination 
for admission to the English High School; 
thence he went to Boston College, from 
which he graduated, having received in his 
last year all possible honors from that insti- 
tution. These comprised three silver medals 



(303) 



304 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



and the gold prize for dramatic reading. He 
received the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and 
afterwards the honorary degree of Master 
of Arts, and then proceeded to Harvard 
University, to pursue a course of medical 
studies. He was graduated with such distin- 
guished honor that he received the prize of 
surgical house doctor at the Massachusetts 
General Hospital, where he resided for six- 
teen months. 

His experience while at Harvard, as 
assistant to the professor of medical chemis- 
try, served him in a great measure at the 
hospital. He was the assistant of Dr. Henry 
I. Bowditch, with whom he was associated in 
the compilation of his work on consumption. 
He was asked by Mr. Terry, a wealthy 
Southerner, to act as his medical companion 
during a three years' sojourn in Europe; 
although that gentleman made him a tempt- 
ing proposal, the young physician decided to 
remain in Boston. He became assistant to 
Dr. John G. Blake, with whom he remained 
one year, and then began to establish himself 
in practice, and opened an office on Cham- 
bers street, where he has remained ever since, 
and has become the possessor of wealth. 
His extensive practice requires an assistant's 
services, and is still growing. In 1876 Dr. 
Dunn was the Professor of Chemistry at 
Boston College, later he taught physiology 
there. About the same. year he was made 
assistant surgeon in the battery of the Second 
Brigade, M.V.M.; the first battalion of cav- 
alry, in the same brigade, claimed him as 
its assistant surgeon in the following year, and 
afterwards he became the surgeon, which 
position he held until 1881, when his other 
medical duties compelled him to resign. In 
1878 he went to Europe, and there pursued 
his medical investigations and studies with 
his friend, Mr. George Crompton, of Worces- 
ter, Mass., the famous inventor. 

In 1882 he was appointed assistant surgeon, 
to the Carney Hospital, and in 1884 he was 
one of the visiting surgeons, which position 
he now holds, and while serving in that ca- 
pacity he has performed many difficult surgi- 
cal operations. He was elected to the School 



Committee in 1886, receiving the nominat56n 
of both political parties. In 1887 Governor 
Ames appointed him, together with Hon. 
John F. Andrew, one of the trustees of the 
Institution for the Feeble-minded, for three 
years. He is trustee of the Union Institu- 
tion for Savings. In 1887-88 the Alumni 
Association of Boston College elected him its 
president. He is a life member of the Young 
Men's Catholic Association, a member of the 
Charitable Irish Society, the Eliot School 
Association, the Clover Club, the Puritan 
Club, and the Boston Athletic Club. He is 
medical examiner for several courts of For- 
esters. Dr. Dunn has written much. In 
1882 he published a pamphlet on the Thera- 
peutics of Vivisection, which he read before 
the Massachusetts Medical Society; also a 
paper on the "Use and Abuse of Ergot." 
Several of his cases have been printed in 
the medical journals. He is a member of 
many societies, such as the American Medi- 
cal Association, the Boston Society for Medi- 
cal Observation, the Boston Medical Benevo- 
lent Association, and the Bostonian Society. 

GALLIGAN, E. T., physician, born in Taun- 
ton, Mass., June 26, 1858. He graduated 
from the Taunton High School, St. Charles 
College, and the Harvard Medical School. 
He is an attending physician at St. Eliza- 
beth's Hospital, and also at the House of 
the Angel Guardian. He is a member of 
the Mass. Med. Society, Norfolk Dist. Medi- 
cal Society, Mass. Catholic Order of Forest- 
ers, Clover Club, and he is considered one of 
the leading young medical practitioners of 
the city. 

GRAINGER, WILLIAM H., physician, born 
in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland, Nov. 7, 
1845. **e emigrated from his native place, 
Nov. 7, 1864. In the year 1870 he located 
in Boston. His early education was received 
at Rev. Mr. Martindale's private school 
at Mallow, afterwards he went to a private 
tutor in Dublin and the Bandon Institute. 
He is a graduate of the Medical School of 
the University of New York, and has been 




WILLIAM DUNN. M.D. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



305 



in active practice at East Boston for a num- 
ber of years. He has been a trustee of the 
East Boston Savings Bank since 1881, and a 
member of the School Committee since Jan- 
uary, 1887. He is also a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, Boston Gynae- 
cological Society, American Medical Asso- 
ciation, Charitable Irish Society, Catholic 
Union, Clover Club, and Wendell Phillips 
Branch of the Land League. 

KENNEALY, JOHN H., physician, born in 
Boston, Dec. 22, 1849. He attended the 
Eliot, Latin, and Chauncy Hall Schools, 
Harvard University, and also the medical 
school of that institution. He was surgeon 
in the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia in 
i876-*77-'78, has been in active practice in 
the Roxbury district for several years, and 
was a candidate for the School Committee 
on two different occasions. He is a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 
American Legion of Honor, Royal Society 
of Good Fellows, Catholic Order of For- 
esters, and the Societe de la Prcvoyance. 

LANE, JOHN G., physician and surgeon, 
born in Philadelphia, Penn., in 1854. He was 
educated, however, in the National School, 
Donoughmore, County Cork, Ireland; Ter- 
rence Golden's Latin School; Clongowes 
Wood College, County Kildare; Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin; and received the degrees of 
A.B., M.B., Bch. L.M., L.S., T.C.D., and 
Lie. Mid., Combe Lying-in Hospital of Dub- 
lin. He arrived in Boston, July 22, 1876, and 
has since been actively engaged in the prac- 
tice of his profession, being located in the 
peninsular district. He is a member of the 
Montgomery Light Guard Veteran Associa- 
tion, Irish-American Club of South Boston, 
Irish Charitable Society, Bachelors' Club of 
South Boston, and the National Irish Athletic 
Association. 

LAWLER, THOMAS J., physician, born in 
Boston, Dec. I, 1859. He attended the 
East-street Primary School, graduated from 
the Quincy Grammar, English High, and 



Harvard Medical Schools, receiving the de- 
gree of M.D. from the latter. He has been 
engaged in active practice at the West End 
for several years. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, and he is also 
connected with many fraternal organiza- 
tions. 

MACDONALD, WILLIAM G., physician and 
Medical Inspector of the Board of Health, 
born in Boston, March 12, 1858. He attend- 
ed the public schools and Boston College. 
Graduated from the latter institution and re- 
ceived the degree of A.B. He entered the 
medical school of Harvard University and 
graduated with the Class of 1884, and re- 
ceived a medal for proficiency in the nat- 
ural sciences. He is the treasurer of the 
Boston College Alumni Association. He has 
been the lecturer of the Massachusetts Emer- 
gency and Hygiene Association during three 
years, ending in June, 1888, in which posi- 
tion he did much useful work. 

MARA, FRANK T., physician, born in Bos- 
ton, Dec. 21, 1863. He received his early 
education in the public schools, and subse- 
quently attended Holy Cross College, from 
which institution he received the degree of 
A.B., in 1883. He then took a regular course 
at the medical school of Harvard University, 
where he obtained the degree of M.D., hi 
1887. 

McDEVnr, JAMES J., physician and sur- 
geon, born in East Boston, July 17, 1860. 
He was a graduate of the Adams and Eng- 
lish High Schools, attended Boston College, 
and was also a graduate of the medical 
school of the University of New York. He 
is now physician for the Overseers of the 
Poor; a member of the Massachusetts Catho- 
lic Order of Foresters, Fitton Literary In- 
stitute, Ancient Order of Foresters, and the 
Royal Society of Good Fellows. 

MCLAUGHLIN, HENRY V., physician and 
surgeon, born in Duncannon, County Wex- 
ford, Ireland, Feb. 9, 1855. He immi- 



306 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



grated Feb. 12, 1885, arrived in Boston 
Feb. 25, 1885. He was educated in the 
Collegiate Seminary of Waterford ; Ledwick 
School of Medicine and Surgery, Dublin; 
Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin, and 
the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, 
Scotland, and is a graduate from the two 
latter institutions. He has been an attend- 
ant physician to St. John's Ecclesiastical 
Seminary, Brighton, since Nov., 1886; is 
medical examiner of the Brighton Assembly 
of Royal Society of Good Fellows, and a 
member of a local branch of the Irish Land 
League Association. 

McNALLY, WM. J., physician and sur- 
geon, born in Charlestown, Oct. 8, 1863. 
He was a graduate of the public schools and 
the Harvard Medical School, and he is now 
engaged in practice. He is a member of the 
staff of the Charlestown Free Dispensary and 
of the Middlesex (So. District) Medical So- 
ciety, also of St. Mary's Young Men's Tem- 
perance Society. 

MORAN, JOHN B., physician, born in St. 
John, N.B., Aug. 3, 1838. He came to 
Boston in 1841, and afterwards attended the 
public schools. He entered the Harvard 
Medical School in 1861. During the sum- 
mer of 1862 he was engaged by the sanitary 
commission as assistant surgeon in the " pen- 
insular campaign." He graduated as doctor 
of medicine in 1864, and for two years fol- 
lowing attended the hospitals of Vienna, 
Prague, Berlin, and Paris. Certain induce- 
ments, however, allured him into mercantile 
pursuits in 1866, which he followed for five 
years, until he resumed the practice of medi- 
cine, in 1871. He was elected a member of 
the Boston School Committee in 1876, and 
served nine consecutive years. Upon the 
creation of the office of Instructor of Hygiene 
in the public schools, in 1 885, he was chosen 
to the position, which he at present retains. 
He was elected President of the Irish Chari- 
table Society in 1886, and presided at the 
memorable celebration of the I5oth anni- 
versary of that organization. 



MORAN, MARTIN W., physician, born in 
Clinton, Mass., Oct. 29, 1854. He attended 
the Clinton public schools, and graduated 
from the New York College and Bellevue 
Hospital in 1876. He was engaged after 
graduation as an inspector in New York, 
severing his connection with that position in 
October, 1887, and is now a practitioner in 
Boston. He is a member of the Catholic 
Order of Foresters. 

MORRIS, JOHN G., physician, born in Bos- 
ton, March 26, 1856. He is a graduate of the 
Boston Latin School, Harvard University, 
and also of the Harvard Medical School. He 
has practised for several years; served at the 
Mass. General Hospital, and he is at present 
visiting physician to St. Elizabeth's Hospital 
of this city. 

MURPHY, FRANCIS C., physician, born in 
Taun ton, Mass., Dec. 23,1864. He attend- 
ed St Mary's College, Montreal, Canada, 
the Harvard Medical School (graduate), and 
the City Hospital of Boston, having served 
two years at the latter institution as house 
physician. He is at present engaged in 
general practice at the South End of the 
city. 

REILLY, JAMES A., dentist, born in Eng- 
land, Dec. 25, 1854. He immigrated to the 
United States in 1860, settling first in Lowell, 
Mass. He graduated at the public school. 
Having a decided inclination for music, he 
made it a study for several years, and for a 
time attended the New England Conservatory 
of Music, but finally abandoned it as a profes- 
sion. He then entered Boston College, where 
he received a three years' course. In 1878 
he became a student at the Harvard Dental 
School, and graduated in 1 88 1. He immedi- 
ately commenced the practice of dentistry, 
and for about three years was located at the 
West End, during which time he also con- 
ducted the music at St. Joseph's Catholic 
Church. In 1 884 he opened an office. Since 
1886 he has been musical director at the 
Church of the Immaculate Conception, Mai- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



307 



den, Mass. He is a member of the Catholic 
Union, Charitable Irish Society, Clover Club, 
Harvard Odontological Society, Massachu- 
setts Medical Society, the " Cecilia," and the 
Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston 
College. 

ROCHE, D. F., physician, born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., March I, 1846. He attended 
the public schools of Cambridge, St. Charles 
College, Baltimore, St. Hyacinthe College, 
Canada, Troy Seminary, Boston Univer- 
sity, and University of New York, grad- 
uating at the Medical School of the latter 
institution in 1883. He practised one year 
in the Bellevue Hospital, and afterwards re- 
moved to Boston, where he has been located 
since. He is a member of the Mass. Eclectic 
Medical Society, Suffolk District Medical 



Society, and the National Eclectic Medical 
Association. 

SHEA, THOMAS B., physician, born in Bos- 
ton, March 9, 1862. He graduated at the 
Brimmer School, Holy Cross College, and 
Harvard Medical School, receiving the degree 
of M.D. from the latter. On Aug. I, 1887, 
he was appointed assistant resident phy- 
sician of Long and Rainsford islands, but 
resigned May I, 1888, to accept his present 
position as Assistant Port Physician. 

YOUNG, JOHN F., physician, born in Bos- 
ton, May 20, 1859. He attended the pub- 
lic and Latin schools, and graduated from the 
Harvard Medical School in 1881. He is 
now engaged in practice at South Boston, 
and has been a Director of the City Hospital 
since 1886. 



In order that the names of other physicians may be known whose sketches do not 
appear, through no fault of ours, we append this list : 



BLAKE, JOHN G. 
BOLAND, E. S. 
BRODERICK, T. J. 
BROIDRICK, JAMES P. 
BUCKLEY, P. F. 
BUTLER, N. H. 
CAMPBELL, B. F. 

COCHRANE, J. M. 

COLLINS, D. A. 
DOHERTY, HUGH. 
DUNN, C. S. 
FERGUSON, HUGH. 
FERRY, JAMES F. 
FINN, JAMES A. 
FITZGERALD, ORRIN, JR. 
FOLEY, WALTER. 
GALVIN, GEORGE W. 
GAVIN, GEORGE F. 
GAVIN, M. F. 
GAVIN, P. F. 



GILLISPIE, JOHN. 
OILMAN, E. A. 
HARKINS, DANIEL S. 
HIGGINS, HENRY R. 
KINNEY, JOHN E. 
LYONS, W. J. 
MCCARTY, GEORGE E. 
MCGLYNN, EDWARD. 
McGowAN, DENNIS J. 

MclNTYRE, DAVID. 

MCLAUGHLIN, JAMES A. 
MCLAUGHLIN, JOSEPH I. 
MURPHY, JOSEPH P. 
MURRAY, I. H. 
O'DdNNELL, WILLIAM. 

O'KEEFE, M. W. 

WALSH, M. J. 
WALSH, PETER D. 
WHITE, ROBERT. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



or 



BOSTON JOURNALISTS 





JAMES JEFFREY ROCHE. 



SKETCHES OF BOSTON JOURNALISTS. 



BARRY, EDWARD P., journalist, born in 
South Boston, Nov. 28, 1864. He attended 
the public schools, and also received private 
instruction for the priesthood, but subse- 
quently abandoned his studies in this direc- 
tion. He was engaged in mercantile posi- 
tions for a time afte/ leaving school, but at 
the age of nineteen he entered the journal- 
istic field and became editor and part owner 
of the "South Boston News." He later 
became attached to the staff of the Boston 
" Daily Advertiser " and " Evening Record," 
as an assistant in the sporting department. 
In January, 1887, he acted as carnival corre- 
spondent for the Boston " Herald," at Mon- 
treal, Can., and Burlington, Vt. A few 
months afterward he was appointed assistant 
sporting editor of that paper, which position 
he held until quite recently. He is at pres- 
ent a medical student, but is also engaged as 
a special writer on the " Herald " staff, and 
an editor of one of the weekly papers in the 
peninsular district. He also represents Ward 
15 in the Common Council of 1889. 

BUCKLEY, EUGENE, journalist, born in 
Florida, Mass., Oct. 12, 1856. In 1868 he 
removed to Boston, where he has resided 
ever since. He was educated in the pub- 
lic schools, and supplemented his education 
by private study. He learned cabinet-mak- 
ing, serving an apprenticeship with Dee 
Bros. Afterward he was employed by the 
Fitchburg Railroad in the capacity of fore- 
man of the car department, remaining there 
about six years. He has always had an am- 
bition for newspaper work, as his regular 
trade was not congenial to him. In March, 
1887, he was engaged by the Boston 



" Globe " as a general writer, with sporting 
news as a specialty. In a short time after his 
engagement on the paper he was recognized 
as a valuable man on general sports, and 
his progress as a chronicler in the sporting 
field has been decidedly satisfactory. He was 
therefore duly appointed aquatic editor and 
society reporter of the " Globe," positions 
which he now occupies. During the season 
of 1888 he published the " Base-Ball Rec- 
ord." 

BURNS, EDWARD F., journalist, born in 
Natick, Mass., April 22, 1859. He graduated 
from the Natick High jchool in 1876, and 
from Boston College w ch honor as poet of 
his class in 1880. He ,tudied medicine two 
years, but changed his intention and joined 
the Boston " Globe " staff as reporter in 1884. 
During his engagement with that paper he 
has been reporter, assistant to day and night 
editors, and also night city editor. He be- 
came editor and manager of the Salem 
" Times " in 1 887, for a short period, but 
returned to the " Globe" the latter part of 
the same year. He is at present performing 
the duties of reporter. He was the first 
historian of the Boston College Alumni As- 
sociation, and is now a member of the 
Executive Committee of the Class of '80. 
He is a member of the Entertainment Com- 
mittee of the Boston Press Club, and also a 
member of the Hendricks Club. He was the 
first reporter to get a copy of the first volume 
of "Elaine's Twenty Years of Congress," 
receiving the same simultaneously with the 
author, allowing the " Globe " to get an ' ex- 
clusive " on other papers. He recently made 
an excellent record in reporting the Stain- 



(311) 



312 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



Cromwell trial at Bangor for his paper. He 
is a gentleman of acknowledged literary 
ability, an author of many taking verses, 
notably those published at the time of the 
yachting contests of 1887. When quite 
young he was a successful contributor to the 
"Youth's Companion," under the nom de 
plume of "Raleigh." 

CARMODY, JOHN D., journalist, born in 
South Boston, Aug. 24, 1864. He graduated 
from the Lawrence Grammar School in 
1878, and attended the English High School 
for two years. He was first employed in the 
counting-room of the " Daily Advertiser; " 
afterward as shipping clerk in a sugar refin- 
ery; but in January, 1885, he became 
attached to the reportorial staff of the " Daily 
Advertiser " and " Evening Record," and for 
a few years was the South Boston representa- 
tive of those papers. He was subsequently 
transferred to a place on the city staff, which 
he held until April, 1888, when he accepted 
a position on the staff of the Boston " Her- 
ald," where he is now employed. He was 
for five years a member of the dramatic class 
of SS. Peter and Paul's Church, and has 
made a local reputation in amateur theatri- 
cals. He is a member of a number of social 
organizations in the South Boston district. 

CUMMINGS, THOMAS H., business manager, 
Boston " Pilot," born in Boston, June 1 5, 
1856. He graduated from the Mayhew 
School in 1870, attended the Latin School, 
and later SL Charles College, where he com- 
pleted the regular course in 1876. He de- 
livered the address of welcome to the presid- 
ing officers at the commencement exercises 
of the latter institution, in the presence of 
Bishop Becker, of Delaware, and Gov. John 
Lee Carroll, of Maryland. He subsequently 
resided in Paris for two years, and studied 
philosophy at Issy under the Sulpicians. In 
1878 he returned to Boston, and became 
attached to the lower branch of the Public 
Library as curator, where he remained until 
1885, when he entered the office of the 
Boston "Pilot." He is a member of the 



First Corps of Cadets, Webster Historical 
Society, Megantic Fish and Game Club, 
Young Men's Catholic Association, and a 
Director of the Working Boys' Home. 

CURRAN, MICHAEL P., journalist. Mr. 
Curran's active journalistic career began in 
1873, although he had been a frequent con-" 
tributor to several papers in New York and 
Boston earlier than that time. He wrote 
vacation letters for the Boston " Pilot," and 
supplied editorial matter on current topics. 
After three years' experience in a large 
wholesale dry-goods establishment in Boston, 
he joined the staff of the Boston " Globe." 
Mr. M. M. Ballou had just retired from the 
management of that journal and had been 
succeeded by Mr. Clarence S. Wason. Mr. 
Curran began as a suburban reporter. His 
district included Lynn and Salem. In Oc- 
tober, 1873, he was appointed on the regular 
reportorial staff. In 1874, during the famous 
campaign which terminated in the election of 
William Gaston as governor and the over- 
throw of six Republican congressional can- 
didates, Mr. Curran conducted the local 
political department of the paper, and dis- 
played an aptitude for that line of work 
which developed and broadened later on. 
In 1875 he became night editor of the 
" Globe," and served with credit to himself 
and the paper in that important capacity for 
over two years. In 1877 the " Sunday 
Globe " was launched by Colonel Taylor and 
Mr. E. M. Bacon, who were then the direc- 
tors and controllers of the company's inter- 
ests. Mr. Curran was placed in charge of 
the editorial department, and to his untir- 
ing and intelligent efforts much of the suc- 
cess of that enterprise is due. In 1881 he 
managed the editorial department of the 
" Daily Globe " as well as of the Sunday 
edition, and he controlled and directed the 
opinions of both papers until his retirement 
from active journalism in 1883, when he re- 
signed to accept the post of Police Commis- 
sioner. In addition to his duties in the 
office of the " Globe " he was for six years, 
from 1877 till 1883, the New England corre- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



313 



spondent of the New York " Herald." After 
the bill enacted by the Legislature of 1885, 
providing for the transfer of the police de- 
partment from city to State control, had 
become operative, Mr. Curran joined the 
editorial staff of the "Saturday Evening 
Gazette," and remained in that service for 
about thirteen months. He resigned in Oc- 
tober, 1886, and devoted himself to miscella- 
neous literary and journalistic work, until 
September, 1887, when he was commissioned 
by the President of the United States as 
assistant appraiser of merchandise at the port 
of Boston. 

Mr. Curran, in his twelve or thirteen years 
of active journalism, took a prominent part 
in many events which have gone into the 
permanent history of the country. In 1874, 
when the people of the United States were 
startled, shocked, and incensed by the out- 
rage perpetrated by the Spanish authorities 
in seizing the " Virginius " and shooting a 
portion of her crew in Cuba, he was detailed 
to secure the views of the late Charles Sum- 
ner on the subject. Mr. Sumner was then a 
senator of the United States, and his position 
as chairman of the ' Committee on Foreign 
Relations imparted to his opinions great 
weight and importance. After a long and 
diplomatic interview the great statesman 
consented to give the young and enterprising 
journalist a two-column statement of the 
rights and duties of the United States in the 
premises, and its publication in the " Globe " 
next morning created a profound impression 
in New England, and in fact throughout the 
country. 

When the Russian frigate anchored off 
South-west Harbor on the coast of Maine 
during the Russo-Turkish War, Mr. Curran 
was the representative of the New York 
" Herald " in Boston. Mr. Bennett commis- 
sioned him to call on Caleb Gushing, the best 
international lawyer then in America, and get 
a legal opinion from him on the question in- 
volved, viz., Whether the American govern- 
ment was violating the neutrality laws by 
allowing shelter to a ship of war belonging 
to one of the belligerents. Mr. Curran spent 



a day at Mr. Cushing's residence in Newbury- 
port, and returned to Boston at night wilh the 
most elaborate, as it was the most valuable, 
disquisition on the point at issue. Its publi- 
cation next day in the New York " Herald " 
settled forever the vexed question which had 
been raised, and ended the controversy. 

Perhaps one of the cleverest bits of inter- 
viewing ever done by a journalist was done 
by Mr. Curran in the celebrated Freeman 
case. Freeman, it may be remembered, re- 
sided in the little town of Pocasset, in Barn- 
stable County, Mass. He was a wild fanatic 
in religion, and became insane from constant 
reading of the Bible and his unaided efforts -to 
interpret the true meaning of the language of 
the sacred volume. He reached the conclu- 
sion, finally, that it was his duty to sacrifice 
the lives of his children, as Abraham had 
been instructed to do under the old dispen- 
sation. One morning the little community was 
startled by the intelligence that this religious 
lunatic had actually killed his two children. 
He was arrested and lodged in the jail at 
Barnstable. Efforts had been made by 
almost every newspaper in the land to 
secure an interview with the prisoner, but 
in vain. He would not talk. A reporter 
was regarded by Freeman as his natural 
enemy. He refused to hold any conversa- 
tion with him under any circumstances. One 
morning as he was about to eat his meal of 
mush and milk, he was introduced to a 
stranger, who claimed to have come a long 
distance for the purpose of discussing the theo- 
logical and biblical questions surrounding the 
sacrificial act. "Are you a reporter?" 
asked the weary recluse. "I am a seeker 
after truth," was the response; " I fail to 
find any justification in the Bible for your 
course. I may read it wrong, and if I do I 
want you to set me right." Taking a Bible 
out of his pocket the stranger proceeded to 
read portions of the Scriptures on which 
Freeman relied for his authority, and to com- 
ment on them in a way to arouse the 
antagonism of the filicide. In a moment 
there was a hot and fiery debate. Freeman 
argued his side of the , case with spirit, and 



314 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



the stranger maintained his point as best he 
could. The stranger was Mr. Michael P. 
Curran, the New England correspondent of 
the New York " Herald." He had broken the 
silence of the crazed Bible interpreter and 
had penetrated the secret he tried so well to 
guard. The result of the interview was 
printed two days later in the " Herald," and 
it formed the text for many sermons and 
editorials. 

There was another celebrated criminal 
case in New England in which Mr. Curran 
took a prominent and conspicuous part. In 
1875 a woman of somewhat questionable 
moral standing in Rutland, Vt., was mur- 
dered in her house in a retired portion of 
the city. The building she occupied was set 
on fire, and when the flames had been ex- 
tinguished, her mangled remains were dis- 
covered half charred and badly mutilated. 
Only circumstantial evidence could be pro- 
cured, but enough of that was found to justify 
the detectives in arresting one John P. 
Phair, a friend of the dead woman, and a 
native and a resident of the little city of 
Vergennes. Phair was tried, convicted, and 
sentenced to be hanged at Windsor, Vt., on 
a certain Friday in April, 1877. Prior to 
the day set for his execution he wrote and 
intrusted to the late Mr. Edward C. Carrigan, 
then a Dartmouth College senior and a 
correspondent of the Associate Press, a 
statement intended for publication after his 
death, in which he undertook to prove an 
effective and complete alibi. Phair stipu- 
lated that his defence should not be curtailed 
or condensed; that if published at all it 
must be published in Mo, and not until after 
his execution. Mr. Carrigan took the docu- 
ment to Boston and eventually disposed of 
it to the managers of the " Globe." It was 
published on the morning of the day set for 
Phair's death, and created a local sensation 
on account of the clearness, vigor, and logi- 
cal sequence which its writer brought to his 
work. A Vermont man, doing business in Bos- 
ton, read it and declared that he could verify 
by personal knowledge and experience one 
of the most essential points in the paper. He 



proceeded to the " Globe " office and induced 
Col. Chas. H. Taylor, then, as now, mana- 
ger of that journal, to telegraph to Governor 
Fairbanks for a reprieve long enough to 
allow him to appear and give his testimony. 
The reprieve was granted for thirty days. 
Mr. Curran was despatched to Vermont next 
day to look into the matter, and he collected, 
in conjunction with Mr. Carrigan, enough 
evidence to warrant the granting of a further 
respite by the governor for two years, in 
order that proceedings for the reopening of 
the case by order of the Legislature might be 
taken. Mr. Curran collected his documents 
together, and laid them before Governor 
Fairbanks, presenting them in an argument 
of half an hour's duration, which so im- 
pressed the executive that he postponed the 
execution, as stated already. 

In 1881, when President Garfield was shot 
by Guiteau, Mr. Curran was at the head of 
the editorial forces of the " Globe." The 
leading New England papers of the liberal 
stripe, and even some Republican organs, 
forecast great danger to the republic in the 
event of Arthur's accession. The " Globe " 
took the opposite view. It maintained that 
no man's life was necessary to the safety or 
peace of the country; that the American 
people were a self-governing and a law-abid- 
ing people, and that Mr. Arthur as their 
servant could only execute their will. Mr. 
Curran was rewarded by assurances from 
all over New England that he had struck the 
proper key-note, and the paper, holding fast 
to that policy, gained in reputation and in- 
creased its prosperity. When Garfield died, 
the same spirit animated the editorial com- 
ments. The memorial number of the 
" Globe," which was published a week later, 
containing poetic tributes from Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes, John Boyle O'Reilly, Mrs. M. 
E. Blake, Rev. M. J. Savage, and others was 
in part the result of Mr. Curran's enterprise 
and effort. 

In the Land League movement in America, 
for the support of the Irish agitation, Mr. 
Curran took a prominent part. It was he 
who first convinced the managers of the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



315 



"Globe" that it would be good policy, as 
well as good journalism, to espouse the cause 
of the struggling Irish. The paper took its 
stand editorially in favor of the constitutional 
movement for land reform, and in this it was 
the pioneer among the New England press. 
Mr. Curran attended the conventions at Buf- 
falo in 1 88 1, in Washington in 1882, and in 
Philadelphia in 1883, both as a delegate and 
as a newspaper correspondent, and contrib- 
uted, by his pen and his vote, to promote the 
object sought to be accomplished, an object 
which later on compelled the sanction and 
support of the entire American press. 

DEELY, JOSEPH M., district reporter of the 
Boston " Daily Globe," born in Cambridge, 
Mass., Dec. 28, 1871. He was graduated 
from the Thorndike Grammar School, June 
20, 1886, and attended the Evening High 
School. He entered the " Globe " office as 
office boy during the latter year. 

DENNISON, JOSEPH A., reporter, born in 
Andover, Mass., Aug. 19, 1867. He at- 
tended Phillips Andover Academy for two 
years, intending to enter Dartmouth College, 
but was obliged, on account of domestic dif- 
ficulties, to leave before graduation. He 
first entered newspaper work on the staff of 
the Andover " Advertiser," and subsequently 
assumed the editorship of the Lawrence 
" American " at the early age of eighteen. 
He joined the Boston " Globe " staff as re- 
porter in February, 1 888, and was promoted 
to the position of assistant sporting editor in 
June, 1888. 

DONOVAN, WILLIAM F., journalist, born in 
Boston, Dec. 29, 1867. He received his 
education in the public schools of this city, 
and afterward was employed as office boy 
with the " Evening Transcript " for a few 
months, when he left to occupy a similar 
position with the Boston " Herald." After 
three months in the latter office he was pro- 
moted, and has risen steadily since then. He 
has been with the " Herald " for about six 
years, and is at present in the exchange 



department. He also has charge of the 
"Catholic Church News" column of the 
" Herald," which is published twice a week. 
He is a regular contributor to " Donahoe's 
Monthly Magazine," and during 1888 was 
the author of the regular monthly article of 
"A Bostonian in New York," which will 
soon appear in book form. He is the 
president of the St. Joseph's Young Men's 
Association, a member of the Hendricks. 
Club and of the Boston Press Club. Like 
his brother, Senator Edward J. Donovan, he 
early showed a taste for politics, and although 
he has but just cast his maiden vote, he is 
often referred to by his associates on the 
"Herald" as a walking political encyclo- 
paedia. 

Mr. Donovan has always been a warm 
friend of the Evening High School, and l^as 
appeared several times with the late Mr. 
E. C. Carrigan and pupils of the school, 
before legislative committees, advocating the 
introduction of new studies into that school. 
He was appointed a member of a committee 
of five to represent the school at the funeral 
of the , great educator, John D. Philbrick. 
In 1886, out of a class of about seventy 
pupils but twenty-one received diplomas in 
phonography. Of this number, Mr. Dono- 
van was one. 

DROHAN, JOHN J., reporter for Boston 
" Daily Globe," born in South Boston, Aug. 
22, 1866. Mr. Drohan became celebrated as 
one of the best Indian-club swingers in this 
country, and won many important matches 
up to his tenth year; when but thirteen years 
old he won the championship of America 
in the games of the Irish Athletic Club. 
His boyhood was spent in travelling and ap- 
pearing in the leading theatres of the States. 
He secured much of his education on the 
road, and while at home he attended the 
sessions of the Lawrence School in South 
Boston. He entered the law office of Judge 
Charles Levi Woodbury, where he copied 
briefs on a high stool and read law. He was 
encouraged by Judge Woodbury; but when 
the " Evening Record " was published, in 



316 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



1884, Mr. Drohan was one of the first appli- 
cants. He had been connected with the 
South Boston " Tribune," which helped him 
to a position on the " Record." He did dis- 
trict local work for three months, and was 
promoted to night local reporter, and for a 
year did good work. The advent of the 
" Sunday Record " gave Mr. Drohan the 
opportunity to do some good special work. 
He was the sporting editor of the " Sunday 
Record," the "Advertiser's" night local, and 
wrote a weekly letter on " Green-Room Gos- 
sip," signed "Jay Dee." His attack on Boston 
gambling-houses created a sensation at the 
time, and resulted ultimately in the breaking 
up of some notorious places. He also cov- 
ered the Charles-river mystery, the Mellen 
conspiracy case, and the William Gray em- 
bezzlement and suicide. His base-ball letters 
in the " Record " attracted attention in 
sporting circles, and resulted in his being 
employed by the " Globe " for the season of 
1888. Mr. Drohan is a member of the 
Monopole Qub, which includes among its 
members Henry E. Dixey, Nat Goodwin, M. 
J. Kelly, W. H. Crane, Foster Farrar, John 
Graham, E. E. Rice, and many other clever 
gentlemen. He has been secretary of the 
club for two years. His only literary work 
outside of his newspaper was the preparation 
of M. J. Kelly's book, " Play Ball." 

DROHAN, WILLIAM L., reporter, born in 
Boston, Feb. I, 1867. He attended the 
Lawrence Grammar School of South Boston, 
graduating in 1883. He then took a three- 
years course at Boston College. He was 
first employed for a short time on the 
reportorial staff of the "Evening Record." 
On Jan. I, 1888, he became connected 
with the Boston " Globe " as an assistant 
night local reporter. He was promoted, 
March 9, to the position of a full-fledged 
night local reporter on the staff. 

DUNPHY, JAMES W., part owner of the 
Boston " Daily Advertiser " and " Evening 
Record." Born in Ireland in 1 844, and came 
to Boston in 1850. He attended the Brim- 



mer Grammar School until 1856, arid was then 
engaged to work in the office of the Boston 
" Daily Atlas." In 1857 the " Atlas " consoli- 
dated with the Boston " Traveller," and Mr. 
Dunphy remained in the " Traveller " office 
until 1860; he then became a book-keeper in 
the office of the " Commercial Bulletin," and 
remained there until 1864, when he trans- 
ferred his labors to the " Traveller " office. 
In 1869 he acquired a part ownership of the 
" Traveller," and spent many years of valu- 
able services on that newspaper. He re- 
signed his position on the paper in 1886, on 
account of dissatisfaction with the manage- 
ment and surroundings. In 1887 he entered 
the office of the Boston " Daily Advertiser " 
and " Evening Record," and upon the re- 
organization of the " Advertiser " Newspaper 
Co., in 1888, Mr. Dunphy became one of the 
owners of both journals, and the good basis 
on which the present success of the two 
dailies rest is partly due to his business man- 
agement. He was the first president of the 
Catholic Total Abstinence Union, and the 
first president and vice-president of the 
Young Men's Catholic Association, and he 
has been the president and is a director of the 
Home for Destitute Catholic Children. 

EVANS, THOMAS P., journalist, born in 
Tipperary, Ireland, March 29, 1849. He 
was first educated in Clifden, and afterward 
at Quain. He was later employed in the 
Home Rule interest by Alfred Crilly, brother 
of Daniel Crilly, Home Rule member of 
Parliament from Mayo. He was a frequent 
contributor for the cause in the "Finan- 
cial Reform Gazette," of which his em- 
ployer was editor. His father suffered 
imprisonment for organizing a body of citi- 
zens to give a reception to Daniel O'Connell 
on the occasion of his- visit to Clifden. Mr. 
Evans has been connected with the sporting 
department of the Boston " Globe " for a 
year past. 

FLANAGAN, JOHN S., editor and publisher, 
born in Boston (Charlestown District) in 
1851. He was educated at the Winthrop 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



317 



Grammar School and French's Business Col- 
lege. Subsequently he learned the printer's 
trade, at which he was employed until 1 884. 
In that year he became connected with the 
Charlestown " Enterprise," v and is now its 
editor and publisher. During his manage- 
ment he has displayed more than ordinary 
" enterprise " in making the paper a success, 
both financially and editorially. He is a 
member of the Boston Press Club and the 
Suburban Press Association. 

FORRESTER, ARTHUR M., journalist, born 
in Ballytrain, County Monaghan, Ireland, 
Jan. 9, 1850. He first attended the Shan- 
tonagh National School, but by the death of 
his father, when he was nine years of age, he 
was compelled to go to work in a printing- 
office in England. He finished his education 
under the tutelage of his mother, Ellen For- 
rester, a popular Irish poetess, and learned 
the trade of a printer. He early in life 
displayed literary ability, and in 1865 was a 
contributor to the " Irish People," under the 
nom de plume of " Angus." One of his 
articles in the suppressed edition was quoted 
by the attorney-general in his opening state- 
ment against O'Donovan Rossa. He went 
to Dublin to take part in an anticipated 
Fenian movement, in December, 1865, and 
remained there until after the suspension of 
the habeas corpus act, in February, 1866. 
In 1867 he led two circles of the Manches- 
ter Fenians in the abortive raid on Chester 
Castle, after which he again returned to 
Dublin, and on March 9 was arrested and 
sentenced to imprisonment for one year at 
hard labor for carrying arms in a "pro- 
claimed" district. On his release he was 
elected organizer and arms agent of the 
North of England Division of the I. R. B., 
and was again arrested on Dec. 1 6, 
1869, in Liverpool. After three examina- 
tions, in which he defended himself, was 
discharged on 200 bail to keep the peace 
for twelve months. In 1870 he joined a 
company of franc-tireurs, and served under 
Generals D'Aurelle de Paladine and Chanzy 
daring the Franco-German War. At the 



battle of Conneret, in the series of engage- 
ments around Le Maus, on Jan. 8, 1871, he 
was promoted sous-lieutenant for saving a 
battery after the lieutenant and every ser- 
geant of the company had been killed. 
From 1871 to 1874 he acted as organizer 
and arms agent for the S. C. in Ulster,, 
England, and Scotland. In August of the 
latter year he lost his right foot by a railway 
accident, and devoted himself thereafter to 
literature, until 1882, when he again actively 
engaged in revolutionary work in Dublin. 
His name was frequently mentioned in the 
Phoenix Park trials in connection with those 
of Joe Brady, Fagan, and Joe Mullett. He 
succeeded in getting away, however, and 
came to this country. For three years, be- 
ginning with 1884, he was assistant editor of 
the "Irish World." In October, 1887, he 
joined the proof-reading staff of the Bos- 
ton " Herald," his present position. He has 
published one volume of poems, " Songs of 
the Rising Nation," and is the author of 
two popular lyrics sung in Ireland, " Our 
Land Shall be Free " and " The Felon 
of our Land." He is also the author of 
a volume of Irish Songs and Stories, which 
is now in press. He is a member of 
Typographical Union No. 13, the Ancient 
Order of Foresters, and the Clan-na-Gael 
Society. 

FITZWILLIAM, EDWARD, editor, born in 
Riverstown Co., Sligo, Ireland, April 15, 1833. 
He emigrated, April 7, 1854. His early 
education was obtained at the National School, 
Drumfin, and at Leonard's Advanced School, 
in the land of his birth. At the age of seven- 
teen years he went to work for his father in a 
linen and woollen manufactory, and thorough- 
ly learned the details of the business. After 
his father's death and the departure of his 
brother for America,,although but eighteen 
years of age, he continued in the manu- 
facture of these: industries^ for four years. 
When he came to this country every 
fibre of the suit which he wore was " Irish," 
and made: by his own hands. When only 
nineteen years old, two pieces of tweed man- 



318 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



ufactured by him received first and second 
prizes at the Markree Castle cattle-show. 
For seventeen years after his arrival in this 
country he continued in the same line of busi- 
ness, and worked at Lawrence, Lowell, and 
Watertown, Mass., for several years, acting as 
overseer in the ^Etna Mills of the latter place. 
Owing to ill-health he subsequently engaged 
in the grocery business, which he con- 
ducted successfully for six years. In Jan- 
uary, 1885, he published a weekly paper, 
" The Boston Sentinel," advocating protec- 
tion to American industry. During the two 
years which he was editor and pubh'sher he 
wrote several Irish national songs, a collec- 
tion of which he subsequently published in 
pamphlet form. He has been a member of 
about every Irish national organization from 
the time of O'Connell to the present date, 
and is now Massachusetts State Organizer of 
the Irish National League. In the presiden- 
tial campaign of 1888 he was an active Irish 
Republican, and made a number of addresses 
throughout New York State. 

FULLER, JOHN E., reporter, born in East 
Cambridge, Mass., July 19, 1 868. He left 
school at eighteen years of age, went to work 
at the Mutual Union Telegraph Co. Sub- 
sequently he did local work for the Boston 
" Daily Globe," and is at present employed in 
the office of the managing editor. 

FYNES, JOHN T., reporter for the Boston 
" Herald," born in Boston, July 23, 1861, and 
graduated from the Phillips Grammar School 
hi 1874; .thence he engaged in mercantile 
life until 1883, when he joined the " Herald " 
staff. He has been the dramatic critic for 
the New York " Clipper " for five years, and 
occasional correspondent for other New York 
papers. During the past year, as police court 
reporter for the .Boston " Herald " he has 
done interesting work, and his humorous 
style has made the court reports a marked 
feature for the paper. 

HOPKINS, WILLIAM A., news editor, born 
in Boston, June 26, 1864. He removed to 



Ohio when quite young, and attended the 
Zanesville, Ohio, Latin School and St..Colum- 
ba's Academy, from both of which he grad- 
uated. He began newspaper work, after 
leaving school, as reporter and then city edi- 
tor of the Zanesville " Daily Times," remain- 
ing with the paper about five years. He was 
later the Ohio correspondent of the New 
York " World " and the Chicago " Times." 
He was also manager and part owner of the 
Zanesville "News." In 1884 he was elected 
the first secretary of the Jefferson Club, a 
Democratic organization taking an active 
part in Ohio politics. In January, 1888, he 
became employed by the Boston "Globe," 
as news editor, where he is now engaged. 

KEENAN, THOMAS F., journalist, and as a 
widely experienced and as an efficient all- 
round newspaper writer is unexcelled. He was 
born in Boston in 1854; attended the May- 
hew Grammar and English High schools, and 
entered the employ of the Boston " Daily Ad- 
vertiser" (in the editorial department), as 
office-boy, in 1869. In 1870 and '71 he was 
employed in reportorial work, latterly as night 
local reporter. From 1872 to 1885 he was 
a reporter on the Boston ." Herald," doing 
efficient service in every department of the 
journalistic field. In 1885 he joined the 
Boston "Daily Globe" staff. For many 
years he has been prominently identified 
with politics, but not until 1887 did he 
allow himself to be a candidate for public 
office. That year he was elected to . the 
Boston Common Council, and was reelected 
by a handsome majority in 1888. In the 
city governments of '88 and '89 he served on 
many of the most important standing and 
special committees, Finance, Public Library, 
Police ; also Special Committee on University 
Course of Education, Resident and Non- 
resident City and County Employes, Sheridan 
Eulogy, monuments to Grant, Sheridan, and 
Farragut, and Charles-river Navigation. The 
effort to give city laborers permanent em- 
ployment, and which resulted in the famous 
deadlock of two months over the annual 
appropriation bill of 1888, was due to his 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



319 



energy. The special commission appointed 
by Mayor Hart to consider a more equitable 
standard or basis of taxes was the result of 
Mr. Keenan's efforts. The tablets which the 
city has ordered to be erected at Charles- 
town on June 17, 1889, in commemoration 
of the American patriots who died at the 
battle of Bunker Hill, are also mementoes 
of his untiring energy and patriotism. He 
has been identified with much other useful 
municipal legislation. Mr. Keenan is a 
Democrat in the broadest sense. 

KELLEY, JOHN W., reporter, born in Ire- 
land, May 4, 1859. He came to America in 
1865, landing in New York City. He lived 
there two years and then removed to Somer- 
ville, Mass., where he now resides with his 
parents. He was educated in the public 
schools, and graduated from the Somerville 
High School in the class of 1876. In the 
fall of that year he entered Ottawa University, 
Ottawa, Canada, remaining two years. He 
afterward took a two-years course at Boston 
College, graduating in the Class of 1 880. He 
subsequently attended the Grand Seminary, 
Montreal, Canada, to study for the priesthood, 
where he remained till the summer of 1882. 
By the suggestion of the director of the 
latter institution, he took, the next year fol- 
lowing, worldly pursuits, to test his vocation. 
During his outside experience he began writ- 
ing short stories and sketches for magazines 
and weekly story-papers. The work was so 
fascinating to him that he continued it, and 
finally branched into regular newspaper work. , 
He was engaged on the Boston " Post " in the 
latter part of 1882, and a few months later 
on the Boston " Globe." In the beginning 
of 1883 he decided to adopt journalism as a 
profession. In the latter part of the same 
year he assumed the position of City Editor 
of the Cambridge "Tribune," continuing 
also his special work on the " Post " and 
"Globe." In i88s-'86-'87 he reported the 
news of Cambridge for the " Globe," " Ad- 
vertiser," " Record," and " Post," in addition 
to his duties on the " Tribune." He is now 
attached to the " Globe " only, preferring to 



give more time to story-writing. He has 
done some good work while on the staff of 
the latter paper, but by choice does not sign 
his articles. 

KENNEY, WILLIAM F., day editor of the 
Boston " Daily Globe," bora in Woburn, 
Mass., of Irish parents, June 7, 1861, and 
was educated in the public schools of the 
town. He graduated from the Woburn 
Grammar School in 1876, and the High 
School in the Class of 1880. He afterward 
took a course in elocution and English 
at Bryant & Stratton's Commercial College. 
He first began newspaper-work in his native 
place as a correspondent for the Boston 
" Globe." As a news-gatherer he was ener- 
getic, reliable, bright, and popular with the 
townspeople, and was a valuable represent- 
ative for the paper. His services were 
duly rewarded by the management of the 
" Globe," by tendering him a position upon 
the staff of that paper. After a service of 
three years in various departments at the 
Boston office he was promoted to the 
position of day news editor in charge of 
the evening edition of the " Globe," the 
position which he now fills in a creditable 
manner. In addition to his regular work 
he is also correspondent for several journals, 
and is the special Boston correspondent for 
the New York " Evening World." In Wo- 
burn, where he still resides, he is very popular, 
and has lately been honored with positions 
of municipal management Though a Dem- 
ocrat in politics, he was nominated by both 
parties in 1885 as a member of the School 
Committee, and was elected by the largest 
vote ever cast in Woburn for any one candi- 
date, and was reelected for three years to 
the same position. He is also chairman of 
the Evening School Committee, and has 
been untiring in his labors to advance the 
efficiency of the evening schools. He is 
one of the prominent young Democrats 
of Middlesex County, and in the congres- 
sional contests of 1884 and 1 886 he was 
secretary of the Fifth District Democratic 
Congressional Committee. In 1889 he was 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



elected the auditor of the Woburn School 
Board. 

KENNIFF, DANIEL J., journalist, born in 
Boston, Oct. 7, 1861. He attended the 
Quincy Grammar School, Evening High 
School, Allen Stenographic Institute, and also 
supplemented his education by a course of 
home study. In 1874, at the age of thirteen, 
he became employed as a cash-boy in a large 
dry-goods store, where he worked for several 
years in different capacities. He afterwards 
studied law for a year, but was finally com- 
pelled to deprive himself of a course at the 
law school. From October, 1883, for almost 
a year, he was connected with the " Journal 
of Education." In September, 1884, he 
accepted a position as private secretary to 
Geo. H. Ellis, publisher of the "Daily 
Advertiser" and "Evening. Record.'" In 
December, 1884, he was appointed* manager 
of one of the business- departments, which 
he held until the reorganization of the "Daily 
Advertiser " Corporation in 1886. He then 
joined the staff, and for some time thereafter 
did creditable work as a writer. He has re- 
cently acted as a special newspaper corre- 
spondent, in addition to being engaged in 
other literary enterprises. At the municipal 
election in December, 1886, he was a regular 
Democratic nominee in Ward 8 for the Com- 
mon Council, and received the largest num- 
ber of strictly Democratic votes cast for any 
one candidate. He was appointed a justice 
of the peace by Gov. Robinson on May 5, 
1886; is an active member of the Boston 
Press Club, and a life member of both the 
Boston Young Men's Christian Union and 
St. Joseph's Young Men's Catholic Associa- 
tion. 

LEAHY, WILLIAM AUGUSTINE, author, 
born in Boston, Mass., July 18, 1867. He is 
a graduate of the Lawrence Grammar School, 
Boston Latin School, and Harvard Univer- 
sity. He is a young man of much promise, 
and has contributed much creditable work 
to "Scribner's Magazine," the "Harvard 
Monthly," and the "Harvard Advocate." 



His latest and best literary production is a 
poetical drama, "The Siege of Syracuse." 
He is a member of the Phi Beta Kappa 
Society, the O. K. Society, the Mermaid 
Club, and the Harvard Monthly, all of 
Harvard University. 

Low, JOHN, reporter, born in Boston, Feb. 
20, 1852, and was the second son of James 
and Mary Low, who emigrated from the 
County Limerick, Ireland, in 1849. He at- 
tended the Eliot School until ten years of 
age, and moved with his parents to Illinois, 
where he attended the district schools during 
the winter months. In 1871 he returned to 
this State, and settled in Wakefield, where he 
worked in the rattan factory for two years. 
In 1874 he graduated from the Union Busi- 
ness College in Boston, and later kept books. 
In 1877 he became connected with the Bos- 
ton " Daily Globe " as reporter, covering Mai- 
den and several other towns. His home is 
in Wakefield, where he has a wife and three 
daughters. 

LOWE, ALLAN, journalist, was born in 
Ramhill, Lancashire, Eng., Aug. 28, 1858. 
His father was a County Fermanagh man, 
and his mother was born in Donegal. 
He was educated at Portora Royal School 
in Enniskillen, and at the early age of 
thirteen years did his first newspaper work 
on the Fermanagh "Times," a weekly, 
started by his father in Enniskillen. He 
came to Boston when fifteen years old, and 
started in to learn the newspaper business at 
the bottom. He picked up type for a year, 
and then went to Montreal, where he at 
once became police reporter on the Mon- 
treal "Gazette." He showed aptitude 
in the business, and Alack P. Lowry, city 
editor of the Toronto " Mail," sent for him 
to join the staff of that paper. He was 
given sporting work to do, and for thirteen 
years has done very little other work. He 
wrote the fullest and most graphic accounts 
of lacrosse matches ever published in 
Canada. Since that time he has been all 
over the country, and has owned a weekly 




WILLIAM F. KENNEY. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, 



321 



paper, and been engaged in many business 
ventures. He is the " horseman " of the 
" Globe." He joined that paper last July, 
and has done special work for that jour- 
nal. 

MACKIN, RICHARD J., newspaper corre- 
spondent, born in Dorchester, Mass., Dec. 
23, 1865. He graduated from the Mather 
School in 1 880, attended the Dorchester High 
School for two years, and graduated from 
Boston College in 1887. He entered the 
Harvard Medical School last fall, where he 
is at present studying medicine. He began 
his first newspaper work a year ago as Boston 
College correspondent for the " Globe," and 
is now the Dorchester representative of that 
paper. 

MAGENNIS, MARGARET J., for the past 
.fourteen years connected with the Boston 
" Evening Traveller," is the widow of a 
fanner of county Down, Ireland, and 
daughter of a Belfast merchant. Being left 
a widow in early womanhood in the city of 
Cincinnati, O., while she and her husband 
were travelling, she was soon thrown upon 
her own resources, and naturally gravitated 
towards journalism. She shortly afterwards 
became a correspondent for several papers, 
among them the "Banner of Ulster," 
Belfast " Morning News," and " Caledonia 
Mercury," a Scotch paper. About twenty 
years ago her first contribution to a Boston 
paper appeared in the " Watchman " (the 
" Watchman and Reflector ") , to which she 
still occasionally contributes; subsequently 
to the " Youth's Companion " and other 
papers. Since her connection with the 
"Traveller " she has done every kind of work 
which generally falls to the lot of newspaper 
women. For ten or twelve years she has daily 
reported the doings of one of the municipal dis- 
trict courts. This brought her into commu- 
nication with various charitable and criminal 
institutions, for which she has done a vast 
deal of gratuitous charitable work of widely 
appreciated value ; for example, the well- 
known kindergarten of South Boston owes 



its origin to the early efforts of Mrs. Magen- 
nis in its behalf, and the first Protestant 
Sunday-school in the Marcella-street Home 
is due to the initiative taken by her; also the 
Loyal Temperance Legion at the same place. 
To these might be added the Home for Aged 
Couples, the Working Girls' Home, and the 
Free Home for Aged Women. The latter 
institution is indebted to this charitable lady 
for appeals through the press, and for start- 
ing a fair in the Phillips Church, South Bos- 
ton, and two in Boston, in its behalf. She 
is always glad to aid a needy person when it 
is in her power. No discrimination is made 
as to race, color, or religion. She is an offi- 
cer of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, and in that capacity visits the penal 
institutions and almshouses. Her efforts are 
now being directed towards procuring a tem- 
porary asylum for discharged prisoners, 
where they could stop during the time be- 
tween their release from prison and finding 
employment, believing, as she does, that in 
many cases permanent reformation would be 
likely to follow. She is an honorary member 
of the Woman's Relief Corps, G.A.R. ; has 
always been faithful and sincere in her char- 
itable work, and is a typical representative of 
a generous, kind-hearted woman. Mrs. 
Magennis is a descendant of a long line of 
sturdy Presbyterians. 

MAGUIRE, THOMAS, journalist, born in 
mid-ocean while his parents were making the 
passage in a sailing-vessel from Ireland to 
America in 1841. He died of pneumonia in 
the Charlestown District, Mass., Oct. 22, 
1884. Soon after arrival in this country, 
Mr. Maguire's father died, and Mrs. Maguire 
located in Hinsdale, Berkshire County, 
Mass., where young Tom attended school 
and acquired the common education with 
which he began his journalistic career some 
years later. His genial disposition made 
him a great favorite with railroad people, and 
he eventually cast lines with them, becoming 
a water-boy and subsequently a brakeman 
on the Western Railroad, which has since 
been merged into the Boston & Worcester, 



322 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



under the general name of the Boston & 
Albany. In addition to his other work, Tom 
contributed news paragraphs to the columns of 
the Springfield " Republican," and became a 
great favorite of the elder Bowles, who gave 
him a position as a reporter on that paper. 
He served a successful apprenticeship with 
the " Republican," contributed to the New 
York " Herald," and subsequently came to 
Boston, where he secured a place on the 
Boston ' ' Journal," " covering " the Massa- 
chusetts work for the New York " Herald " 
as well. While with the "Journal " his work 
was " general," but for several years he was 
the reporter of legislative proceedings in one 
or the other of the two branches of the State 
government. In his earlier career as a 
journalist he had a happy faculty of making 
hosts of friends, who were always glad to see 
him and to favor him in every way, and he 
was well known in every State in New Eng- 
land and in the large cities of Canada and 
the Provinces. His qualities as a news- 
gatherer and correspondent were as peculiar 
as his methods were unique. Early practice*at 
the keyboard of the telegraph-office in Hins- 
dale made him very valuable in emergencies 
calling for an operator to take the place of 
the then imperfectly -educated telegraphers of 
country towns and villages. He possessed a 
rare fund of mother-wit, and his easy manners, 
love of humor, and willingness to serve made 
him warm friends everywhere. He was a 
daring war correspondent while the Rebellion 
was in progress. On the occasion of the 
Fenian raid into Canada, in 1866, Tom was at 
the front for the "Journal" and two years 
later he was again in Canada with the " Irish 
Revolutionary Army," having meanwhile left 
the "Journal" and become New England 
correspondent for the New York " Herald." 
On the second raid his despatches were sent 
from all points between St. Armand and 
Prout River in Canada and St. Albans, Vt., 
and Malone, N.Y., on the American side. 
Tom's greatest achievement, which brought 
him into prominence, was connected with the 
loss of the White Star steamship "Atlantic " on 
the coast of Nova Scotia, about eighteen years 



ago. On learning of the disaster, he started 
by special train for Halifax, and on arriving 
there chartered the only steamer that could 
be obtained and went to the wreck. In that 
way he recovered over one hundred bodies; 
and those, with many others recovered of the 
five hundred and sixty-two lost, were claimed 
by their friends solely through the complete 
and systematic description of the dead 
that Mr. Maguire gave to the public in 
his long despatches to his paper. Owing 
to the condition of the roads along the coast 
at the time, the wreck could not be reached 
except by boat; and, as Mr. Maguire had 
chartered the only available one, he was 
monarch of the field, leaving his fellow-corre- 
spondents unable to get any nearer the scene 
of the accident than Halifax, a distance of 
thirty miles. The latter were forced to stand 
about on the Halifax wharves and pick up 
meagre items, while Mr. Maguire sailed up 
in his steamer just from the wreck, and tele- 
graphed column after column of the last 
particulars. It made Mr. Maguire a hero, 
and called forth the admiration of a score 
or more of New York and Boston corre- 
spondents, who were out-generalled by his 
enterprise. Doubts were expressed on all 
sides about his ability to stay so long and do 
so much work under water, and many pro- 
fessional divers declared that no expert could 
remain under the water and accomplish so 
much as the New York " Herald " novice 
claimed to have done. 

Two days of newspaper war ensued on the 
subject, when Mr. Maguire received a per- 
emptory order by telegraph from Mr. James 
Gordon Bennett directing him to " go down in 
the bell again." He obeyed, and the "Herald" 
had another description of scenes witnessed 
in the second exploration of the wreck, and 
the vividness of the portrayal was even more 
shocking than the first Tom had but few 
equals in the gathering, preparation, and dis- 
semination of news, and his clever feats 
attracted the attention of the leading news- 
paper men of his day, among whom was 
Colonel Rogers, of the Boston "Journal," 
who secured his services, and Tom proved a 




THOMAS MAGUIRE. 

JOURNALIST. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



323 



fitting co-laborer to the then veteran Dave 
Leavitt, who at that time was in the zenith of 
his fame. At the opening of hostilities, in 
1861, Tom Maguire (as he loved to be called) 
happened to be in New York State, and was 
sent to West Point to look after a meeting 
between General Wool and President 
Lincoln, touching matters concerning the 
war. While the President pared a trouble- 
some corn with a razor belonging to General 
Wool, the whole situation was discussed, and 
the order for the first call for troops was 
drawn up by the general and immediately 
signed by the President. The New York 
" Herald " the next morning published an 
" exclusive " sent by Tom which astounded 
the world. In 1861 and 1862 he was with 
the Army of the Potomac as correspondent 
of the Boston "Journal," and spent much 
time at Acquia Creek, the depot of supplies, 
as well as at army headquarters. He was 
intimately associated with the leading gen- 
erals, and had the confidence of all who 
knew him, officers and soldiers alike. He 
often risked his life by wandering within the 
rebel lines, but escaped all harm. He re- 
turned home in 1 864 and resumed his labors 
on the Boston "Journal," but later became 
associated with the New York "Herald." 
While serving on the staff of the " Herald," 
in 1868 or thereabouts, he accompanied 
Prince Arthur in the latter's tour from Hali- 
fax throughout the country. He acted as 
secretary and agent for Patrick S. Gilmore 
during the World's Peace Jubilee, and Mr. 
Gilmore was so impressed by his genius and 
accomplishments as a writer that he com- 
posed and dedicated a piece of music to him. 
In 1870 Mr. Maguire executed a piece of fine 
work for the "Herald "in connection with 
the " Mill River Disaster." He accompanied 
the Duke Alexis, the son of the " Czar of 
all the Russias," in the latter's trip through- 
out the country, during which Tom especially 
distinguished himself on behalf of the New 
York " Herald." On reaching St. Louis, some 
sixty-eight correspondents were on hand, 
representing as many different journals, to 
accompany the Duke on the grand buffalo 



hunt which had been arranged in his honor 
by General Phil. Sheridan. At the last 
moment Sheridan decided that it would be 
impossible to take all the correspondents 
with the party by reason of lack of horses 
for transportation, and to be impartial, the 
general decided to have none of them go. He 
proposed to furnish an epitome of each day's 
sport for all the papers, and that settled it to 
all appearances for the poor correspondents, 
many of whom had travelled hundreds of 
miles to describe the antics of a live prince 
hunting down a live buffalo. Tom, however, 
was dissatisfied, and felt chagrined at having 
to return to New York with a report of his 
failure. He cogitated, soon saw his way 
clear, and in the most secret manner offered 
himself to Sheridan as a telegraph operator 
who might be wanted to assist in getting the re- 
port of each day's hunt through to the papers. 
This was done unknown to his associates, and 
he accompanied the party, which was headed 
by the lamented Custer, with whom Tom was 
on the best of terms, the result of a friendship 
formed on the battle-fields of Virginia. Tom 
did his duty as an operator to perfection, and 
the New York "Herald" printed a whole 
page of matter each day descriptive of the 
sport, which, when Sheridan discovered, 
angered him against Tom, as much as he ad- 
mired his skill in outwitting him. In 1872 
Tom Maguire again distinguished himself 
during the big fire in Boston, and he made a 
hit in his description of President Grant's 
trip to the Vineyard and Cape in 1874. 
" Old " Grant and Tom were as fast friends 
as if brought up together at West Point. In 
connection with the centennial celebration of 
the battles of Lexington and Concord, in 
1875, Tom made another " big hit " by pre- 
paring the matter for a special edition of the 
New York " Herald," which was sold all 
over New England during the day of the 
celebration. This issue of the New York 
" Herald " embraced an historical sketch of 
the battles from the pens of the late Ralph 
Waldo Emerson and other prominent men of 
the time, direct descendants of the patriots 
who met the British soldiery. Tom came in 



324 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



for a share of the fame, and he continued in 
the service of the New York "Herald" 
until 1877, as New England correspondent. 
In 1878 he came to Boston and wrote for the 
" Globe," and finally became connected with 
the Boston " Herald." He wielded a most 
facile pen, and had wonderful descriptive 
powers. 

McGRATH, DAVID J., editor and publisher 
of " The Horse and Stable," a trade journal, 
born in East Weymouth, April 21, 1861. 
He graduated from the Bicknell Grammar 
School about 1 878, and then went to work in 
a shoe manufactory, but found the business 
uncongenial and unsuited to his taste and 
inclination. He became connected with the 
Boston " Daily Globe " in the capacity of 
district local reporter, on July 6, 1881, and 
he has shown marked ability in journalism 
since his advent to the field. He was pro- 
moted to the position of night city editor 
after service as local reporter, court reporter, 
and special correspondent. He also presided 
over the night desk and day desk, and his ed- 
itorial judgment was considered excellent by 
his associate journalists. The monotonous life 
at the desk gave him no opportunity to ex- 
tend his efforts and display his literary gifts 
as a special correspondent, for which he pos- 
sessed positive and unusual talent, and he 
decided to devote his mind to special work. 
He has done some notable newspaper feats, 
among which is his capture of young 
McNally, the Saco, Me., bank clerk, who ab- 
sconded with about half a million dollars. 
Mr. McGrath has been the correspondent for 
several New York papers. As a writer of 
short, breezy sketches he has no superior in 
Boston, and his more lengthy articles on 
passing events, which have appeared from 
time to time in the " Globe," have attracted 
much attention and favorable comment. 

McKAV, M. E., reporter, graduated from 
St. John, N.B., schools at the age of fifteen, 
a licensed teacher. She began writing about 
seven years ago for several St. John papers, 
came to Boston three years ago, wrote for 



the "Globe" and "Herald" articles on 
church matters, and is now an able member 
of the " Globe " reportorial staff, where she 
is doing excellent work. 

McNALLY, HUGH P., night editor of the 
Boston " Herald," born in Charlestown, Mass., 
1856; attended the public schools of Charles- 
town. In early life he worked for John C. 
& E. A. Loud, bakers on Prince street, and 
for several years for Horace P. Stevens, pro- 
visions and groceries, on Chelsea street, 
Charlestown, whose employ he left to enter 
the steam-engineering department at the 
Navy Yard, with the intention of becoming 
an engineer in the navy. After a competitive 
examination he was made a government ap- 
prentice; but as there were no vacancies in 
the machine-shop he was placed in the pat- 
tern-shop, and served the full term of four 
years in learning the pattern-maker's trade. 
The possession of either trade machinist or 
pattern-making would gain him the time set 
for practical work at the naval academy. 
While learning his trade he studied hard at 
home and at the evening high school, posting 
himself fully on the requirements for admis- 
sion to the Annapolis Academy. At the 
same time he began reporting for the " Daily 
Advertiser," then on Court street, and also for 
the old " Sunday Times." He became de- 
voted to journalism, and secured a regular 
place on the staff of the '" Daily Advertiser," 
where he remained for about eight years, 
doing all kinds of general reporting and 
special work, only leaving the "old daily" 
to become one of the night editors of the 
" Herald," a position he has filled for the 
past four years. He has written many special 
articles for the " Herald." 

While employed on the " Advertiser " he 
also did regular work for the " Sunday 
Courier," being for about three years city 
editor of the paper, and a special-article 
writer. The last two years of his connection 
with the " Courier " he had charge of the 
make-up and " putting to press." 

Mr. McNally has contributed frequently to 
New York and Western papers and to the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, 



325 



Irish-American press over the signatures of 
" Hugh X " and " Heber." He was one of 
the founders of the St. Mary's Young Men's 
Temperance Society of Charlestown, and has 
been "secretary, and also treasurer, of that or- 
ganization. He is a member of the Charitable 
Irish Society and of the Boston Press Rifle 
Club, and has been the executive officer of 
the latter association. He is a married man, 
and has two children. 

McNALLY, JOHN J., author and journalist, 
born in the Bunker Hill district of this city, 
May 7, 1854. He was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of that district, and was graduated 
from the Charlestown High School in 1872, 
and afterwards entered the Harvard Law 
School, where he prepared himself for ad- 
mission to the bar. 

While pursuing his studies at Harvard he 
began his career as a journalist on the 
Charlestown " Chronicle," a local paper 
which was at one time edited by Mr. John 
H. Holmes, the present editor of the Boston 
"Herald." When Mr. Stephen O'Meara, 
now managing editor of the Boston 
"Journal," was taken off district work and 
made a regular city reporter on the Bos- 
ton "Globe," in September, 1872, Mr. 
McNally succeeded him as the Charlestown 
reporter of that paper. He retained his 
newspaper connection during the two terms 
he was at Harvard, doing at night a variety 
of journalistic work, and studying law dur- 
ing the day. 

Inclination, taste, temperament, and habit 
induced him to desert the law and give his 
whole allegiance to journalism, where the 
immediate rewards for labor were greater. 

He was employed as a reporter and special 
writer by the "Globe," "Advertiser," and 
" Sunday Courier " at various times, and 
somewhere about 1877 he succeeded Mr. 
Henry A. Clapp as dramatic critic of the 
" Sunday Times," which was then, as now, an 
excellent authority on dramatic matters. 

His work for the " Times " proving satis- 
factory,' he was rapidly given charge of several 
departments, and finally was placed in full 



editorial control of the paper, which he con- 
ducted with success. 

It was as the dramatic critic of the " Times " 
that Mr. McNally attracted the attention of 
Mr. Willie Edouin and Manager E. E. Rice, 
and was engaged by the former to write, in 
conjunction with Mr. Dexter Smith, a bur- 
lesque for the newly organized Rice's Surprise 
Party. Messrs. McNally and Smith then 
wrote " Revels; or, Bon Ton George, Jr.," 
which was one of the most successful bur- 
lesques ever presented in this country. The 
piece was originally produced in San Fran- 
cisco, and when it was proposed to open with 
it in Philadelphia, Mr. McNally went on to 
that city, and rewrote the piece, adapting 
it to the members of the organization, which 
included Mr. Edouin, Mr. W. A. Mestayer, 
Mr. Henry E. Dixey, Mr. George Howard, 
Mr. Louis Harrison, and Misses Alice Ather- 
ton, Lena Merville, Marion Singer, Marion 
Elmore, Jennie Calef, and many others who 
have since appeared as stars. 

In Philadelphia Mr. Rice offered Mr. Mc- 
Nally a good salary to travel with the 
company as librettist and press agent, and he 
entered the dramatic profession and remained 
in it for three seasons, acting as press agent, 
treasurer, and business manager. 

For a few months Mr. McNally was en- 
gaged as assistant business manager for Miss 
Annie Pixley, and when he left her service he 
returned to Boston and again entered jour- 
nalism as an editorial writer on the Boston 
" Daily Star," and a few weeks later was ap- 
pointed managing editor of that paper, leav- 
ing it to join the special editorial staff of 
writers on the Boston "Herald." He also 
assisted Mr. E. A. Perry in the writing of 
dramatic criticisms, and when that gentleman 
was sent to England as the resident corre- 
spondent of the " Herald " in London, the 
management of that journal showed its ap- 
preciation of Mr. McNally's work by placing 
him in full control of its dramatic depart- 
ment. 

While he was with Mr. Rice, Mr. McNally 
rewrote "Horrors," "The Babes in the 
Wood," and other pieces in the Rice refer- 



326 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



toire, and gave to all of them new leases of 
life and prosperity. In "The New Evan- 
geline," which was also the work of this 
author, Mr. Henry E. Dixey made one of 
his greatest early successes as a clerk to 
LeBlanc, a part especially written for him. 
This version of the old extravaganza was 
singularly popular, and was first produced 
in Boston, at Forest Garden. 

Mr. McNally is also the author of a num- 
ber of short sketches and farces which were 
successful, but which were not billed under 
his name. He has written many topical, 
character, and sentimental songs, and he is 
responsible for a great many of the local 
verses which have been sung in this city by 
comedians of visiting combinations. 

His latest successes are " Home Rule," a 
pleasing sketch which was played with good 
results by the Irwin Sisters in the Howard 
Athenaeum Star Specialty Company, who sung 
a topical duet by the same author, " Upside 
Down," which he wrote in collaboration with 
Mr. Thomas A. Daly; "Army Tactics, or 
Love and Strategy; " "Irish Heads and 
German Hearts; " and " Little Lord Mc- 
Elroy." 

Mr. McNally has been singularly fortunate 
as an author, as his name has never been 
associated with a failure. 

McNALLY, PETER S., journalist, born in 
Charlestown, July 7, 1865. He attended the 
public schools, and also took a three-years 
course at Boston College. He began news- 
paper work on the " Evening Star," July 7, 
1887, as Charlestown reporter. In Septem- 
ber of the same year he became a member of 
the " Post " staff. He subsequently joined the 
staff of the " Daily Advertiser " and " Evening 
Record," and occasionally contributed to the 
"Journal." In February, 1886, he became 
attached to the " Sunday Budget" and 
" Manufacturers' Gazette." In January, 1 888, 
he returned to the " Advertiser " and 
" Record " as sporting editor and night local 
reporter, his present position. He is profi- 
cient as an athlete and swimmer, particularly 
in the latter, having won many long-distance 



races. He has a record of swimming from 
Bath, Me., to Fort Popham, on the Kenne- 
bec river, a distance of sixteen nautical miles. 
As a life-saver he holds a silver medal from 
the Massachusetts Humane Society, presented 
to him in April, 1886, with the inscription, 
"To P. S. McNally, For repeated acts of 
humanity and bravery, by which many per- 
sons have been saved from drowning, Boston, 
1872-1886." He is reported to have rescued 
about forty persons. 

McNARY, WILLIAM S., managing editor, 
born in North Abington, Mass., March 29, 
1863. He is of Irish-Scotch descent. He 
attended the public schools of his native 
town until twelve years of age, when he re- 
moved to South Boston, where he has since 
resided. He was a graduate of the Lawrence 
Grammar School in 1877, anc ^ the English 
High School in 1880. In the latter year he 
became employed as reporter on the " Com- 
mercial Bulletin," and was recently appointed 
managing editor. He has been identified 
in amateur theatricals, as a public reader, and 
was at one time president of the South Bos- 
ton Union, also of the St. Augustine's Ly- 
ceum, and is a member of the South Boston 
Citizens' Association. He represented Ward 
15 as a Democrat in the Common Council 
of 1886-87, and was elected to the Demo- 
cratic Ward and City Committee in 1888. 
He is a member of the Legislature of 1 889, 
and is recognized as one of the prominent 
Democrats of that body. He is a lieutenant 
of Company B, Ninth Regiment, a member 
of the Boston Press Club and of the Massa- 
chusetts Young Men's Democratic Club. 

MERRIGAN, JOHN J., editor, born in Bos- 
ton in 1855. ^ e became a resident of South 
Boston at an early age, where he graduated 
from the Lawrence Grammar School. When 
a boy he sold newspapers in the peninsular 
district, and the juvenile training which he 
acquired at the time doubtless prompted his 
subsequent desire to be a proprietor of a 
successful newspaper. In a measure he 
has accomplished this result, and is now 




JOHN! J. MERRIGAN 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, 



327 



editor and proprietor of the South Boston 
" News," a weekly publication of considerable 
local prominence. At the age of fourteen 
years be became employed at the book- 
binder's trade, subsequently accepted a 
position as clerk in a wall-paper establish- 
ment, and later was engaged for over three 
years with a building firm. His next busi- 
ness experiment was as an advertising 
solicitor. He assumed charge of the adver- 
tising department of a district paper, and 
through his efforts a very satisfactory 
financial showing was the result. Eventually 
he extended his work, and served as resident 
correspondent for New England newspapers. 
Finally, in 1 885, he became connected with 
the South Boston "News, "which has since 
been elevated to an influential position as a 
Democratic newspaper. 

MURNANE, TIMOTHY HAYES, journalist, 
born in Naugatuck, Conn., June 4, 1850. He 
received a common-school education, and 
began playing base-ball at an early age. 
From 1870 until 1885 he was engaged as 
player and manager for a number of base- 
ball clubs. During his experience on the 
" diamond " he was connected with the follow- 
ing clubs : The Savannah (Ga.) , Middletown 
(Conn.) Athletics, Philadelphia, Boston, and 
Providence. In 1874 he went to England 
and Ireland with the American ball-players, 
as a member of the Athletics of Philadelphia. 
He has been instrumental in bringing before 
the public many great ball-players, notably 
Messrs. Crane and Slattery, of New York; 
Sullivan, Farrell, and Duffy, of Chicago; 
Farrer, of Philadelphia; McCarthy, of St. 
Louis ; Nash and Johnston, of Boston; 
Hughes, of Brooklyn; Hackett, Shaw, Mor- 
gan, Murphy, and others. In 1884 he organ- 
ized the Boston Unions, and in 1886 the 
Boston Blues. In the spring of 1 886 he 
started the Boston " Referee," a sporting 
paper, which he still continues to publish. 
He is also a member of the staff of the Bos- 
ton "Globe," and is at present the special 
writer for that paper of the games played by 
the Boston nine. In addition to his regular 



newspaper work he is special correspondent 
for the " Sporting Life," New York " Even- 
ing Telegram," St Louis " Sporting News," 
and the " Press Association." 

MURRAY, WILLIAM F., journalist, born in 
Cardiff, Wales, Aug. 18, 1859, of Irish parents, 
with whom he came to the United States 
when only eleven months old. He lived in 
New York a few years, and then the family 
moved to the Provinces, where he was edu- 
cated in the public schools under the charge 
of the Sisters of Charity and the Christian 
Brothers, and in St. Mary's College and the 
Commercial College there. He studied law 
one year and a half in the office of Hon. John 
S. D. Thompson, the present minister of 
Justice of the Dominion. He learned Pit- 
man's system of phonography about this time, 
and abandoned the study of law to engage 
in journalistic work, toward which he had 
a strong inclination. He served two sessions 
as assistant reporter of the Legislature, and 
after joined the staff of one of the local news- 
papers. 

He came to Boston early in 1880, and 
went to work on the daily and Sunday 
" Globe," and left there to edit a daily paper 
in one of the New England towns. During 
most of the winter of 1881-82 he travelled 
through the United States and Canada as 
stenographer and agent for the late Prof. O. 
S. Fowler. He afterward joined the Bos- 
ton " Herald " staff, where he remained until 
August, 1887, when he accepted a position 
as private secretary to the U.S. General 
Appraiser. In addition to performing the 
duties of his present position, he is also en- 
gaged to a limited extent in newspaper 
work, and was one of the representatives of 
the " Herald " at both the National Demo- 
cratic and Republican conventions in 1888. 
He is a member of the Boston Press Club, 
the Charitable Irish Society, and the Royal 
Arcanum. 

O'BRIEN, CARLETON T., journalist, born in 
Boston, Sept. 29, 1858, and graduated from 
the Lewis Grammar School, and studied for 



328 



THE IRISH Iff BOSTON. 



two years in the Roxbury High and Latin 
Schools. He left the high school to fill a 
position on the " Commercial and Shipping 
List," a paper then managed and owned by 
his father, ex-Mayor O'Brien, and he con- 
tinued with that paper until its dissolution, in 
1886. He acquired much knowledge of the 
various branches of business in Boston, which 
he practically applied as a writer of the 
market reports for the Boston "Journal," 
and correspondent of several other papers. 
His reports of the different business interests 
are gauged as thoroughly accurate, and the 
wool trade particularly mark Mr. O'Brien's 
reports as authoritative. He is a member of 
numerous societies in Boston and vicinity. 

O'CALLAGHAN, JOHN J., reporter, born in 
West Springfield, Mass., Sept. 14, 1861, 
where he attended the public schools. He 
later removed to Boston, Charlestown Dis- 
trict, and he has since resided there. In 1885 
he became district reporter for the Boston 
" Daily Advertiser " and " Evening Record," 
and was subsequently promoted to a position 
on the local staff of both papers. He is a 
careful and thorough news-gatherer, ener- 
getic, and has done creditable work as a 
writer of political news, of which he now 
makes a specialty. He is a member of the 
Boston Press Club, St. Francis de Sales 
Young Men's Catholic Total Abstinence, and 
the Literary Society, of Charlestown, and 
served a year as president and an equal term 
as secretary of the temperance society. 

O'CONNOR, EUGENE J., journalist and 
telegrapher, born in Springfield, Mass. , Oct. 
24, 1848. His early education was received 
in the public schools of that city. At the 
age of eighteen years he was engaged in 
telegraphic work, and subsequently held as 
important a position as the comparatively 
primitive condition of telegraphy of that 
time would admit. About 1874 he came to 
Boston, where he has since resided. In 
former years the position of an operator 
was not much more than a mere mechanical 
manipulator; the press despatches, which 



are now quite large, were then rather 
meagre, without the present regard for con- 
tinuity of the message. He who received the 
despatch mechanically transcribed letter by 
letter as it ticked inward. To-day Mr. O'Con- 
nor and others can send and receive with a 
precision and ease as though the wire were 
a living, breathing being. Previous to the 
telegraphers' strike in July, 1883, he had 
been night chief operator of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, in Boston. At 
the Chicago convention of the Telegraphers' 
Brotherhood of the United States and Can- 
ada he was chosen chairman of the execu- 
tive board, under whose guidance the great 
strike of 1883 was conducted. For his 
" striking activity" in 1883 he was ostracized 
by the Western Union Company, but honored 
and revered by toiling operators throughout 
the country. He subsequently entered the ser- 
vice of the United Lines Company; later with 
the Baltimore & Ohio Company. When the 
Western Union Company assumed the man- 
agement of the latter Mr. O'Connor joined the 
staff of the Boston " Globe," where he is now 
employed. He is a Democrat, and has been 
first assistant assessor for the city of Boston; 
he is president of the Telegraphers' Mu- 
tual Aid and Literary Association, and the 
success of the organization, as well as much 
advancement in telegraphic service, is largely 
due to his efforts. 

O'KEEFE, ARTHUR, reporter, born in Bos- 
ton, Sept 19, 1843. He attended the Win- 
throp Grammar School of Charlestown and 
Boston Latin School. He was first employed 
as a commercial traveller, but began news- 
paper work in 1881. He worked about a 
year for the Boston " Star," and afterwards 
for the Boston "Sentinel." He became en- 
gaged by the Boston " Globe " in 1886 as a 
space writer, and was later employed as re- 
porter on the regular staff, a position which 
he now holds. 

O'MEARA, HENRY, author, poet, and jour- 
nalist, born in St. John's, Newfoundland, 
Sept. i, 1850. He was educated chiefly at 




STEPHEN O'MEARA. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



329 



the Central Academy and St. Dunstan's 
College in Charlottetown, P.E.I. While at 
the latter place he was awarded the special 
prize for good conduct by suffrage of all the 
students, and he manifested a special interest 
in the rhetoric class, in which he was associ- 
ated with the present Archbishop of Halifax 
and with the poet-editor, Mr. James Jeffrey 
Roche. 

At the close of his classical studies he 
came with other members of the family to 
Boston, and after a brief experience at the 
Merchants' Exchange News Room he was 
engaged in the book department of the 
" Pilot " publishing establishment, then con- 
ducted by Mr. Patrick Donahoe, in which po- 
sition he availed himself of its unusual oppor- 
tunities for an acquaintance with books and 
authors. He was promoted to an editorial 
position on "The Pilot," where for some 
years he was a co-worker with the chief 
editor, Mr. John Boyle O'Reilly. Subse- 
quently, during an interval of half a year, he 
taught classes at the House of the Angel 
Guardian in Boston Highlands. He after- 
wards accepted an engagement for special 
department work on the Boston " Herald." 
The editorial charge of the "Catholic 
Herald" at Lawrence, Mass., was given 
him during the first six months of its existence. 

Mr. O'Meara has also contributed to most 
of the papers in Boston at various times. 
When the Catholic Lyceum of Boston flour- 
ished he prepared a pamphlet history of 
its work; and as one of the projectors of 
the Lyceum of Charlestown, he participated 
in a course of public lectures, and also con- 
ducted a journalistic organ. He is the author 
of various poems, some of which have ap- 
peared in a recent compilation, and others in 
the newspapers of Boston and vicinity. In 
dramatic matters he has long displayed a 
special taste, having been the dramatic critic 
of the Boston "Times," and having also 
contributed critical articles to other Boston 
papers. One of the projects which he has 
in part accomplished has been the prep- 
aration of short poems in tribute to the 
heroines of ^Shakspeare. He has been for 



some years past employed in the office of the 
Boston " Journal," where he has had charge 
of the " Weekly Journal," and his varied 
work on the Daily, particularly in the line 
of descriptive writing, has been uniformly 
credited with grace of diction. He has 
given considerable attention to historical and 
controversial material, and as chairman of the 
Committee of the Catholic Union of Boston 
on History and Statistics he has displayed 
marked ability. Mr. O'Meara is married 
and is the father of three children. 

O'MEARA, MARY, journalist. She pos- 
sesses decided journalistic aptitude, which 
would bring her into prominence, if family 
duties did not greatly limit its exercise, and 
she is the wife of Henry O'Meara, of the 
editorial staff of the Boston " Journal." Mrs. 
O'Meara, whose maiden name was Lynch, 
is a native of Boston. Her journalistic 
beginnings were made in " Our Young 
Folks' Magazine," edited by the Rev. Thomas 
Scully, of Cambridge, Mass. She was mar- 
ried about nine years ago. For eight years 
past she has conducted the Women's De- 
partment and the Children's Corner of the 
Boston " Republic." Her work shows rare 
taste and judgment Mrs. O'Meara is a 
valued member of the New England 
Women's Press Club. She is a woman of ex- 
tremely pleasing presence and generous edu- 
cation, diffident of her own gift, and always 
happy in promoting the success of others. 

O'MEARA, STEPHEN, editor, born in 
Charlottetown, P.E.I., July 26, 1854. His 
father was born in Thurles, County Tip- 
perary, Ireland, and his mother in New- 
foundland, where his father immigrated about 
1833. He came to the United States in 
1864, and after a short residence in Braintree, 
Mass., and later in Boston, located in Charles- 
town, where he now resides. He graduated 
from the Harvard Grammar School in 1868, 
and .from the Charlestown High School in 
1872. The day after the latter graduation 
he became the Charlestown reporter of the 
Boston " Globe," and in October of the same 



330 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON, 



year a reporter on the city staff, where he 
remained until December, 1874, tendering 
his resignation at that time to accept a posi- 
tion as shorthand reporter on the Boston 
" Journal." In May, 1879, he was promoted 
to the office of city editor. During his ex- 
perience as a reporter he served five years at 
newspaper work in the Legislature, nearly 
three years at City Hall, and' had a wide 
range of business, law, and political report- 
ing. In 1 88 1 he was advanced to the 
position of news editor of the " Journal," 
which post he still occupies. The duties 
of his office are entirely executive, includ- 
ing the immediate direction of reporters and 
correspondents, and the supervision of the 
work of all persons engaged in the collection 
and handling of news as distinguished from 
purely editorial matter, or that involving the 
expression of the paper's opinions. In 1 88 1 
he was vice-president, and afterward for two 
years president, of the Charlestown High 
School Association, and in 1885 delivered 
the annual oration before that organization. 
He was the first instructor in phonography 
at the Boston Evening High School, a posi- 
tion which he held for four years; was for- 
merly the auditor and is now the treasurer 
of the New England Associated Press, and 
was president of the Boston Press Club 
during i886-'87~'88, his election each year 
being unanimous. In 1 888 the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon 
him by Dartmouth College. 

O'NEILL, CHARLES S., editor, born in 
Boston, April 15, 1853. He is the son 
of Lieut. James O'Neill, of the old 
" Fighting Ninth," who was killed at 
Spottsylvania, Va., May 8, 1864, and of 
Ellen C. O'Neill (nte Quinn). Young 
O'Neill was educated in the public 
schools of Sandwich, Mass., Boston, and 
Somerville. 

As a boy he caught the journalistic fever, 
resulting in the publication of a little month- 
ly at Somerville, called the " Boy's Ad- 
vocate ; " later, entered the office of the 
Somerville "Journal," eventually stepping^ 



from the composing-room to the editorial 
staff. He purchased in 1875 the Milford 
(Conn.) "Telegram ; " but after some months 
of hard work a severe and lingering illness 
compelled the abandonment of that venture. 
Returning to Boston in 1876, he remained 
for the succeeding two years engaged in edi- 
torial and reportorial work on suburban 
papers, the humdrum monotony of which 
was somewhat relieved by occasional poetic 
contributions to the " Pilot " and other 
papers. In 1878 the field of operations was 
changed to New York, but shifted again to 
Boston, near the close of that year. In 1882 
he became attached to the reportorial staff of 
the Boston " Daily Globe," remaining so con- 
nected for about a year. In 1884 joined the 
staff of the " Catholic Herald," then published 
in Boston, and contributed thereto serial 
sketches of all the Boston Catholic churches. 
When the paper's place of publication was 
transferred to New York, went to Gotham to 
take up the same line of work in behalf of 
New York churches, but returned to Boston 
after six-months' experience there. Imme- 
diately on his return he became attached to 
the staff of the Roxbury " Advocate," leaving 
that paper Jan. i, 1886, to become editor of 
the " Boston Courier." This position was 
subsequently exchanged for a place on the 
staff of the Boston "Commonwealth." He 
was later called to occupy the editorial chair 
of the "Budget," in January, 1887, and he 
is the managing editor of that journal. In 
the past he has also contributed sketches to 
the "Commercial Bulletin" and "Ballou's 
Monthly;" poetry to the "Pilot," "Repub- 
lic," and New York "Ledger." He has 
been very successful as a writer of humorous 
and satiric verse and of songs. 

O'NEILL, HFXEN F. By ability as a 
worker in the literary field, and with a keen 
sense of pleasing and refined humor, she has 
appropriately won " the distinction of being 
the only funny man in the country who is a 
woman ! " the honor having been conferred 
upon her by the New York " Graphic " in a 
complimentary review of her weekly column 




CHARLES S. O'NEILL. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



331 



of humorous verse and prose which appeared 
in the Roxbury "Advocate" in the year 1886. 
Born in Sandwich, Mass., Jan. 5, 1858, 
while quite young she removed with her 
parents to Somerville, where she attended 
the public schools. At an early age she was 
possessed of a promising contralto voice and 
an ambition to cultivate the same. Music en- 
gaged her attention to the exclusion of literary 
development, although occasional interludes 
of writing tended to indicate the power that 
was being kept in subjection. It was not 
until 1885, when convalescing from a severe 
lung affection, and finding that her sickness 
had so impaired her voice as to necessitate 
the abandonment of hopes previously enter- 
tained, that the literary instincts, hitherto sub- 
ordinated, came to the front, first, as a 
recreation to relieve the tedium of convales- 
cence; then, to develop into a life-work. Dur- 
ing this year poems from her pen appeared 
in numerous papers. In 1886 she contributed 
weekly to the Roxbury " Advocate ", a col- 
umn of humorous verse and prose, referred 
to above. About the same time she also 
contributed a series of pathetic sketches 
to the Detroit " Free Press." In the spring 
of 1887 she secured an engagement on the 
staff of the Boston " Budget," which position 
she still holds. Poetry from her pen has ap- 
peared in the Detroit " Free Press," Boston 
" Pilot," Boston " Courier," and many other 
papers. She is considered a versatile writer; 
her contributions, whether in verse or prose, 
serious or humorous, have been widely 
copied. She is the daughter of Lieut. James 
O'Neill, of the old Ninth Mass. Vols., who 
was killed at Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Va., 
May 8, 1864, and of Ellen C. O'Neill (nie 
Quinn). 

QUINN, THOMAS C., secretary, born in 
Woburn, Mass., Aug. 24, 1864. He at- 
tended the grammar and" high schools of 
Woburn, and after leaving school learned 
the printer's trade in the office of the Wo- 
burn " Advertiser." He subsequently acted 
as local reporter in the town, and was engaged 
by the Boston " Globe," November, 1885. 



He served as a general reporter on the staff 
of the latter paper for a while, and did some 
good newspaper work on special assignments. 
His creditable efforts were duly appreciated 
by the management of the " Globe," and he 
was promoted to the position of private sec- 
retary to the managing editor. In addition 
to his duties as secretary, he had charge of 
many of the news features of the paper, 
under the direction of his superior officer. 
In May, 1889, he accepted the position of 
managing editor of the New York " Press." 

RANKIN, EDWARD B., journalist, was born 
in Queenstown, Ireland, in December, 1846. 
His father and mother, the former a native of 
New York, died while their only child was 
still in his infancy, and the boy was left to the 
care of relatives, who shortly afterward immi- 
grated to the United States and settled in 
Boston. His early education was received in 
the public schools of this city, and later at 
Lynn, Mass. At the latter place he employed 
his leisure hours in learning the shoemaker's 
trade. At the age of fourteen years, how- 
ever, he returned to Boston, and obtained 
employment of E. C. Bailey, who was then 
proprietor of the " Herald." After three 
years' service he learned the printer's trade, 
and in 1 865 he received an appointment on the 
reportorial staff. In the latter position he did 
creditable work, and in due time was pro- 
moted to a place in the editorial department. 
During his employment oh the " Herald " he 
has served successively as general reporter, 
special writer, court and city government re- 
porter, military, political, sporting, and tele- 
graph news editor. He is at present engaged 
as a general writer, with special reference to 
athletics, aquatics, etc., and has charge of 
that department. He was a member of the 
Boston School Committee from 1871 to 1875 
inclusive, of the Massachusetts Legislature in 
i872-'74-'75, and was a Democratic candi- 
date for presidential elector from the third 
district in 1 880. He was a member of the 
Board of Directors for Public Institutions, and 
is a member of the Boston Press Club, the 
Order of Elks, Boston Athletic Association, 



332 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



Charitable Irish Society; was keeper of the 
silver key of the latter organization in 1885, 
and its president in 1886. He is also an 
honorary member of the Hull Yacht Club, 
and a Director of the Working Boy's Home, 
for which institution he has been an earnest 
worker for some time past. He has been a 
prominent citizen of South Boston for the last 
fourteen years. 

REYNOLDS, MRS. MARGARET G., is a 
popular writer, under the nom de plume 
" Sepperle," and during recent years has 
won a prominent position as an author 
and literary worker. Her writings display a 
remarkable clearness of forethought, care- 
fully prepared moral instruction, and are 
interestingly magnetic in construction. 

Mrs. Reynolds is a. native of Pawtucket, 
R.I. The little cottage in which she was 
born, and which now stands a ruin on the 
Providence pike, was built by her father, an 
early settler, who cleared the wilderness 
around it and cultivated the land. Her 
first impulse to write came while seated on 
the door-step of her home after school hours, 
reading Jane Porter's "Scottish Chiefs." 
Her first story was written during a week 
of midnight sittings at the north window 
of her room, the moonlight presentment 
forming the theme of her sketch. In 1870 
she removed to Boston, where she took up 
her pen for earnest work, and her first Bos- 
ton story " All's Well that Ends Well " 
appeared in what was then the mart for be- 
ginners, Dow's " Waverly Magazine." Other 
periodicals were written for in rapid succes- 
sion. The " Young Crusaders " a juvenile 
magazine now out of the field encouraged 
her work with prompt payment, supplying 
illustrations, to which she wrote many stories 
for the young. The " Irish World " then 
accepted her contributions, and awarded her 
high rates for temperance and emigrant 
sketches. She has also written for the 
Boston "Journal," "Transcript," " Record," 
" Sunday Times," and " Globe ; " but her 
greatest success is thought to have been a 
long serial, " Corogyne Chronicles," which 



appeared in the New York " Freeman's 
Journal," and which will be reproduced in 
book form at an early date. That paper, in 
commenting upon the serial, said : " The 
plot and construction of this powerfully 
dramatic work runs out of the beaten track 
into a field of originality peculiarly the 
author's own. The strong moral motive 
underlying the plot culminates in startling 
strength at the close, the author's intention 
evidently being to lay a moral ambush, into 
which the reader wanders through a maze 
of thrilling mystery, and stumbles unawares. 
Every line of the story scintillates with a 
rare phase of genius, and if dramatized 
would make a play richly suited to the stage 
enterprise of Catholic Lyceums." She is 
now engaged upon a second serial, " Weep- 
ing Rock." The subject of the story is a 
high cliff rising close to the windows of her 
recent home in Whitney place, and which, 
in sunshine as well as in storm, drips with 
moisture. The vein of the story, the chief 
scenes of which are laid in Roxbury, goes to 
prove why the rock wept. 

Mrs. Reynolds is of Irish parentage, an 
ardent Catholic, and much of her writing is 
pervaded with a deeply religious spirit 

ROCHE, JAMES JEFFREY, assistant editor of 
the Boston " Pilot," and poet, born in Queens 
County, Ireland, May 31, 1847, a most auspi- 
cious soil for a poet. Through his father, 
Edward Roche, Esq., an able mathematician 
and scholar, still living and occupying the 
office of Provincial Librarian inPrince Edward 
Island, he inherits the literary quality domi- 
nant in his temperament and his art. The 
family settled in Prince Edward Island in the 
same year. The boy was educated by his 
father, and later in St. Dunstan's College. 
Here, at the age of fifteen, foreshadowing 
his career, he turned journalist, and proudly 
edited the college weekly " unto the urn and 
ashes " of its infant end. His youth had a 
fair share of spirited adventure, an encounter- 
ing of odd characters and scenes, a sharp 
observance of events, and a close, rapid, hon- 
est, mental life. In 1866 he strolled alone 




HELEN F. O'NEIL 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



333 



into the open gates of Boston, fell into the 
clutches of commerce, and prospered there; 
yet with revertings thenceforward to litera- 
ture, his early love and first unconscious 
choice, keeping up, in print, a running fire of 
the arch, absurd, unique humor which has 
since given his name its note. Already mar- 
ried, in 1883 he shifted into his natural 
posture, and became assistant editor of the 
Boston " Pilot," a position entirely to his 
mind, which he still fills. A man of activity, 
eminently social, interested in all public mat- 
ters, sensitive and independent, he has done, 
without any premeditation, much energetic 
and brilliant work, of which a " History of 
the Filibusters in Spanish America," a novel, 
and a drama are yet in manuscript In 1 886 
he published " Songs and Satires," a distinct 
success, and an earnest of healthful and un- 
hurried growth. 

Nothing injures Mr. Roche's fun so much 
as his seriousness. When a throat is able to 
give out a ringing bass song of sport or war, 
we cease to demand falsetto of it, however 
quaint and dexterous. It is, perhaps, an un- 
happy gift, this of divided skill, for it some- 
times necessitates a pause, an adjustment, a 
choice. It is a grim truth that the humorous 
has no place on the top peaks of Parnassus : 
to be great, one must be grave. But Mr. 
Roche, of all men, can afford to let his 
lighter talent, exquisite as it is in kind, go by, 
so long as he can throw into his metrical nar- 
ratives the same keenness and decisiveness of 
thought, the same life and grace of phrase, 
which have glorified his cap-and-bells. 
Something in the generous and sympathetic 
air of to-day has colored his verses, ever and 
anon, with a light, humanitarian and revolu- 
tionary; but his protests, made as they are of 
beautiful philosophy, come from him with an 
odd grace only, and belie Timon's part with a 
look of Mercutio. A poet, as a poet merely, 
had best sing out his unregenerated music 
and leave great causes alone, unless they 
have overwhelmed him of his nature and 
their own will. The witty secretary of the 
Papyrus Club is undedicated, however he 
should deny it, and liegeman to no theory 



at heart. He sends his gallant and unbook- 
ish fancies on profane errands, 

" Some to the wars, to seek their fortune there, 
Some to discover islands far away." 

Mr. Roche is, first, a scrivener and chron- 
icler, utterly impersonal, full of joy in deeds, 
a discerner between the expedient and the 
everlasting right, wholly fitted to throw into 
enduringsong some of the simple heroisms of 
our American annals. ' We bid fair to have 
in him an admirable ballad-writer, choosing 
instinctively and from affection " that which 
lieth nearest," and saying it with truth and 
zest. His muse, like himself, is happy in her 
place and time; none too much at the mercy 
of sentiment : coming through sheer intelli- 
gence to the conclusion of fools, and going 
her unvexed gypsy ways with an "All's 
well ! " ever on her lips. 

L. I. G. 

The sympathetic little poem, "Androm- 
eda," is one of Mr. Roche's creations. It is 
full of fine feeling and expression. 

ANDROMEDA. 

They chained her fair young- body to the cold and 

cruel stone; 
The beast begot of sea and slime had marked her 

for his own; 
The callous world beheld the wrong, and left her 

there alone. 
Base caitiffs who belied her, false kinsmen who 

denied her, 

Ye left her there alone ! 

My Beautiful, they left thee in thy peril and thy 

pain; 
The night that hath no morrow was brooding on 

the main : 
But lo! a light is breaking of hope for thee 

ag"in; 
'Tis Perseus' sword a-flaming, thy dawn of day 

proclaiming 

Across the western main. 
O Ireland ! O my country ! he comes to break thy 

chain 1 



SAUNDERS, DANIEL J., reporter, born in 
Boston, Feb. 23, 1860. He is of Irish parent- 
age, and was educated in the public schools, 
He became employed by the Boston " Globe " 



334 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



as office-boy about eleven years ago. After 
two and one-half years of service he was 
promoted to the position of reporter, and 
was engaged in reporting criminal work 
till September, 1888, when he was trans- 
ferred to the sporting department, and is now 
doing general sporting work. He has done 
good service as a news-gatherer for the 
paper. The district attorney of Suffolk 
County made an effort, a few .years ago, to 
have him imprisoned because he would not 
inform the Grand Jury where he . received 
his information of the confession, by a man 
in New Mexico, of having killed Lane at 
Dorchester. The attempt to punish, how- 
ever, was unsuccessful. He , was correspon- 
dent of the New York "World" and St. 
Louis " Republican ".for over two years. He 
figured prominently with other reporters, a 
short time ago, in the investigation of Chief 
Inspector Hanscom before the Police Com- 
missioners. During his newspaper experience 
he has been engaged in many notable cases, 
i- .-.v "- . . 

TAYLOR, ALBERT M., reporter, born in. 
Boston, Mass., Feb. 20, 1866. Attended the 
public schools' until 1879. Entered the 
office of the Boston " Daily Globe " as a space 
writer. He is now a reporter of day locals. 

TAYLOR, JOHN N., sporting editor of the 
Boston " Daily Globe," born in Hallowell, 
Me., Sept. 23, 1859. He is a graduate from 
the Hallowell Classical and Scientific Acad- 
emy, and was a telegraph operator in Hal- 
lowell, later operated at the Western Union 
Telegraph Company's office in Boston for 
two years. Thence he entered the " Globe " 
office as the press operator, in which capacity 
he was employed during four years. He 
soon did reportorial work, was promoted to 
the position of assistant night editor, and 
subsequently advanced to his present posi- 
tion. He is recognized by newspaper men 
as an enterprising journalist of ready re- 
sources, and has many times won applause 
from the journalistic fraternity for his bold 
and successful methods of getting news. 
His reputation as a receiver of press de- 



spatches is one of the best in the country, 
for at one sitting he "took" 27,500 words 
of news. The wire was acknowledged by all 
operators to be the " hottest" in the United 
States. Patrick Ayers, Bob Martin, Frank 
Klein, and Mr. Waugh manipulated the New 
York end of the wire at the time. Mr. 
Taylor did effective service, while night editor 
of the " Globe," by his rapid work in going to 
Farmington, Me., in October, 1886, at the time 
of the big fire in that town, and sending to the 
" Sunday Globe " the only account published 
outside of a few local papers in Maine. 

His knowledge of telegraphy served him 
well on this trip. In the spring of 1887 the 
yacht races between the " Volunteer," " Pur- 
itan," " Priscilla," and " Mayflower " excited 
the curiosity of the country, and the Boston 
journals were eager to command the news 
for this section. Competition was lively 
among the representatives of the different 
Boston newspapers. There were only two 
wires from Boston to Marblehead Neck. The 
Boston " Herald " had full control of one, 
and the "Associated Press" of the other. 
It was said that the " Globe " would fail to get 
the news. Mr. Taylor was assigned to the 
discouraging task of obtaining the details of 
the race, and thus uphold the reputation 
of his paper. He began work the night be- 
fore the race, hired a telephone wire, bor- 
rowed a sufficient amount of battery, made 
a telegraph circuit of it, and not only saved 
his paper from loss of news, but sent his re- 
port ahead of all other papers in the city on 
the start and finish of the race. Again, dur- 
ing the famous yacht race between the " Vol- 
unteer " and " Thistle," he extended the wire 
from the editorial room to a platform in 
front of the building, and had it put through 
to Sandy Hook, defeating the other Boston 
papers all the way from five minutes to half 
an hour on bulletins. He was made sport- 
ing editor in April, 1888. His first notable 
work in that department was on the arrival 
from Europe of Mr. John L. Sullivan. Mr. 
Taylor laid in wait in a tug, outside the Bos- 
ton light, for two days, and was the first per- 
son to shake hands with the famous pugilist, 




MARGARET G REYNOLDS. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



335 



and telegraph sighting of ship from Hull, and 
he arrived in this city while the Cunarder got 
quarantine. As Mr. Taylor was leaving the 
tug at Rowe's wharf for the " Globe " office, 
other Boston reporters were just departing 
from Commercial wharf for quarantine. At 
eight o'clock A.M. the first edition of the 
" Globe " was issued, and two hours later 
the second extra edition appeared, containing 
Mr. Taylor's interview -with the champion, 
which was of much interest to many Bosto- 
nians. This second edition was sold on the 
street as Mr. Sullivan and his party drove by 
the "Globe" office in a carriage. The 
other papers' reports came out four and 
one-half hours later. Mr. Taylor has suc- 
cessfully managed the "Globe's" famous 
newsboy's base- ball team. He is an old 
ball player and all-round athlete. 

WRIGHT, JOHN B., journalist, born in 
Charlestown, Mass., in February, 1854. He 
was left an orphan when but a mere lad, and 
became theprotegt of a friend, who encour- 
aged him substantially, sent him to school, 
and he graduated from the Warren Grammar 
School at Charlestown. He entered the 
Charlestown Navy Yard to learn the black- 
smith's trade, and while at work there he had 
the fingers of one hand crushed by a heavy 
sledge, which necessitated the amputation of 
one finger. While in service at the Navy 
Yard he studied phonography, and grew very 
proficient in that branch of knowledge. After 
five years and a half of labor at the Navy 
Yard, Mr. Wright entered upon his career as 
a newspaper man, and commenced to gather 
news for the Charlestown " Advertiser " early 
in the seventies. Following his journalistic 
bent, his activity led him to become a member 
of the reportorial staff of the Boston " Daily 
News," and he won distinction among his 
associates on that paper. The demise of the 
" Daily News " caused Mr. Wright to transfer 
his work to the Woonsocket " Patriot," where 
he performed the duties of editor, as well as 
covering all the reportorial fields known to a 
first-class or all-round journalist. In 1876 
he joined the reportorial staff of the Boston 



" Herald," and for a period often years he and 
his friend and brother journalist, Mr. Thomas 
F. Keen an, were identified with many leading 
and important events connected with their 
paper. Mr. Wright's capabilities have been 
evinced frequently in the handling of criminal 
matters requiring much tact and great deli- 
cacy. His political articles have often com- 
manded words of praise, which is due to his 
active interest in and knowledge of public 
affairs. During General Butler's campaigns, 
beginning in 1878, and up to the close of 
1884, Mr. Wright accompanied the general 
throughout the field, faithfully reporting the 
incidents and speeches for the Boston " Her- 
' aid." He wrote the vivid pen-pictures of the 
Mechanics' Hall Convention for the Boston 
" Herald," and the Boston " Herald " men 
being the only reporters inside the hall up to 
eight o'clock on that memorable morning, 
they sent columns of news over the wires to 
the " Herald." In 1883, while General But- 
ler was governor, Mr. Wright's fealty was 
recognized by him, and the general appointed 
him to the position of assistant private secre- 
tary. At the close of General Butler's term 
of office Mr. Wright returned to his post on 
the " Herald," where he now remains, filling 
the position of assistant city editor. His 
fluent pen is never idle, and many Bostonians 
have read his correspondence under the 
nom de plume of the " Sentinel at the Outer 
Gate." He did excellent work on the Costley 
and Jennie Clarke murder cases, and over a 
year ago unmasked the Peter Frub Faculty, 
otherwise known as the Druid University of 
Maine. In prosecution of this exposure Mr. 
Wright had the degree of M.D. conferred 
on him by the " Druids." His utter dislike 
for hypocrisy and sham and his manly con- 
duct on all occasions have won him the es- 
teem of the community. He is wedded to 
domestic life, and his estimable wife is a sister 
of Col. Chas. H. Taylor, of the Boston " Daily 
Globe," and also Mr. Nathaniel H. Taylor, 
private secretary to ex-Mayor O'Brien. Mr. 
Wright was for many years an active member 
of the Volunteer Fire Department of old 
Charlestown. He comes from Dublin ancestry. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



PAST AND PRESENT MEMBERS OF THE 
PUBLIC SERVICE. 



SKETCHES OF PAST AND PRESENT MEMBERS 
OF THE PUBLIC SERVICE. 



THE town of Boston was established by the passage of the 
order of the Court of Assistants on the i/th Sept. [/th 
O.S.], 1630. 

The first city government was organized on the ist of May, 
1822. Roxbury was first recognized by the Court of Assistants as a 
town on the 8th Oct., 1630. It was incorporated as a city on the I2th 
March, 1846, and annexed to Boston 6th Jan., 1868; accepted 9th 
Sept. Dorchester was named by the Court of Assistants in the same 
order in which Boston was named ; and it retained its town organi- 
zation until annexed to Boston on the 3d Jan., 1870; accepted 22d 
June. Charlestown was founded 4th July, 1629; incorporated as a 
city in 1847; annexed to Boston, 5th Jan., 1874; accepted, 7th Oct. 
West Roxbury was incorporated as a town on the 24th March, 1851 ; 
annexed to Boston on 5th Jan., 1874; accepted, 7th Oct. Brighton 
was incorporated as a town in 1806; annexed to Boston on the 5th 
Jan., 1874; accepted, 7th Oct. 

ORATORS OF BOSTON 

Appointed by the public authorities on the Anniversary of the Boston Massacre, 

March j, 1770. 

1774. HON. JOHN HANCOCK. 
1783. THOMAS WELSH, M.D. 

ORATORS OF BOSTON 

Appointed by the public authorities on the Anniversary of the National Inde- 
pendence, July 4, 1776. 

1803. HON. WILLIAM SULLIVAN. 

1808. ANDREW RITCHIE. 

1883. REV. H. BERNARD CARPENTER. 

1885. THOMAS J. GARGAN. 

(339) 



340 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

SELECTMEN OF THE TOWN OF BOSTON FROM 1634 TO 1 82 1. 

The earliest entry preserved in the Town Records is dated Sept. 
I, 1634, and a board often citizens were in office at that date. Even 
at this early period there were men of Irish birth holding positions 
of honor and trust in the city government. 

These gentlemen held office as follows : 

Oct. 6, 1634. RICHARD BELLINGHAM and JOHN COGGAN or 
COGAN. 

April 29, 1639. JOHN COGAN reflected. 

Dec. 1 6, 1639. JOHN COGAN reflected. WILLIAM HIBBENS 
elected. 

Sept. 28, 1640. COGAN, BELLINGHAM, and HIBBENS chosen, 
with five others. 

March 20, 1642-43. BELLINGHAM and HIBBENS elected. 

Sept. 25, 1643. Same two reelected. 

May 17, 1644. HIBBENS reelected. 

April 10, 1645. Same reelected. 

Dec. 26, 1645. Same reelected. 

WILLIAM PADDY, 1655 to 1658. 

THOMAS HANCOCK, 1740 to 1746; 1748 to 1753. 

In 1640, WILLIAM HIBBENS was the Town Treasurer. 

ASSESSORS. 

THOMAS C. AMORY, 1827. 
JAMES RITCHIE, 1870. 
JOHN J. MURPHY, 1885. 
JOHN M. MAGUIRE, 1885. 

JOSEPH O'KANE has been the Clerk of the Common Council 
since 1885. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

THOMAS C. AMORY was Chief Engineer in 1829. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 341 

SUPERINTENDENT OF STREETS. 

1883. JAMES J. FLYNN.* 

1884. MICHAEL MEEHAN.* 
1886. JOHN W. MCDONALD .* 

SUPERINTENDENT OF LAMPS. 

1883, 1885 to 1888. HUGH J. TOLAND. 

The City Architect in 1883 and 1888 was CHARLES J. BATEMAN. 

OUR MAYORS. 

1878. HENRY L. PIERCE, who is of Irish descent, born in 
Stoughton, Mass., Aug. 23, 1825. 

1885 to 1889. HUGH O'BRIEN, born in Ireland, July 13, 1827. 

1888. THOMAS NORTON HART, of Irish descent, born in 
North Reading in 1829. He came to Boston in 1842. 

THE CITY GOVERNMENT OF BOSTON, ORGANIZED IN 1 822. 

The names of the men of Irish birth and descent who have been 
members of the Board of Aldermen and members of the Common 
Council are given below : 

ALDERMEN. 

1825. DANIEL CARNEY. 

1825. THOMAS WELSH, Jr. 

1826. DANIEL CARNEY. 

1826. THOMAS WELSH, Jr. 

1827. THOMAS WELSH, Jr. 
1827. JEREMIAH SMITH BOIES. 

1 Died, 1884. 

* From July 21, 1884, to Aug. 3, 1885. 

* From August, 1885, to 1888. 



342 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

1859-63, inclusive. THOMAS COFFIN AMORY, Jr. 

1870. CHRISTOPHER AUGUSTUS CONNOR. 

1872-75, inclusive. JAMES POWER. 

l8 75 '76, '77, '79, '80, '8 1, '83. HUGH O'BRIEN. 

1877. JOHN E. FITZGERALD. 

1879-81. JAMES JOSEPH FLYNN. 

1882. THOMAS NORTON HART. 

1883. THOMAS HENRY DEVLIN. 
1883. PAUL HENRY KENDRICKEN. 

1883. WILLIAM JOSEPH WELCH. 

1884. JAMES H. NUGENT. 

1884. JOHN W. MCDONALD. 

1885. PATRICK J. DONOVAN. 
1885. WILLIAM J. WELCH. 
1885. THOMAS N. HART. 
1885. JEREMIAH H. MULLANE. 

1885. JAMES H. NUGENT. 

1886. PATRICK J. DONOVAN. 
1886. MICHAEL BARR. 
1886. JOHN H. SULLIVAN. 
1886. THOMAS N. HART. 
1886. WILLIAM P. CARROLL. 

1886. PATRICK JAMES MAGUIRE. 

1887. PATRICK J. DONOVAN. 
1887. JOHN H. SULLIVAN. 
1887. JOHN A. MCLAUGHLIN. 
1887. WILLIAM P. CARROLL. 
1887. PATRICK JAMES MAGUIRE. 

1887. JOHN H. LEE. 

1888. PHILIP J. DOHERTY. 
1888. JOHN A. MCLAUGHLIN. 

1888. WILLIAM P. CARROLL, to Jan. 28, 1888. 

1888. JOHN C. SHORT. 

1888. JAMES A. MURPHY, from Feb. 21, 1888. Spe- 

cial electron. 

1889. JOHN C. SHORT. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



343 



1889. JAMES A. MURPHY. 
1889. PHILIP J. DOHERTY. 
1889. JOHN A. MCLAUGHLIN. 

CITY CLERK. 
1887-88. JOSEPH H. O'NEiL. 

Many efforts were made to obtain sketches of all the past and 
present members of the public service, but for lack of data and on 
account of the slowness of many persons to furnish information, 
some sketches are omitted necessarily. However, a full and com- 
plete list of the names of the councilmen is given, with the dates of 
their service where no sketch appears. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



AMORY, THOMAS C., the distinguished 
lawyer, scholar, and author. He is a grad- 
uate of Harvard University, of the class of 
1830, which numbered Charles Sumner 
among its members. He has been active in 
the affairs of the Boston Provident Asso- 
ciation and of the Episcopal Church, and 
has also taken much interest in the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, of both of which 
he is a member. About 1 885 or 1 886 he pub- 
lished a pamphlet vindicating his ancestor, 
Gen. John Sullivan, from the charges of 
the historian Bancroft. He is the author of a 
valuable work, " The Transfer of Erin." He 
hus done honor to a name which has long 
been prominent in the high social, intellectual 
life of Boston. His valuable services ren- 
dered to the city of Boston while he was a 
member of the city government are inesti- 
mable. In the years of 1836, '37, '38, '39, 
'40, '41, he was a member of the Common 
Council. Thomas C. Amory, Jr., was chair- 
man of the Board of Alderman in 1863, and 
had served as a member of the Board during 
the years 1859, '60, '61, '62, and '63. 

BAGLEY, FRANK E., clerk, born hi Bos- 
ton, Nov. 10, 1857. Graduated at the Old 
Winthrop School, of Charlestown, in 1873, 



and afterward became clerk in a brush store 
till 1 88 1. About that time he engaged as 
laborer for the Philadelphia Steamship Com- 
pany, and in 1 885 was promoted to his present 
position as receiving-clerk. He is treasurer 
of the St. Francis de Sales Y.M.TA. Society, 
and president of the Druids. He was a 
member of the Common Council from Ward 
3 in 1888-89. 

BARR, MICHAEL, truckman, born in Ire- 
land in 1836. He was educated in the 
national schools of his native place. At 
the age of fourteen he became a youthful 
.contractor, and in January, 1855, immigrated 
to America, landing in New York, but finally 
settled in Boston, where he has since been 
located. He has followed the business of 
truckman for twenty-four years. He was 
a member of the Common Council in 1876- 
83, and represented the Third District in 
the Aldermanic Chamber during 1886. 

BARRY, DAVID F., salesman in the whole- 
sale paper warehouse of Marshall, Son, & 
Co., of this city, where he has been employed 
for the past sixteen years; born in Boston in 
1852. He graduated from the Quincy Gram- 
mar School with the class of 1867. During 



344 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



his boyhood he was ambitious to acquire a 
knowledge of the advanced studies, and de- 
voted his evenings and spare hours during 
the day to reading. Mr. Barry met with the 
favor of the Democratic party in 1879, when 
he was elected a member of the Common 
Council, and served in that branch of the 
city government for nine years. He was 
president of the Council two years, 1887-88. 
Mr. Barry's services on committee work have 
always been of great value to the city, and 
they covered nearly all of the different and 
several committees appointed to supervise 
and execute matters pertaining to the prog- 
ress and development of Boston. 

President Barry was a firm and constant 
friend of the members of the Grand Army 
of the Republic; they have attested their 
belief in his sincerity and his good deeds on 
their behalf on many occasions. John A. 
Andrew Post 15 presented an elegant gold 
watch and chain to him on Jan. 25, 1888, 
as a practical avowal of regard. 

He assisted in entertaining President 
Cleveland when he visited Boston accom- 
panied by his wife, and he also was 
appointed one of a committee to extend 
courtesies to Queen Kapiolani upon her 
arrival in this city, * in recognition of the 
favorable and friendly business relations then 
existing between (he merchants of the Sand- 
wich Islands and those of Boston. 

Councilman Barry was reSlected to the 
lower branch of the city government for 
1887. He is the son of David Barry (now 
deceased), who was well known to the 
Irish people of Boston over forty years 
ago. The latter carried on the business of 
a wheelwright and shipwright in East Boston, 
in 1845, enlisted in the United States volun- 
teer service and went to the Mexican War. 
About 1849 ne moved to the city proper, and 
established his business on Cove street, 
where it flourished for seventeen years. 
Thence he removed to Castle street with his 
family, which consisted of two sons and 
a daughter. The latter died at sixteen years 
of age. Councilman Barry's father was an 
active participant in the benevolent and 



political duties of the citizens of his day, 
particularly those which were designed to aid 
his countrymen. He was one of the com- 
mittee of one hundred who formed an 
association for the naturalization of Irishmen 
in Boston during Know-nothing times, in 
1856. 

BARRY, EDWARD P. 1 

BARRY, JAMES J., assistant inspector of 
buildings, born at London, England, of Irish 
parents, Aug. II, 1851. He immigrated to 
Boston in 1857. He studied at the Boston 
public schools until 1865. He was appren- 
ticed to the mason's trade in 1867, which 
he followed until Oct. I, 1 880, when he was 
appointed to his present position of inspector. 
He was first assistant assessor in 1880, and 
served in the Common Council, representing 
Ward 22, during the years 1877, '78, '79. 
He has been actively identified with military 
affairs, and he is considered an excellent 
disciplinarian, tactician, and an efficient offi- 
cer. He is a member of Company C, Ninth 
Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, and has 
been captain of that well-known company. 

BARRY, PATRICK T., merchant tailor, born 
in Charlestown, March 17, 1856. He at- 
tended the Prescott Grammar School until 
nine years of age, when he became employed 
in a dry-goods store as cash-boy. He after- 
wards worked at various occupations until 
he engaged in the tailoring business in 1885, 
on his own account He is now a member 
of the firm of Barry & Brown, merchant 
tailors. He represented Ward 3 as a Demo- 
crat in the Legislature of 1884-85, is presi- 
dent of St. Mary's Temperance Society, 
treasurer of St. Francis de Sales Society, and 
a member of the Royal Arcanum. 

BELFORD, CHARLES A., restaurateur, born 
in Brighton, Mass., Oct. 19, 1830. In 1835 
he removed with his parents to Fort Hill 
square, and in 1838 to Roxbury, where he 

i See Journalists. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



345 



has since resided. He graduated from the 
Eliot Grammar School in 1848; afterward 
engaged with his father in the nursery busi- 
ness. He entered the customs service in 
1857, and remained till 1861; was subse- 
quently conductor on the Metropolitan Rail- 
road. From 1864 to 1874 he filled the posi- 
tion of chief engineer of the Roxbury Fire 
Department, at a salary of $2,100 per year. 
This office was abolished at the time of the 
Roxbury annexation. At the reorganization 
of the department he introduced steam-en- 
gines instead of the hand- machines. 

He is a member of the Charitable Irish 
Society and Young Men's Catholic Associa- 
tion. 

BENT, JAMES, Democrat, born in County 
Wexford, Ireland, Nov. 2, 1837. Died Feb- 
ruary, 1889. In 1846 he came to this coun- 
try. He received a public-school education; 
learned the shoe business, but later changed 
his occupation. In 1869 he was an inspector 
of voters; in 1871, a member of the Demo- 
cratic Ward and City Committee ; represented 
Ward 2 in the Common Council of 1874-75, 
and was one of the organizers of the North 
End Fishing Club. 

BISHOP, ROBERT, cotton-waste manufact- 
urer, born at County Limerick, Ireland, 
June, 1838. He came to Boston with his 
parents in 1840, and was sent to the Boston 
public schools when seven years of age. He 
left school without completing the full gram- 
mar-school course, and was apprenticed to 
Messrs. Wright & Hasty, printers, with 
whom he remained until 1860; he entered 
Holy Cross College, at Worcester, Mass., 
under the rectorship of Rev. Fr. Champi, 
S.J. He studied two years at the college, 
when sickness compelled him to withdraw. 
In 1863 he engaged in the cotton-waste busi- 
ness for himself, with a very small capital 
(not more than two hundred dollars) . By 
his arduous labor and exceptionally fine 
management the capital was increased, and 
the business was developed to its present large 
proportions. Mr. Bishop's annual volume of 



import and export trade amounts to over 
1750,000. His pay-roll foots up a weekly 
payment of $1,200. He manufactures rail- 
road waste and wadding for domestic trade 
in his large establishments at South Boston, 
which comprises a main factory building 
202 X 45 feet, a store-house, 100 X 60 feet, 
and a sorting-house, 100 X 80 feet These 
buildings are on three streets ; namely, Sixth, 
Seventh, and Tudor. The assessed value of 
his real and personal property covers about 
$300,000. In 1868 and 1870 he was a 
Democratic member of the Common Council. 

BONNER, DENNIS, teamster, born in Done- 
gal, Ireland, in January, 1821. He was edu- 
cated in the schools of his native place, and 
immigrated to this country in 1842, and 
located in Boston, where he has since re- 
sided. Since 1845 he has been in business 
as a teamster. He represented old Ward I 
(now Ward 2) in the Common Council of 
1862, '63, '70, '71, and in the Legislature of 
1873-74. He was a member of the Charita- 
ble Irish Society for about ten years. 

BOYLE, JOHN J., salesman, born in Boston, 
July 4, 1848. He attended the Phillips 
School, and went to work when twelve years 
of age. He was first employed at the paint- 
ing trade. In 1861 he became connected 
with Cutter, Tower, & Co., stationers, and 
shortly afterward engaged with A. Storrs in 
Cornhill, later A. Storrs Bement Company, 
and has been with them ever since, serving 
in various capacities, from errand-boy to his 
present position as head clerk and salesman. 
He represented Ward 8 in the Common 
Council of 1881, '82, '83. He was at one 
time first lieutenant Company A, Ninth Regi- 
ment; is now captain of Montgomery Vet- 
eran Association, having been elected three 
years; and a member of the Catholic Order 
of Foresters, Charitable Irish Society, Royal 
Order Good Fellows, and Knights of St. 
Rose. 

BRADY, THOMAS M., superintendent of 
marble work, born in Boston, Nov. 28, 1849. 



346 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON, 



He graduated as a Franklin medal scholar 
from the Eliot School in 1 866, and afterward 
attended the English High School and the 
Institute of Technology, where he learned 
the principles of architecture and drawing. 
He later served an apprenticeship at the 
marble business with Arioch Wentworth, and 
subsequently acted in the capacity of fore- 
man. About this time he became a resident 
of Somerville, and served two years in the 
Common Council of that city. He was for 
six years president of Division 17, A.O.H., 
and for several years president of the local 
branch of the Irish Land League, and treas- 
urer of the Democratic Ward and City Com- 
mittee. After marriage he removed to South 
Boston, and interested himself in the Irish 
National League. He was elected president 
of the Municipal Council, I.N.L., of Boston, 
and was appointed by National President 
Patrick Egan to the office of State Executive 
for Massachusetts, upon the retirement of 
Thomas Flatley, in which capacity he led the 
Massachusetts delegation to the Chicago 
Convention of 1886. He gave much time 
to public speeches in this vicinity in favor of 
home rule for Ireland. In 1877 he 
accepted his present position as superintend- 
ent of the American Marble Company, 
Marietta, Ga. On Nov. 28, 1887, he was 
tendered a farewell banquet at the Parker 
House, at which John Boyle O'Reilly pre- 
sided, and Hon. P. A. Collins and others in- 
terested in the Irish cause were present. 

BRAWLEY, JOHN P., assistant clerk of 
committees of the city government, Boston, 
Mass.; born in Roxbury, Mass., Aug. 29, 
1849. He graduated from the Comins Gram- 
mar School, 1 86 1, and studied for three years 
after at the English High School. He went 
into the wholesale millinery business with 
J. W. Plympton & Co., as clerk, and later 
acted in the capacity of book-keeper until 
1873, when he engaged with his father in the 
building business. He was a member of the 
Common Council in 1878-79. He intro- 
duced an important order to revise and im- 
prove the financial system of the city in 



regard to large loans and the methods of 
borrowing and accounting for the city's 
money. He insisted that premiums on loans, 
as well as the principal, belonged to the city, 
and should be accounted for and not expended 
for any purpose without an order from the 
City Council. The measure met with a strong 
opposition, but was passed finally. He dis- 
played good business tact while purchasing- 
agent for the Improved Sewerage Works 
during 1879 and 1880. 

He was a clerk in the City Registrar's 
office in iSSi. He was appointed to bis pres- 
ent position, October, 1885. 

BREEN, DANIEL F., elected to serve in the 
Common Council for the year 1889. 

BRENNAN, DANIEL F., clerk, born in Kan- 
turk, County Cork, Ireland, Feb. 3, 1844. He 
received a common-school education. Dur- 
ing the Civil War he served in the Forty-third 
Massachusetts Regiment, and afterward in 
the United States Navy. He represented 
Ward 13 in the Legislature of 1882. He was 
one of the first assistant assessors of the city 
of Boston during 1 888. 

BURKE, MICHAEL H., inspector in the 
sewer department, born in Boston, July 15, 
1856. He was educated in the public schools 
of this city. He was a member of the House 
of Representatives of 1 886. He is one of 
the active young Democrats of the vicinity. 

BURKE, WILLIAM J., steam-boiler maker, 
born in St. John's, N.B., of Irish parentage, 
November, 1837. He came to this country with 
his parents when only six months old. He was 
educated in the public schools of Boston. 
During the war he was foreman for James A. 
Maynard & Co., afterwards he worked for the 
Erie Basin Iron Works of Brooklyn, N.Y., 
and later he had charge of the boiler depart- 
ment of the Beach Iron Works. He next went 
into business under the firm name of McBride 
& Co., and subsequently under his own name. 
He was a member of the Common Council 
of 1876, '77, and '78, from Ward 2; he was 
connected with the Boston Democratic City 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



347 



Committee for seven years, beginning in 1876. 
He was elected to the General Court of 1879, 
'8 1, and '82. In the latter year he was ap- 
pointed by John S. Damrell as inspector of 
elevators in the department for the survey 
and inspection of buildings, and was con- 
firmed by Mayor Green. In 1887 the Board 
of Directors of East Boston Ferries, appre- 
ciating his ability, offered him his present 
position as superintendent of ferries. In 
February, 1887, he was appointed by Secretary 
Whitney as civilian expert, to examine candi- 
dates for the position of master blacksmith, 
master sail-maker, and foreman galley-maker 
at the Charlestown Navy Yard. He is a 
prominent Democrat, and resides in East 
Boston. 

BUTLER, THOMAS C., hotel keeper, born 
in Bandon, County Cork, Ireland, Jan. 6, 
1842. He came to this country with his 
parents when two years of age, and located 
in Boston, where he has since resided. He 
was educated in the public schools of this 
city, and has been for many years engaged 
in the hotel business. He took an active 
interest in aquatic matters early in life, 
and for several years was a prominent 
oarsman. In 1868 and 1869 he held the 
single-scull championship of New Eng- 
land. He has been instrumental in bringing 
many oarsmen into prominence, has a very 
extended knowledge of aquatics, was the 
first to introduce the " working boat," and is 
a prominent member of the West End Boat 
Club. He was the winner of the single- 
scull race in the Boston City Regatta, July 4, 
1871, and with his brother, J. H. Butler, won 
the double-shell races of 1869-70, and with 
other partners in the regattas of 1871, '72, 
'74, '78. He was a member of the Demo- 
cratic Ward and City Committee for about 
ten years, represented Ward 8 in the Com- 
mon Council of 1874 and in the Legislature 
of 1882-83. 

CALNAN, PATRICK J., manufacturer, born 
in Roxbury, Nov. 25, 1847. He received 
his education in the public schools. He has 



been a non-commissioned officer of the Ninth 
Regiment, M.V.M., and is at present a shoe- 
stock manufacturer, residing in Charlestown. 
In 1887 he represented Ward 5 in the Legis- 
lature. 

CANNON, JOHN J., Democrat, born in 
Castlebar, County Mayo, Ireland, May 2, 
1852. He came to this country when seven 
years of age, and attended the Mayhew 
School of this city. He afterwards learned 
his trade as a shoemaker, and worked at the 
business for about seven years, two of which 
were in Baltimore, Md. He represented 
Ward 8 in the Common Council of 1882. 
He is one of the prominent Democrats of the 
West End, and a member of the A.O.H. and 
A.O. Foresters. 

CANNON, PATRICK, clerk, born in Mayo 
County, Ireland, April 29, 1853. He came 
to this country in 1857, and located in Boston. 
He attended St. Mary's Parochial School 
until fourteen years of age, when he left to 
serve an apprenticeship at granite cutting. 
He was employed at his trade about five 
years, and then engaged with Austin Cannon. 
He was a member of the Common Council 
in 1888, and was reelected to serve during 
1889. 

CANNON, PETER, born in Castlebar, County 
Mayo, Ireland, June 25, 1825; died 1889. 
He was educated at the National School, 
Cloonkeen, County Mayo. He came to Bos- 
ton, July 20, 1850, and first entered the shoe 
business on his own account. In 1871 he 
changed his business, and began the sale of 
liquors. He served in the Common Council 
of 1877-78 and in the Legislature of 1880- 
8 1 from the seventh ward. 

CARBERRY, WILLIAM H., iron founder, 
born in Roxbury, Mass., Feb. 22, 1851. He 
graduated from the Comins School, learned 
his trade as an iron moulder, serving an ap- 
prenticeship of nine years with Alonzo Jos- 
lyn; in 1878 he began business on his own 
account. He served in the Legislature of 



348 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



1878, '79, '80, from Ward 22, being a member 
of the Committees on Rules and Orders, 
Federal Relations, and Street Railways. In 
1879 he was president of the Young Men's 
Catholic Lyceum of Roxbury, and is a mem- 
ber of the Charitable Irish Society. 

CARNEY, MICHAEL, registrar of voters, 
born in County Donegal, Ireland, in 1829. 
He was educated in the Bocan National and 
other schools. He came to Boston in 1849, 
and became employed in the shipyard of 
Donald McKay, where he learned the trade 
of bolting vessels. He later commenced 
business on his own account, and McKay, 
Briggs Bros., and other well-known ship- 
builders intrusted to Mr. Carney the work of 
bolting their vessels.- In 1859 he engaged 
in the fire-insurance business. He was an 
assessor of the city from 1859-79, a member 
of the Common Council of 1866, '67, "68, and 
served in the Massachusetts House of Repre- 
sentatives from 1869-76. He earnestly ad- 
vocated the enactment of the bill relative to 
religious liberty in the prisons, which was 
passed by a vote of 91 to 54. He has been 
for a number of years on the Board of Regis- 
trars of Voters. 

CARROLL, MICHAEL J., mason and builder, 
born in New Bedford, Mass., March 16, 1858. 
He was educated in the old Franklin, Quincy, 
and Boylston Schools of this city; entered a 
law office; apprenticed to the trade of mason 
and builder about fourteen years ago, and has 
been at the business ever since. He was a 
member of the Common Council of 1887-88, 
and reelected for 1889; a charter member of 
St. Augustine's Lyceum, its president during 
1885 and 1886; Chief Ranger of St. James 
Court 54 of Foresters; accredited delegate 
to the Bricklayers' International Union and 
to the Central Labor Union of 1887. 

CARROLL, WILLIAM P., born in South Bos- 
ton, March 13, 1854; died in this city, Janu- 
ary, 1888. He studied at the public schools, 
and was withdrawn at nine years of age, 
when he was sent to work for Mr. William 



E. Cash, a crockery dealer on Washington 
street. He returned to school in 1864, and 
graduated from the Lawrence Grammar 
School in 1869. He was an active politician, 
and did much effective political service for 
Wards 7 and 13. He represented the 
Fourth Congressional District at the Na- 
tional Convention of 1884. He was presi- 
dent for four years of the Seventh Ward 
Fishing Club, a strong political organization. 
He served on the Board of Aldermen in 
1886, 1887, and 1888, and died before the 
expiration of his term of office. He was a 
forcible speaker and an earnest debater. Mr. 
Carroll was the oldest of five children. His 
father enlisted in the old Ninth Massachu- 
setts Volunteers in 1862, went to the late 
war, and was honorably discharged as ser- 
geant of Company I in 1864. 

CASEY, FRANK, elected to serve in the 
Common Council during the year 1889. 

CAVANAGH, GEORGE H., contractor, born 
in Boston, June 17, 1839. He attended the 
Quincy, Hawes, and English High Schools. 
He served in Company A, First Massachu- 
setts Regiment, during the Civil War, and is 
a member of Post 15, G.A.R. In l866he 
succeeded his father in business, and has 
continued ever since. In 1879 he repre- 
sented Ward 15 in the Common Council. 

COLLINS, JOHN A. 1 
COLLINS, JOHN J. 1 

COLLINS, MICHAEL D., sealer of weights 
and measures, born in Ireland, Sept 29, 1 836. 
He came to America in 1839, and located in 
Boston, where he has since resided. He is a 
graduate of the Old Eliot Grammar School, 
and Conant's Commercial College of the 
class of 1850. After leaving school he 
served a four years' apprenticeship at Ma- 
goon's Maiden Bridge Shipyard, and worked 
continuously at ship-building until 1860, 
when he engaged in business for himself. 

'See Lawyers. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



349 



He served in the House of Representatives 
in 1866-67, an< ^ * n the Common Council, 
1874-75. He occupied a position on the 
Board of Assessors from 1875 to 1883, in- 
clusive. He was appointed sealer of weights 
and measures for the city of Boston by 
Mayor Palmer in 1875, which position he 
still retains. 

COLLINS, STEPHEN J., United States store 
keeper, born in Charlestown, Aug. 22, 1862. 
He was a graduate of the Frothingham 
School in 1876. He shortly afterward en- 
tered the office of the Boston " Pilot," where 
he was for some time employed in various 
capacities. He subsequently learned the 
trade of an upholsterer, at which occupation 
he was engaged until March, 1886, when he 
accepted a position in the appraisers' de- 
partment of the Custom House. In June, 
1887, he was promoted to the office of store- 
keeper in the customs service. 

COLLISON, HARVEY N. 1 

CONLIN, CHRISTOPHER P., marble-tool 
manufacturer, born in East Boston, Dec. 25, 
1849. He received his early education at 
the public schools, and later learned his 
trade as a marble-tool manufacturer. He 
represented Ward 2 in the Legislature of 
1883. 

CONNELLY, BARTHOLOMEW J., builder, 
born in Boston, June 1 6, 1859. He grad- 
uated from the Brimmer School in 1874, and 
went to work at the building trade for his 
father. He served in the Common Council 
from Ward 19 in 1886-87, serving on the 
Committees on Common, Inspection of Build- 
ings, Sewers, Stony Brook, and Public Build- 
ings. He is at present engaged as a builder, 
with an office in the Roxbury district 

COSTELLO, MICHAEL W., machinist, engi- 
neer, and inventor, born in Galway, Ireland, 
Aug. 3, 1852. He came to this country in 
1855, and shortly afterwards located in Bos- 



ton, where he attended the public schools. 
At eleven years of age he went to work in a 
cordage factory at twenty-five cents a day. 
He subsequently learned the trade of a ma- 
chinist. He was connected with the firm of 
P. H. Costello & Co., furnaces, etc. He is at 
present interested in patents, which pay him 
a royalty sufficient to warrant his retirement 
from active business life. He was a member 
of the Common Council in 1879-81 and the 
Legislature of 1883. He was one of a con> 
mittee of three that organized the first mass 
meeting held in Faneuil Hall in sympathy 
with the Irish Land League, and in 1881 
he presented a resolution of sympathy for 
Ireland in the lower branch of the city 
government. 

COSTELLO, PATRICK H., assistant inspector 
of buildings, born in Ballamackard, County 
Galway, Ireland, March 4, 1845. He came 
to this country with his parents in 1848, and 
settled in Roxbury. He was educated in 
the public schools, and first began work in 
Day's Cordage Factory. He afterward served 
an apprenticeship at the heating and ventilat- 
ing business, which trade he learned and en- 
gaged in for several years. He represented 
Ward 22 in the Common Council of 1885, 
has been a member of the Democratic 
Ward and City Committee for five years, is 
a member of the Montgomery Veteran Asso- 
ciation, Royal Arcanum, Knights of Honor, 
and Catholic Order of Foresters. He was 
appointed inspector of buildings on Jan. I, 
1888. 

COTTER, JAMES E. 1 
COURTNEY, WILLIAM F. 1 
CREED, MICHAEL J. 1 
CRONIN, CORNELIUS F. 1 

CROOK, MICHAEL J., cashier, born in 
Boston, Aug. 28, 1843. He attended the 
Boylston School of this city, and was a 



1 See Lawyers. 



350 



THE IRISH fJV BOSTON. 



Franklin medal scholar of his class. He 
has been for several years connected with the 
Western Union Telegraph Company, and at 
present occupies the responsible position of 
cashier. In 1872 and 1876 he was a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Legislature. 

CROWLEY, JEREMIAH J., upholsterer, born 
in Boston, Aug. 31, 1850. He is a graduate 
of the Boylston School. He represented 
Ward 3 in the Legislature of 1879-80, serving 
on the Committees on Liquor Law and Labor; 
has been an officer of the Mechanics' Ap- 
prentice Library Association, a member of 
St. Mary's Y.M.T. Association, vice-president 
of the National C.T.A. Union, and State 
Master Workman, Knights of Labor of 
Massachusetts. 

CULLEN, BERNARD, late superintendent of 
the Home for Destitute Catholic Children, 
was born in Cloneen, Parish of Kilmaca- 
traney, in the county of Sligo, Ireland, in 
1823. He studied at Thomas Manning's 
private school, and at the National School in 
Geevagh. He was the son of James Cullen 
and Ann, nie Conlon. James was the son 
of Dominick Cullen and Bridget, nee Drury. 
Ann was the daughter of Bernard and Mary 
Conlon. Bernard Cullen emigrated from 
Ireland in 1 847, and was married to Johanna 
Aylward on July 10, 1856, by the Rev. Fran- 
cis Lachat, at St. Mary's Church in Boston, 
Mass. Four children were born to him, 
James Bernard, born Aug. 18, 1857; Mary, 
born March 13, 1859; Anastasia, born Jan. 
13, 1861; and Richard James, born March 
17, 1863. Bernard Cullen led a mercantile 
life for many years in Boston, and chiefly 
engaged in the fire-insurance business, until 
1866, when he accepted the position of 
superintendent of the Home for Destitute 
Catholic Children, and his labors for that 
institution extended over a period of twelve 
years. He represented old Ward 3 in the 
Common Council in 1862-63, an( i was a 
member of the House of Representatives in 
1865. He was well known to the citizens of 
Boston, and his natural solicitude for the 
relief of the poor, coupled with practical 



charity, were among his chief characteristics. 
He was the first superintendent of old St. 
Mary's Sunday School, on Endicott street, 
the Rev. Bernardino Wiget, S.J., rector, and 
a member of the old Columbian Guards, 
the Charitable Irish Society, and the Knights 
of St. Patrick. His work in Boston which 
was of any consequence to the community 
consisted of his life-long, untiring, and suc- 
cessful efforts in relieving distress among 
the needy poor and unfortunate people of the 
city. He was a conspicuous figure at the 
courts, and did much of the voluntary work 
of probating prisoners, lately done by 
" Uncle " Cook and Probation Officer Savage. 
He was a member of the Society of St. 
Vincent de Paul during his life. 

CUNNIFF, MICHAEL M., banker and broker, 
born in the County Roscommon, Ireland, 
1850, arrived in Boston during the same year, 
lie studied in the Boston public schools 
and Bryant & Stratton's Commercial School. 
He served an apprenticeship under Messrs. 
Stephen M. Smith & Co., cabinet makers, 
until he attained his majority. Subsequently 
he engaged in the liquor business, was suc- 
cessful, and withdrew from it. In 1875 he 
commenced to actively participate in local 
politics. From that time he has been recog- 
nized as a political leader, particularly 
shrewd, diplomatic, determined, and un- 
tiring in his efforts to achieve success for 
the Democratic party, especially in Boston. 
He has been a successful man in business 
matters, controls a large number of shares 
of the Bay State Gas Company's securities, 
of which he has been a heavy buyer and 
seller, and he is a director for the company. 
Mr. Cunniff is directly interested in, and 
identified with, many important enterprises 
in Boston, in which his personal work has 
produced profitable results. His investments 
cover the East Boston Land Company, the 
Charles River Embankment Company, the 
West End Railway Company, etc. He is 
one of the organizers of the Boston Gas 
Syndicate. Politically, his judgment is con- 
sidered to be extra good by older and more 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



001 



experienced political leaders, who have made 
him their counsellor on many occasions. 
He is a skilful organizer, and commands 
a large following in the ranks of the Demo- 
crats. He served on Governor Ames's 
Council, this being the only time that 
he ever held a public office. For many 
years he has held high and honorable 
positions in the councils of the Democratic 
party. In 1876 he was elected a member of 
the Democratic State Central Committee, re- 
elected every year since, and he has rendered 
valuable services in perfecting its organization. 
In the years 1887-88 he was chairman of the 
executive committee of the State committee, 
and for a long period a member of the Demo- 
cratic Ward and City Committee, of which 
body he was the chairman during two years, 
as well as chairman of the finance committee. 
While president of the Ward and City Com- 
mittee, in the years of 1882-83, he increased 
the Democratic registration to a figure un- 
precedented in the history of Boston. At the 
end of his two years' service he declined 
the presidency of this committee, though 
he remained an active member. He was 
an uncompromising Cleveland man. In 
1884, at the Democratic National Conven- 
tion, he was received into the inner councils 
of the late Secretary of the Treasury, Daniel 
Manning, and Secretary of War, William 
C. Whitney. During the recent National 
Convention at St. Louis, Mo., Mr. Cunniff 
actively urged the renomination of Grover 
Cleveland. 

He and his associates, Messrs. W. E. 
L. and C. O. L. Dilloway, reorganized and 
changed the location of the Mechanics' 
National Bank, of which he is a director, 
from South Boston to its present central posi- 
tion, on the corner of Washington and 
Franklin streets. The amount of deposits in 
the bank at the time when they assumed the 
management had reached the sum of 
$350,000. This comparatively small business 
was increased by Mr. Cunniff and his co- 
workers to the large sum of deposits amount- 
ing to jSi,ooo,ooo. The bank is in a fair way 
to become one of the leading national bank- 



ing institutions of the country. He has 
made it one of the depositories for the 
State's moneys. 

Mr. Cunniff has favored the Kindergarten 
system of education ; he is a generous bene- 
factor of the charities of Boston. 

DACY, TIMOTHY J. 1 

DAVIS, HERBERT C., real estate, born in 
Boston in 1854. He is a graduate of the 
Dearborn and the Roxbury High Schools; 
served in the Common Council of 1876, from 
which year to 1884 he held the position of 
general agent of New England for S. Davis 
& Co., Cincinnati, O. He is a prominent 
member of the Young Men's Catholic Asso- 
ciation, also Grand Ruler of Royal Order of 
Good Fellows, Trimountain Lodge, and dur- 
ing Ex-Mayor O'Brien's administration was a 
member of the official staff. 

DEE, JOHN H., florist, born at Charles- 
town, Mass., May 13, 1842, graduated from 
the Harvard Grammar School 1857, and 
studied three years at the Charlestown High 
School. He acquired a practical naval 
knowledge at the Charlestown Navy Yard, 
entered the service of the U. S. Navy, in 
1863, as engineer on the " Genesee," and 
afterwards on the " Manhattan," both men- 
of-war, and he came out of service in 1865. 
He served on the Democratic Ward and 
City Committee from 1875 until 1880, and 
again resumed his membership in 1 888. He 
served in the Common Council of 1877, and 
the House of Representatives in 1879 and 
1880. He is a member of Edw. W. Kinsley 
Post 113, G.A.R. He is prominently iden- 
tified with the Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks, and his worth has been recog- 
nized practically by that organization, for it 
has elected him to every available position of 
honor and trust to which members are eligi- 
ble. He is a member of the Temple Council 
of the Royal Arcanum, also the Wapiti 
Tribe, No. 65, of the Improved Order of 
Red Men. 

1 See lawyers. 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



DENNY, THOMAS J., instructor of Athletics, 
born in Ireland in 1850; died in Boston, 
March 30, 1887. He came to this country 
with his parents when very young, and at- 
tended the Quincy Grammar School of this 
city. He afterwards served an apprenticeship 
at cabinet-making, but early in life began to 
develop as an athlete. About 1863 he opened 
a school of instruction in sparring on Boylston 
street, and did a successful business for a few 
years, and acquired a local reputation as a 
professor of the art of self-defence. He 
represented Ward 12 in the Common Council 
of 1878, '79, '80, '8 1, '82, '83, '84, '85, '86. He 
was a delegate to the National Democratic 
Convention at Chicago in 1884. 

DESMOND, CORNELIUS, painter, born in 
Boston, May II, 1838. He was educated in 
the public schools of this city, and resides 
at the North End. He represented Ward 6 
in the Legislature of 1877, '78, '79, serving 
as monitor, and also on the Committee on 
Library. 

DESMOND, CORNELIUS F. f paymaster, born 
in Boston, Oct. 31, 1862. He attended the 
Quincy School, and at thirteen years of age 
entered the office of the Metropolitan Rail- 
road as messenger. In 1878 he was pro- 
moted to the position of assistant paymaster, 
and later was appointed paymaster of the 
West End Street Railway. For ten years 
past he has been a member of the Young 
Men's Catholic Total Abstinence Society of 
St. James' Church, and represented Ward 12 
in the Common Council of 1887, '88, '89. 

DESMOND, JEREMIAH, brass-worker, born 
in Boston, May, 1853. He was educated in 
the public schools of Boston, and commenced 
to learn his trade when eleven years of age 
as a brass- worker. From 1 885 to 1 887, inclu- 
sive, he represented Ward 16 in the Legisla- 
ture, and served on the Committees on 
Printing, Manufacturing, and Street Rail- 
ways. 

DEVER, JOHN F., salesman, born in Bos- 



ton, May' 23, 1853. He attended the May- 
hew School until he was thirteen years of 
age. He first became employed as office 
boy for the Newton Oil Company, and later 
with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. In 
1868 he entered the employ of the New 
England News Company, where he remained 
till 1879. He was afterwards connected with 
the Boston " Courier " for a short period. 
He represented Ward 20 in the Legislature 
of 1880-81. In the fall of 1879 he was ap- 
pointed clerk and assistant registrar of voterSj 
which position he held from October, 1879, 
to June, 1885. He was employed in the 
Mayor's office as clerk under the administra- 
tion of Hon. Hugh O'Brien. In July, 1885, 
he was appointed superintendent of streets, 
but was not confirmed by the Board of 
Aldermen, for political reasons. He is a 
member of the Montgomery Light Guard 
Veteran Association. He was one of the 
secretaries of the Democratic City Central 
Committee in 1879, '80, '81 ; secretary of the 
Charitable Irish Society, 1881, '82, '83; he has 
been identified with Father Roche's Home ; 
is a member of the Clover Club; he has been 
director and financial secretary of Young 
Men's Catholic Association of Boston Col- 
lege for six years; and chairman of the 
Democratic Committee of Ward 20 for sev- 
eral years. 

DEVLIN, THOMAS H., newspaper and peri- 
odical dealer, born in Boston, 1848, and 
graduated from the Brimmer School. He 
engaged in the periodical business with his 
father at the news depot of the Boston & 
Providence Railroad station in Boston, and 
succeeded to the business in 1866. He served 
in the Common Council in 1878, '79, '80, '81, 
'82, and was a member of the Board of 
Aldermen in 1883. He was for three years 
on the City Council Committees on Claims, 
Common and Public Grounds; one year 
on the Committee on Water; two years 
a member of the Board of Directors for 
Public Institutions; and was also on the 
Joint Special Committee on Commissions in 
1881. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



353 



DEVNEY, PATRICK F., public cabs, born 
in Galway, Ireland, Feb. I, 1850. He was 
educated in the public schools of Boston. 
He is now engaged in this city in the public- 
cab business. In 1884 he represented Ward 
19 in the Massachusetts House of Represent- 
atives. 

DILLON, FRANK H., born in Charlestown, 
Mass., Sept. 22, 1861. He graduated at the 
Winthrop School in 1875; worked as painter 
for F. M. Holmes Furniture Company, and as 
superintendent for Eagle Metallic Brush Com- 
pany. Later he established a saloon business. 
He was trustee of the Young Men's Catholic 
Lyceum of Charlestown, vice-president 
Quarterly Club, one of the organizers of the 
Moulton Associates, a member of Royal 
Order of Good Fellows; elected to the Com- 
mon Council of 1887, '88, '89, and served on 
Committees on Fire Department, City En- 
gineers, and Fourth of July. In 1881 was 
sergeant of Company D, Ninth Regiment 

DOHERTY, CORNELIUS F., service clerk, 
born in Boston, Jan. 15, 1852. He attended 
the Lyman School and St. Mary's Institute. 
He went to sea for three years, and upon 
his return served at the coppersmith trade, 
working at the business about eight years. 
In 1887 he engaged in the cigar and tobacco 
business in East Boston and also at Natick. 
He represented Ward 2 in the Common 
Council of 1879, '80, '8 1, and during six 
months of 1883, when he resigned on July 
I to accept his present position as service 
clerk in the Water Department of the city 
of Boston. He is a member of the Royal 
Order of Good Fellows, Firton Literary Insti- 
tute, Young Men's Catholic Lyceum of East 
Boston, Columbian Rowing Association, and 
secretary of the Fourth District Congres- 
sional Club. 

DOHERTY, DANIEL, born in Ballyliffin, 
County Donegal, Ireland, in 1838. He was 
educated in the Irish national schools of his 
native place, and came to this country on 
June 15, 1863. He settled in Boston, and 



became employed by the Boston Gas-Light 
Company, with whom he remained almost 
twelve years. He engaged in the saloon 
business in 1874, and in 1876 formed a 
partnership with his brother, John Doherjty, 
under the present firm name of D. & J. 
Doherty. He represented Ward 7 in- the 
Common Council of 1876 and the Legisla- 
ture of 1877-78. He has been a member 
of the Democratic Ward and City Committee 
for three years, and is a member of the Irish 
Charitable Society. 

DOHERTY, JAMES D. Elected to the Com- 
mon Council for the year 1889. 

DOHERTY, JAMES J., restaurateur, born in 
County Donegal, Ireland, Aug. 15, 1848. 
When five years of age his parents immigrated 
to this country, and settled in Boston, where 
he received his education at the public 
schools. At the age of sixteen he enlisted 
in an unattached company of volunteer 
militia on duty in Boston Harbor. In 1877, 
'78, '79 he was a member of the Common 
Council, and in the latter year he was one 
of the Board of Directors of East Boston 
Ferries. He has been a member of the 
Democratic Ward and City Committee for 
several years, and in 1880 represented Ward 
2 in the General Court 

DOHERTY, JOHN, born in Ballyliffin, County 
Donegal, Ireland, about 1846. He was 
educated in the Irish National schools, and 
came to this country in 1865. Shortly after 
his arrival in Boston he was employed 
in the freight department of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad, and later went to San 
Francisco, Cal., for five years. Upon his 
return to this city he entered the employ of 
the Boston Gas-Light Company, where he 
remained about four years. In 1876 he en- 
gaged in the saloon business with his brother, 
Daniel Doherty, under the present firm name 
of D.&J. Doherty. He represented Ward 
7 in the Common Council of 1884-85 and 
in the Legislature of 1887-88. He is a 
member of the Charitable Irish Society. 



354 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



DOHERTY, JOSEPH, grocer, born in Glack, 
County Donegal, Ireland, Aug. 14, 1844. 
He was educated in the schools of Cam- 
donah, Ireland. He came to this country on 
April 1 4, 1 863, and settled in Boston, where he 
has since resided. He was for several years 
employed by Michael Doherty in the liquor 
business, and in 1874 engaged in the 
grocery and liquor business for himself. In 
1876 he represented Ward 7 in the Common 
Council. 

DOHERTY, NEIL, grocer, born in County 
Donegal, Ireland, March 14, 1837. ^ e re ' 
ceived a common-school education, and has 
been engaged in the grocery business in 
East Boston for some years past. He repre- 
sented Ward 2 in the Common Council of 
1872-73, and in 1875-76 was a member of 
the Legislature. 

DOHERTY, NEIL F., elected to the Com- 
mon Council for the year 1889. 

DOHERTY, PHILIP J. 1 

DOHERTY, THOMAS F., water commissioner, 
born at the North End, Boston, in 1843. 
His parents removed to the Fort Hill dis- 
trict when he was two years of age, and his 
education was received at the Boylston School. 
He entered the dry-goods business with 
Kilby Brothers when twelve years old. He 
was later engaged for fourteen years in the 
dry-goods house of Chandler & Co., a part 
of the time in the capacity of manager of 
one of the departments. He severed his 
connection with the latter firm to become 
a member of the concern of T. F. Doherty 
& Co., and continued in business until 1885, 
when he was appointed a member of the 
Board of Water Commissioners of the city 
of Boston. He has held many offices of trust, 
among these the presidency of the following 
organizations: Democratic Ward and City 
Committee, East Boston Citizens' Trade Asso- 
ciation, St. Vincent de Paul's Society of East 



1 Sc Lawyers. 



Boston; and a directorship in both Father 
Roche's Working Boys' Home and the Home 
for Destitute Catholic Children. He has been 
active in Democratic politics for a number of 
years past, and is one of the prominent citi- 
zens of East Boston, where he has resided 
for many years. He is the colonel of the 
Montgomery Veteran Association. 

DOLAN, CHARLES H., produce dealer, born 
in Boston, March 23, 1859. He graduated 
at the Dearborn Grammar School in 1875, 
and was employed as clerk in a leather 
store until 1879. He subsequently entered 
the produce business, where he is now engaged 
on his own account. He served in the Com- 
mon Council of 1887, '88, '89 from Ward 20, 
and was a member of the Committees on 
East Boston Ferries, Assessors, Centennial 
Celebration, Appropriations, Claims, and 
Fourth of July; and has been secretary of 
Boston Catholic Cemetery Association for 
eight years past 

DOLAN, MICHAEL J., boat-builder, born in 
Ireland, May 2, 1850. He was educated in 
the Boston public schools, and is at present 
engaged as a boat-builder at East Boston. 
He represented Ward 2 in the Legislature of 
1883-84, serving on the Committee on Har- 
bor and Public Lands. 

DONAHOE, CHARLES W., salesman, born In 
Boston, July 7, 1856. He was educated in 
the public schools of this city, and is at pres- 
ent employed as a salesman. He represented 
Ward 15 in the Common Council of 1882 
and in the Legislature of 1883. 

DONOHOE, MICHAEL THOMAS, clerk of 
the Board of Directors for Public Institutions, 
born in Lowell, Mass., Nov. 22, 1838. He 
was the second son of Owen M. Donohoe, 
a native of the County Cavan, Ireland, who 
immigrated to this country and settled in 
Lowell, Mass., in 1831, where he married 
Mary Cassidy. Young Michael went to the 
public schools at Lowell, and subsequently 
Holy Cross College, Worcester. He was 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



355 



engaged in business at Manchester, N.H., 
when the secession ordinances were passed 
in the Southern States, and he recruited 
a company for the Third Regiment. 

He went to the war with the Third N.H. 
Regiment as captain of Company C, and was 
attached to it at Hilton Head and other points 
in the Palmetto State, old South Carolina. 
While he was connected with the Third, his 
superiors always found in him a most reliable 
officer for any emergency. He received from 
his colonel (Jackson) conspicuous mention 
for his conduct in the battle of Secessionville, 
not far from Charleston, in which, out of 
about six hundred engaged, the Third lost 
one hundred and four in killed and wounded. 
Whether it was for days or weeks to be away 
in command on detached service, or to go 
forward directing the advance line of skir- 
mishers, or lead his company in battle charge, 
Captain Donohoe knew his duty, and per- 
formed it with tact, skill, and courage. This 
pointed him out as the most fitting com- 
mander for the then contemplated Irish- 
American Regiment of the Granite State. 

The Tenth N.H. Regiment, which was 
composed chiefly of Irish-Americans, with 
Colonel Donohoe in command, left camp at 
Manchester, N.H., on the twenty-second day 
of September, 1862, and arrived at Wash- 
ington three days later. 

From Sept. 30, 1862, until the Tenth was 
mustered out at Manchester, June 21, 1865, 
Colonel Donohoe rendered heroic services to 
the Union. At the Capture of Fort Harri- 
son his horse was shot under him when in 
command of a skirmish line while the Army 
of the James was again moving forward to 
the attack, and later the colonel was severely 
wounded. 

General Donohoe was brevetted brigadier- 
general, and commanded a brigade of 
Devens's division, which was the first to enter 
the city of Richmond on April 3, 1865, and 
when the term of service expired he re- 
turned in command of three New Hamp- 
shire regiments. 

The State historian says : " The regiment 
was largely composed of foreigners, who 



leave a record highly creditable for patriot- 
ism, bravery, and good conduct ; those who 
survive are entitled to the gratitude of the 
State and nation ; and its dead upon many 
hard- fought fields, in rebel prisons and hos- 
pitals, are entitled to an honorable record in 
the history of the great Rebellion." 

General Donohoe married Miss Elizabeth 
E., second daughter of John and Isabella Mc- 
Anulty, who were of the earliest Irish people 
that made Lowell their home. Eight children 
have blessed this marriage, of whom five are 
living. For several years General Donohoe 
had resided in our adjoining city of Somer- 
ville, but has since made his home in Boston. 
On his return from the war he received an 
important appointment under the corpora- 
tion of the Concord, Boston, & Lowell Rail- 
road, which he retained until 1879. He 
then became connected with the Lake Shore 
Railroad route, taking charge of its passenger 
department at Boston; and later was the 
New England passenger agent of the Cleve- 
land, Columbus, & Indianapolis Railway 
Company, or " Bee Line." 

The general received the nomination for 
Secretary of State at the Massachusetts Dem- 
ocratic conventions in 1879 and '80. In the 
National House of Representatives, five or 
six years ago, his name was reported for the 
very honorable position of a member of the 
Board of Managers of the National Soldiers' 
Home, but he felt obliged to decline the 
honor on account of his railroad business. 

In 1887 he was appointed to his present 
position. 

DONNELLY, ROBERT, health inspector, born 
in Cambridge, April 10, 1853. He attended 
the public schools of his native place until 
he was twelve years of age. He represented 
Ward 7 in the Common Council of 1883-84; 
is a member of the American Legion of 
Honor, and at present employed as a health 
inspector by the city of Boston. 

DONOVAN, EDWARD J., State Senator 
(Third Suffolk), was born in Boston, March 



356 



THE I&ISH IN BOSTON. 



15,1 864. He was educated in Boston's public 
schools, and is a graduate of the Phillips 
Grammar School, West End. In school, 
young Donovan displayed marked ability in 
declamation, and in later years has won a 
high reputation as an eloquent and effective 
public speaker. When quite young he lost 
his estimable father (Lawrence), who, for 
more than a quarter of a century, was among 
the prominent merchants of Boston, being a 
leading tobacconist. For some years Ed- 
ward has been one of the most efficient and 
trusted accountants in the employ of Brown, 
Durrell, & Co., one of the largest jobbing 
houses in the United States. When hardly 
twenty-one years of age young Donovan 
took an interest in public affairs, and at- 
tracted attention by his activity, especially 
in Ward 8. He was elected a representa- 
tive to the General Court for the years 1887- 
88, and Senator from the Third Suffolk Dis- 
trict for the year 1889. In 1887 he was the 
youngest member of the House, and is the 
youngest man ever elected to the Massachu- 
setts Senate. During his legislative service 
he has served on the Committees on Street 
Railways, Military Affairs, Water Supply, and 
Special Committee on Soldiers' Records, and 
has demonstrated his high talent and ability 
to perform yeoman service for the people 
and the Democratic party, as a champion of 
every cause needing a helping hand. Dur- 
ing his three years in the Legislature he has 
won the distinction of being one of the 
most eloquent and forcible debaters. Mr. 
Donovan is of an even temperament, and 
more than ordinarily well balanced mentally. 
He is a member of numerous societies, at 
the present time (1889) being president of 
the Hendricks Club of Boston, one of the 
roost influential Democratic organizations in 
Massachusetts. 

DONOVAN, JAMES, grocer, born in Boston, 
May 28, 1859. He has been engaged in the 
grocery and provision business since he left 
school. He was a member of the Common 
Council in 1882, and was five years in the 
Legislature from Ward 16, and served on the 



Committees of Mercantile Affairs, Prisons, 
Redistricting, and Railroads. He repre- 
sents the Fourth Suffolk District in the 
Senate the present year. 

DONOVAN, PATRICK J., contractor and 
builder, was born in Charlestown, April 9, 
1848. He was educated in the Grammar 
and Charlestown High Schools, and was first 
employed as a clerk in a provision store. 
He is now a contractor and builder. He was 
a member of the Charlestown Fire Depart- 
ment during eight years, one of the Board of 
Engineers before the annexation; served in 
the Common Council of 1882, '83, '84, and 
represented Charlestown in the Board of 
Aldermen of 1885, '86, '87; he was Chairman 
of the Board in 1887. He was invariably 
punctual in attendance at the meetings 
of the two branches of the city government. 
He is a member of the Charlestown Veteran 
Firemen's Association. During nine years 
he was a member -of the Democratic City 
Committee, for seven years a member of the 
State Committee, six years of which he was 
its assistant secretary, and is also a mem- 
ber of the Charlestown Bachelors' Club, and 
a past sachem of the same. He represented 
the Sixth Congressional District as a delegate 
at the Democratic National Convention at 
Chicago, and for some time has stood high 
in the councils of the Democratic party. 

DOOGUE, WILLIAM, Superintendent of 
Common and Public Grounds, born in 
Brocklaw Park, town of Stradbally, Queen's 
County, Ireland, May 24, 1828. He came 
to this country with his parents, four brothers, 
and four sisters in 1 840. The family settled 
in Middletown, Conn., the same year. 
Young William went to the public schools in 
that town, and graduated from the high 
school, 1843. 

He was apprenticed to George Affleck & 
Co., Hartford, Conn., for five years, during 
which time he learned the science of flori- 
culture, horticulture, and landscape garden- 
ing at their celebrated nurseries. At the 
expiration of his term of apprenticeship, Mr. 








WILLIAM DOOGUE. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



357 



Doogue was admitted into the firm as a full 
partner under a five years' contract He 
studied botany for three years under Profes- 
sor Comstock, of Trinity College, Hartford, 
Conn., and came to Boston, 1856. After 
his arrival here he assumed the entire man- 
agement of the floricultural and horticultural 
business of the late Charles Copeland at 
Boston and Melrose. The well-known and 
highly successful greenhouses in "Floral 
Place" were established by Mr. Doogue 
nearly twenty-five years ago, and from that 
establishment floricultural decoration re- 
ceived its first impetus in Boston. In 
1871, the centennial year, Mr. Doogue 
laid out grounds and made a tropical and 
sub- tropical display on the centennial 
grounds at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, 
Penn. His skill was practically recognized 
and he was presented with two gold and 
two silver medals and diplomas. He has 
been the Superintendent of the Common and 
Public Grounds since 1878, and the people 
and press of Boston have approved and 
extolled his work. During the year 1887, 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society en- 
deavored to influence the city government 
to allow that body to erect a building on the 
Public Garden, " to be devoted to the study 
and advancement of floriculture." Mr. Wil- 
liam Minot, Jr., actively interested himself 
on behalf of the society's plan, but the able 
and vigorous protest against the innovation 
which was made by Mr. Doogue aroused the 
sentiment of the press and the public, and 
frustrated the designs of the Massachusetts 
Society. From the first year of Mr. Doogue's 
superintendence, down to the present time, 
the flower exhibits upon the Public Garden 
and in other portions of the city have sur- 
passed the most beautiful in the country. 
The flowers and plants under his manage- 
ment have been artistically arranged in 
beautiful and varied designs, and have fre- 
quently won for him extended praise. 

DRISCOLL, JOHN D., house and sign 
painter, born in Cork, Ireland, Dec. 3, 1832. 
He immigrated to this country when very 



young, and attended the Boston public 
schools. From 1861 to 1863 he served in the 
war as a member of the Ninth Massachusetts 
Regiment, and was honorably discharged 
after the battle of Gettysburg on account 
of a disability. He reenlisted in the Second 
Massachusetts Cavalry in 1864, but was re- 
jected, however, because of his former disa- 
bility. He was a member of the Old Fenian 
Brotherhood, also of the F. B. Council, of 
the GA.R. Post 7 since 1869, and is a 
member of the Irish Legion of St. Patrick. 
He was employed as messenger at City Hall 
during Mayor O'Brien's administration. 

DRYNAN, JOHN, shipping-agent, born in 
Cork, Ireland, in 1832. He came to this 
country in 1833 with his parents when only 
one year old. He was educated in the 
Boylston and Eliot Schools of this city. 
He is by occupation a shipping-agent, but 
for some time past has not been engaged in 
business. He was a member of the Legisla- 
ture of 1870-71, and of the Common Council 
from Ward 6 in 1877-78. He was con- 
nected with the old Columbians in 1858- 
59- 

DUGGAN, THOMAS H., plumber, born in 
County of Kilkenny, Ireland, March II, 
1848. He was educated in the schools of 
his native place, and came to this country, 
and settled in Boston about 1863. He went 
to work at his trade soon after his arrival 
here. He was employed by S. B. Allen for 
eight years, and subsequently as a journey- 
man for Lockwood F. Lamb and others. In 
1873 he engaged in business for himself, and 
at present employs about forty workmen. 
He opened at one time a branch office for 
the extension of his business in New York 
City, which was managed successfully for 
about four years, but recently the business 
there has been discontinued. Mr. Duggan 
served in the Common Council of 1886, '87, 
'88. 

DUNLEA, JAMES J., gate-tender, born in 
Roxbury, June 22, 1857. He was educated 



358 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



in the public schools, and is employed as a 
gate-tender on the Providence Division of 
the Old Colony Railroad. He is a Demo- 
crat, and represented Ward 22 in the Legis- 
lature during 1887. While there he was a 
member of the Committee on Labor. 

DWVER, PATRICK D., insurance agent, 
born in Galway, Ireland, in 1857. He came 
to this country with his parents when nine 
years of age. He. attended the old Mayhew 
School in Boston, where he received his 
early education. For eleven years after 
leaving school he was employed by Hogg, 
Brown, & Taylor, dry-goods merchants. In 
1883 he was appointed chief inspector under 
the Boston Water Board, which position he 
resigned shortly afterward. He was a mem- 
ber of the Legislature for 1884, 1885, and 
1886, serving on the Committees on Claims 
and Railroads. He was elected to Senate 
of 1887 and 1888, and was a member of the 
Committees on Claims, Insurance, and Li- 
brary. He was the vice-president of the 
Democratic Ward and City Committee during 
the years 1 887, '88, '89. He is a member of the 
Catholic Union and Charitable Irish Society. 
Mr. Dwyer is now the only candidate for 
election to the presidency of the Democratic 
Ward and City Committee, a political dis- 
tinction much prized by Boston Democrats. 
As a Democrat he is a faithful adherent to 
the principles laid down by Thomas Jeffer- 
son and Andrew Jackson. In every local 
political campaign in Boston during the last 
six years his efforts have been directed towards 
increasing the numerical strength of the 
Democratic vote, and he has done effective 
service as an organizer and a public speaker. 

FALLON, JAMES O., gas inspector, born in 
the County of Sligo, Ireland, and -came to 
America in 1846, and settled in Lawrence, 
Mass. He graduated from the Lawrence 
High School at Lawrence, Mass., and in 
1858 he took up his residence in Boston. He 
was in the employ of Messrs. C. & M. 
Doherty for a while, and afterwards entered 
into the liquor business for himself, which he 



followed until 1885, when he was appointed 
a gas inspector. He has been a member of 
the Democratic Ward and City Committee 
for twenty years, and the chairman of the 
Ward Committee since 1880. He was a 
member of the Legislature in 1870-71, and 
served on the Committees on Leave of Ab- 
sence, Pay-roll, and the Fisheries. 

FALLON, THOMAS F., plumber, born in 
Providence, R.I., Dec. 7, 1858, and came to 
Boston about 1859. He attended the pub- 
lic schools, and after leaving school was ap- 
prenticed to Messrs. Regan & Duggan. In 
1884 he went into the plumbing business for 
himself. During the years 1885, '86, '88 he 
served in the Common Council. 

FANNING, ROBERT C., United States 
laborer, born in Boston, Jan. 16, 1849. He 
attended the public schools, and afterward 
entered the junk and ship-chandlery business 
with his father, which he continued till 1874. 
Later he was engaged in weighing gold for 
the Boston & Albany Corporation. In 1886 
he was appointed United States laborer in 
the Weighers' Department. He was a mem- 
ber of the Common Council, 1888-89. He 
is District Judge Advocate of District Assem- 
bly No. 3 of Massachusetts Knights of Labor, 
and chairman of the Board of Appeals for 
the State Assembly. He is also a member 
of Company C, Ninth Regiment, M.V.M. 

FARRELL, JOHN H., inspector, born in 
Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 6, 1841. He gradu- 
ated at the public schools and at French's 
Commercial Institute. From 1858 to 1867 
he was engaged as book-keeper, from 1867 
to 1877 in the grocery business, from 1878 
to 1880 as a clerk. In 1880 he was ap- 
pointed an inspector of milk and vinegar at 
Cambridge, which position he held until 1885. 
In 1 886 he accepted his present position as 
Custom-House inspector. 

FARRELL, JOHN R., merchant tailor, born in 
Sheffield, England, of Irish parents, in De- 
cember, 1832. He came to this country in 
childhood, receiving his education in the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



359 



public schools of Lowell, Mass. During the 
late Rebellion he served as captain of a com- 
pany of the Fifty-fifth and also of the Forty- 
eighth Massachusetts Regiments. He was 
later a lieutenant-colonel of the Ninth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, holding the office from 
May 12, 1866, to April 22, 1868. He rep- 
resented Ward 12 in the Legislature of 1884. 

FARREN, PATRICK H., salesman, born in 
County Donegal, Ireland, in 1837. He immi- 
grated to Boston in 1842, and was a pupil in 
the Boston public schools until 1852. He 
was later apprenticed to John W. Mason as 
ship-carver, remaining with him four years, 
and was afterwards employed in various 
capacities till 1857, when he went to Rich- 
mond, Me., and engaged in the carving busi- 
ness for himself. He returned to Boston in 
1 86 1, and engaged in the provision business 
until 1873. He then accepted a position as 
travelling salesman for Chase & Sanborn, of 
this city, the position he still holds. He rep- 
resented Ward 3 in the Common Council of 
1862 and in the Legislature of 1863. He 
was elected a Director of Public Institutions 
in 1885. He was a member of the old Colum- 
bian Association, and has been connected 
with the principal Irish charitable societies 
of this city for some years past. 

FARREN, THOMAS G., grocer, born in 
Boston, March 20, 1858. He attended 
the public schools and graduated at the 
English High School. He is at present en- 
gaged in the grocery business at the North 
End. In 1887-88 he represented Ward 7 in 
the Legislature, serving on the Committees of 
County Estimates and Insurance; and for 
four years has been treasurer of the Ward 7 
Democratic Committee. 

FAY, THOMAS, Jr., paymaster, city treas- 
urer's office, City Hall, born in Roxbury, 
April 9, 1853. He received his early educa- 
tional training in the public schools of this 
city. He represented Ward 19 in the Legis- 
lature of 1881-82, serving on the Committee 
on County Estimates, and was one of the 
monitors during his first term. 



FEE, THOMAS, deputy sheriff, born in 
Hingham, Mass., Aug. 13, 1850. He at- 
tended the Hingham Grammar School and 
the Boston Evening Schools. He served an 
apprenticeship of three years at the machine 
trade with the American Tool and Machine 
Company. He was afterward employed at the 
Hinckley Locomotive Works. He left his 
trade later, and was employed as a salesman 
in a boot and shoe store. In 1 875 he be- 
came connected with the sheriff's office of 
Suffolk County. He was appointed consta- 
ble of the city of Boston by Mayor Prince in 
1877. On Jan. i, 1884, he was appointed 
deputy sheriff by Sheriff O'Brien. He is a 
member of the Charitable Irish Society,' 
Royal Arcanum, Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, Royal Society of Good Fellows, 
Montgomery Light Guard Veteran Associa- 
tion, and the Democratic City Central Com- 
mittee. 

FENNESSEY, JEREMIAH G., crier of Supe- 
rior Court, born in Glanworth, County Cork, 
Ireland, April 4, 1857. He came to this 
country July 31, 1868, and settled in Bos- 
ton. He attended the Quincy Grammar 
School for two years. In 1870 he was 
employed at harness-making, and served 
eighteen months. He afterwards worked in 
a natural history store for six years. In 
1878 he was engaged as conductor on the 
Metropolitan Railroad. He is at present 
holding the position as crier of the Superior 
Court. He was a member of the Demo- 
cratic City Central Committee of 1881, '82, 
'83, and of the Legislature of 1883, and the 
Democratic State Central Committee of 1884. 
He is a prominent Democrat of Boston, and 
is a member of a very large number of 
social and fraternal organizations. He is a 
total abstainer, but not a prohibitionist 

FITZGERALD, DESMOND, civil engineer, 
born in Nassau, N.P., May 20, 1846. He 
immigrated to Providence, R.I., in 1849, and 
in 1870 removed to Boston. He attended 
the Providence High School, Phillip's Acade- 
my, and studied a year in Paris. He held 



360 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



the position of Deputy Secretary of State of 
Rhode Island for about a year, and also acted 
as private secretary to General Burnside. He 
subsequently adopted the profession of a 
civil engineer, and has been engaged on im- 
portant public works since 1867. He was 
appointed superintendent and resident en- 
gineer of the Boston Water Works in 1873, 
his present position. During his experience 
he has been engaged for four years in build- 
ing railroads in the West, and for two years 
was chief engineer of the Boston & Albany 
R.R. He is president of the Boston Society 
of Civil Engineers, a member of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, treasurer of the 
Council of the N.E. Meteorological Society, 
and Fellow of the Royal Meteorological 
Society of England. 

FITZGERALD, JAMES E. 1 

FITZGERALD, THOMAS F., American Bank- 
Note Company, born in Ireland, Dec. 20, 1848. 
He received a common-school education. 
He was engaged with the American Bank- 
Note Company. He served in the Legis- 
lature of 1873, '74, '75, and represented the 
Sixth Suffolk District in the Senate of 1876- 
77. He was returned to the Legislature 
again in 1879 from Ward 13. 

FITZPATRICK, JOHN B., deputy sheriff of 
Suffolk County. He was an officer of the 
Supreme Judicial Court for many years, and 
has been identified with city, State, and na- 
tional affairs. He was a member of the 
Common Council in 1880, '81, '82, '83, and 
served on the most important committees. 
As a debater he is clear and forcible, and an 
excellent organizer. He is president of St. 
Joseph's Conference of St. Vincent de 
Paul Society; a member of St. Joseph's 
Court No. II, M.C.O.F., and other benevo- 
lent societies. He is a Democrat in politics. 

FLANIGAN, WILLIAM H., accountant, born 
in Charlestown, Nov. 7, 1851. He gradu- 
ated from the Lyman School, attended the 



English High School one year, took a course 
at private study and at Comer's Commercial 
College. He was employed four years as 
book-keeper for Gibbs & Stinson, two and 
one-half years in counting-room of Jordan, 
Marsh, & Co., four years as cashier for R. H. 
Stearns & Co., six years as assistant clerk 
and two years as clerk of the East Boston 
Ferries, and appointed accountant in the 
Mayor's office a few years ago, when the 
new city charter took effect. He is a mem- 
ber of the Montgomery Veteran Association, 
and resides in East Boston. 

FLATLEY, MICHAEL J., hotel-keeper, born 
in Ireland, where he received a part of his 
education. He came to America when a 
boy, and finished his schooling here. He 
has been the proprietor of the Jefferson 
House in Boston for several years. He was 
a member of the Common Council of 1873- 
74, and represented the Third Suffolk Dis- 
trict in the Senate of 1875, '76, '77, '78, serving 
on the Committees on Labor, Prisons, and 
State House. While in the upper branch 
of the Legislature he was an indefatigable 
worker for prison reform, and initiated the 
legislation which finally resulted in the law 
forbidding the use of the gag in penal insti- 
tutions and houses of correction. He was 
a trustee of the State Primary and Reform 
School in 1881, and a member of the Gover- 
nor's Council in 1882. 

FLATLEY, THOMAS.' 
FLYNN, EDWARD J. 1 

FLYNN, JAMES J., late superintendent of 
streets, born in St. John, N.B., in 1834, 
died in Boston, March 27, 1884. When 
only two months old he arrived in this city 
with his parents and located in old Fort Hill. 
He was educated in the public schools, and 
was a graduate of the Boylston Grammar 
School. At the age of twenty-one he was 
elected by the Democratic party as a ward 
officer, which position he filled for four years. 



1 See Lawyers. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



361 



In 1856 he engaged in the grocery business 
at South Boston, in which he continued for 
nearly three years. In 1859 he entered the 
business for the sale of ship stores on Broad 
street, where he was located for about ten 
years. He later engaged in the liquor trade 
until 1878, when he opened an office as a 
broker and dealer in real estate. He repre- 
sented old Ward 7 in the Legislature of 
1865-66, and served in the Common Council 
of 1865, '66, '68, "69, '71, '72, '73, '74, '75, 
'76, '77, and he was a member of the Board 
of Aldermen in 1879, '80, '81. In 1883 
he was again a member of the Common 
Council, and was elected president of that 
body, being the first Irish-American who 
held that office. In the same year he was 
appointed superintendent of streets of the 
city of Boston, the position he held at the 
time of his death. He was a member of 
the Charitable Irish Society, Knights of St. 
Patrick, and other organizations, and was 
at one time captain of the old Montgomery 
Guard, Ninth Regiment, M.V.M. k 

FOGARTY, JEREMIAH W., assessor's 
clerk, born in Boston, Sept. I, 1846. He 
graduated from the Quincy School, 1 860, and 
the English High School in 1863. He then 
engaged in the railroad business, and was 
employed as chief business clerk at the East 
Boston office of the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road. He was appointed assessor's clerk in 
1875, and also receiving-teller of the col- 
lector's department. He has been secretary 
of the Charitable Irish Society since 1885, 
and is one of the committee appointed to 
complete a history of the society. 

Fox, JAMES W. 1 

GAGAN, EDWARD, born in Charlestown, 
Dec. 14, 1849. He was educated in the 
public schools of this vicinity. In 1863 he 
shipped in the navy, from which he was 
honorably discharged at the expiration of his 
service in 1865. Some years ago he learned 



1 Se Lawyers. 



the trade of an iron moulder, but is at 
present engaged in the liquor business in 
Charlestown. He is a member of Abraham 
Lincoln Post, has been a member of the 
Democratic Ward and City Committee for a 
number of years past, and represented Ward 
5 in the General Court of 1885. 

GALLAGHER, JAMES H., born in Boston, 
Sept. 29, 1855. He attended the Mayhew 
School of this city. He became employed 
after leaving school at furniture polishing, 
and later worked about five years as a 
glazier. About 1872 he engaged in the 
liquor business, which he has continued since. 
He represented Ward 7 in the Common 
Council of 1883, '84, '85, and during the latter 
year was a member of the Board of Public 
Institutions. He was at one period presi- 
dent of the West End Athletic Club and 
West End Boat Club. On Jan. 31, 1883, 
he was appointed a Justice of the Peace by 
Governor Butler. 

GALLAGHER, WILLIAM, real estate, born in 
Boston, Nov. 8, 1818, died at South Boston, 
June I, 1884. He was educated in the public 
schools, and was at one time engaged in the 
stove trade. He was also largely connected 
as trustee and commissioner of real-estate 
transactions, and held the office of first 
assistant assessor in 1860, '62, '65, 67, '70, 
'73. In 1863-64 he represented old Ward 
12 in the Common Council. He was for 
many years identified with the Phillips Con- 
gregational Church, holding offices in the 
church and society. He was one of the 
original incorporators of the South Boston 
Savings Bank, a member of St. Paul's Lodge 
F. and A.M., St. Matthew's R.A. Chapter, 
and St. Omer Commandery of Knights 
Templars. He was always identified with 
matters of local interest in the South Boston 
district. He was the father of Hon. Charles 
F. and Mr. William Gallagher. 

GALLIVAN, WILLIAM J., United States 
clerk, born in Boston, Feb. 2, 1865. He 
was a graduate of the Lawrence Grammar 



362 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



and Boston Latin Schools, and Harvard Uni- 
versity, class of 1888. He was for a time 
employed as extra clerk in the Assessors' 
Department, also for the registrars of 
voters of the city, and is now clerk in the 
warehouse department of the United States 
Custom House in Boston. He is a member 
of the Young Men's Catholic Association 
of Boston College, and of the School and 
College Alumni. 

GALVIN, OWEN A. 1 

GARGAN, FRANCIS, agent, Republic Mills, 
born in Boston, Dec. 25, 1846. He was 
educated in the public schools of this city, 
and also at the Georgetown College, D.C., 
where he studied one year in the senior 
class. He represented Ward 8 in the 
Legislature of 1878. 

GILMAN, JOHN E., settlement clerk at 
Board of Directors' office of Public Institu- 
tions, born in Boston, Mass., Dec. 22, 1844. 
He was educated at the Boston public 
schools. When fourteen years of age he was 
withdrawn from school and apprenticed to 
Pond & Duncklee, tinsmiths. He enlisted 
at Boston in the Twelfth (Webster) Regi- 
ment, Massachusetts Volunteers, Aug. 5, 1862. 
He was sent to Camp Cameron, Cambridge, 
and afterwards ordered to the seat of war. 
He joined his regiment at Rapidan river, Va., 
Aug. 13, 1862, and was attached to Thomp- 
son's Independent Pennsylvania Battery, and 
engaged with them in battles at Rappahan- 
nock Station, Thoroughfare Gap, Bull Run, 
2d, and Chantilly. On Sept. I, 1862, he re- 
joined the regiment at Hall's Hill, Va., and 
engaged in battles at South Mountain, Md., 
September 14; Antietam, September 17; 
Fredericksburg, December 13; and Chan- 
cellorsville. He fought on the memorable 
field of Gettysburg, July I and 2, 1863. 
During that fearful and decisive struggle 
for the preservation of the Union Mr. 
Oilman gallantly faced the horror and peril 



i See Lawyers. 



of that hard-fought and well-won battle. 
On the second day of July he lost his right 
arm, near the shoulder, by a shell. He was 
sent to the hospital at York , Penn., and he 
was discharged Sept. 28, 1863. His com- 
manders were: Capt. Benjamin F. Cook, 
of Company E; Col. Fletcher Webster 
(son of Daniel) , who was killed at Bull Run ; 
Col. James L. Bates, who succeeded the latter; 
and General Reynolds, of the First Corps, 
who was killed at Gettysburg, July i. He was 
messenger and assistant doorkeeper at the 
State House, 1864-65, and has been a Justice 
of the Peace since 1866. He was a State 
constable from 1865-73, and then employed 
as settlement clerk by the Board of State 
Charities from 1879 until 1883, which position 
he resigned to assume the duties of his present 
occupation. As a member of the John A. 
Andrew Post 15, G.A.R., from 1868-75, and 
subsequently of the Charles Russell Lowell 
Post 7, G.A.R., he won good recognition 
from his comrades. He transferred to 
Thomas G. Hatton Post 26, G.A.R., of 
Roxbury, Jan. 19, 1885. He was elected 
officer of the day, 1886-87, anc ^ commander 
(26), 1 888. He is a member of the Gettysburg 
Club. He was the poet at the dedication of 
the Twelfth Regiment monument on the field 
of Gettysburg. He composed and read an 
original poem for the occasion, and unveiled 
the Twelfth Regiment monument. He is 
a member of the Twelfth Regiment Associa- 
tion, representing Company E. He has 
been president of the Young Men's Catholic 
Association of Boston College. He founded 
a House of Representatives for the associa- 
tion, after the plan of that branch of the 
State government. He was elected five 
times president of the Shield Literary 
Institute, and the first president of the 
Boston Oratorio Society, 1873; vice-presi- 
dent, 1874-77; and president since then. 

He was elected president of the Clover 
Club, 1887. He is a Catholic, and a mem- 
ber of St. Mary's choir since 1865, and 
bass soloist since 1877. He has written 
for the Boston "Journal," "Gettysburg 
Poems ;" "King Alcohol," for " The Nation; " 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



363 



and a touching poem entitled " War," for 
the " Grand Army Record." 

CLANCY, JOHN, advertising agent, has 
been one of Boston's leading Irish-Ameri- 
cans for forty years. Mr. Clancy, who was 
paymaster of the old Columbian Artillery, 
Boston, from which the old Ninth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment sprang, was born in 
County Leitrim, Ireland, in the year 1829, 
a very remarkable one in Irish history, being 
the year that gave emancipation, or, in other 
words, liberty of conscience, to the people. 
He was a Young Irelander in 1848, the year 
he immigrated to this country. Being always 
patriotic, he joined the Columbian Artillery 
of Boston, immediately after landing, and 
declared his intentions of becoming a citizen 
of the United States. He remained a mem- 
ber of the Columbians until disbanded by 
Governor Gardiner in 1854. Mr. Clancy, 
at the Burns's Riot in Boston, and under 
Colonel Cass, who was then captain, took 
a musket and did duty as private, and 
was ordered by Captain Cass to take the 
head of the company, where he remained 
without flinching during that eventful period. 
Mr. Clancy has taken an active part in 
everything that interested the Irish people 
in Boston since then. He was in the city 
government of Boston during the years 
1862, '63, '64; and represented the old Third 
Ward in the Legislature of Massachusetts 
two years, in 1865 and 1866, when there 
were only six Democrats in the Legis- 
lature against two hundred and thirty- 
four Republicans. He was truly in the 
glorious minority, as he himself many 
times remarked ; but nevertheless he was in- 
strumental in carrying two or three very 
important measures under Gov. John A. 
Andrew, who commissioned him as a Justice 
of Peace of Massachusetts, a commission he 
still holds. In 1861, when the war broke 
out, he took a lively interest in the formation 
of the Ninth, under Colonel Cass, presented 
the regiment with the two battle-flags which 
the regiment carried through every battle, 
and can now be seen riddled to shreds in the 



archives of the State. Mr. Glancy always 
attends the reunion of the Ninth, and he has 
himself declared he considers himself the 
godfather, or at least one of the godfathers, 
of the old regiment that covered itself with 
glory. 

GORMAN, DENNIS J., clerk, Assessors' De- 
partment, born in Boston, Oct. 25, 1843. 
He graduated from the Boylston School in 
1856, and Evening High School in 1860. 
He subsequently learned the photographic 
stock business, and later attended Holy 
Cross College. In 1867 was one of the 
Board of Directors of the Charitable Irish 
Society. He represented Ward 5 in the 
Legislature of 1869-70. He has been a 
member of the Ninth Massachusetts Regi- 
ment since 1865, serving from private to 
captain. He assisted in organizing six com- 
panies of the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Regi- 
ment, which done service at New Orleans 
during the Civil War. Some time ago he was 
appointed a clerk in the Assessors' Depart- 
ment of the city of Boston. 

GRAHAM, JAMES B., painter, born in Hali- 
fax, N.S., about 1838. He came to Boston 
when about ten years of age, and has since 
resided in this city. He represented Ward 20 
in the Common Council of 1876, and was a 
member of the Democratic Ward and City 
Committee of the same year. He was also 
a member of the General Court of 1877, '78, 
and was reelected to the Common Council 
of 1884, '85, '86. 

GRIFFIN, GERALD, born in Yonkers, 
N.Y., about 1853; died at Boston, Mass., 
March, 1889. He was educated in the 
schools of his native place, and at Brooklyn, 
N.Y. He had been a resident of Boston 
for about fourteen years, and at the time of 
his death was the New England representa- 
tive of Cassell & Co., the London publishers. 
He was elected a member of the Boston 
School Committee in 1886, to fill a vacancy, 
and was reelected in the same year for a 
term of th.ree years. He was a Democrat, a 



364 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



progressive educator, and a member of many 
organizations, including the Y.M.C.A. of 
Boston College, the Orpheus Musical and 
Clover Clubs. 

HAGGERTY, DAVID J., lawyer, born in 
Boston, }an. i, 1857. He was educated in 
the public schools of this city, and at pres- 
ent resides at South Boston. He is a com- 
missioned officer of the Ninth Regiment, 
M.V.M.; and represented Ward 14 in the 
General Court of 1886, '87, '88, serving on 
important committees. 

HAGGERTY, ROGER, grocer, born in Lee- 
macrosson, County Donegal, Ireland, May, 
1846. He arrived in this country in 1865, 
and located in Boston. He was educated at 
one of the national schools in his native 
land. He was employed in Boston as a 
teamster for five years, which business he 
discontinued and engaged in groceries for 
himself. He represented Ward 7 in the 
Common Council of 1887-88. He is a 
member of both the Catholic and the Ancient 
Order of Foresters, and the Charitable Irish 
Society. 

HANLEY, PATRICK T. He was born in 
Roscommon, Ireland, in 1831, and came to 
the United States with his people when only 
twelve years old. He lived for some time 
after his arrival here at Hamilton, O., and 
learned there the trade of cooper. In 1848 
he moved to Boston at the request of Messrs. 
Fisher & Chapin, pork merchants, with whom 
he served as foreman of their packing estab- 
lishment until 1 860, when he visited Ireland. 
In 1853-54 young Hanley was a member of 
the Columbian Artillery, Fifth Regiment, 
M. V.M., which was, at the time, commanded 
by Captain Thompson and Col. Thomas Cass; 
afterward of the " Irish Ninth," was a lieu- 
tenant of the company. After his European 
trip he returned to Boston in 1861, just at the 
time of the breaking out of the war, and 
Captain Cass invited his cooperation in organ- 
izing Company A, Columbian Guards, Ninth 
Regiment. He readily consented to assist 



in the work, and extended his usefulness 
r arther as one of the organizers of Company B, 
Otis Guard, of which he was mustered into 
service himself as first lieutenant. At Ar- 
lington Heights, Va., in August, 1861, Lieu- 
tenant Hanley succeeded as captain of the 
Otis Guard ; and on the death of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Peard, to whose position Maj. P. R, 
Guiney was advanced, Captain Hanley, in 
January, 1862, was commissioned major. 
After the Seven Days' battles on the Penin- 
sula, Gen. Fitz John Porter, commanding 
the Fifth Corps, issued Special Order No. 92, 
dated July 30, 1862, "for gallant conduct in 
the field of battle," in which he recommended 
that Major Hanley be promoted to the lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy, made vacant by the promo- 
tion of Guiney after the death of Cass; and he 
immediately received his commission. 

On the 5th of May, 1864, the Ninth Regi- 
ment was among the first infantry corps to 
charge the enemy in the Wilderness cam- 
paign. Marching in line of battle to the 
front, Colonel Guiney received a wound that 
lost him an eye, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hanley was compelled to assume command; 
and from that time to the close of the war 
gallantly led his regiment through many 
desperate engagements. In September, 
1864, Colonel Hanley married Miss Sarah 
C. McTague, daughter of Mr. Patrick F. 
McTague, an old and time -honored resident 
of Charlestown. Thirteen children iiave 
blessed this union, ten of whom are now 
living, five boys and five girls. For the past 
sixteen years Colonel Hanley has been 
engaged in the brewing business with Messrs. 
James McCormick & Co. He is always 
identified with the welfare of our charitable 
institutions, and is recognized as one of 
Boston's prominent Irish citizens. 

HARKINS, DOMINICK J., upholsterer, born 
in Boston, Feb. 18, 1856. He received 
his education at St. Mary's Institute. He 
was elected a member of the General Court 
from Ward 7 in 1884, to &11 t^ e vacancy 
caused by the death of Representative John 
Doherty, and also in 1885 and 1886. During 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



365 



his service in the Legislature he was on the 
Committee on Drainage. 

HAYES, JAMES B., grocer, born in Boston, 
March, 1858. He is a graduate of the 
Quincy Grammar School, and of the English 
High School of 1874. He first entered the 
merchandise brokerage business with Benja- 
min W. Parker, and remained one year, 
when he accepted a position as stenographer 
for the Boston & Lowell Railroad. He is 
now engaged in the grocery business on his 
own account. In 1888 was a member of 
the Common Council. 

HAYES, JOHN E., born in Boston, March 
6, 1845. He was educated in the public 
schools of this city. During the war he 
served with the Forty-fifth Massachusetts 
Volunteers and the Eleventh Battery. He is 
a prominent Democrat of Charlestown, and 
was a member of the House in 1883 and 
1887. During his terms in the Legislature 
he served on the Committees on Military 
Affairs and Elections. 

HAYES, JOHN J., commission merchant, 
born in Killarney, Ireland, Jan. 26, 1845. 
He was educated at the schools of Dublin, 
Ireland. For some years past he has taken 
an active interest in the business and political 
interests of the city. From 1876 to 1880, 
inclusive, he was a member of the Boston 
School Committee, and represented the Eighth 
District in the Legislature of 1886. He is a 
member of the firm of Hayes & Engle, im- 
porters and commission merchants, and ranks 
among the prosperous young business men of 
this vicinity. 

HAYES, JOHN W., born in Boston, July 7, 
1852, where he has always resided. He 
attended the public schools of this city until 
eleven years of age. He was apprenticed to 
McAteer Bros, at the age of fifteen, and 
worked at his trade in various places for 
eleven years. About ten years ago he 
became engaged in the saloon business. He 
has been a member of the Democratic Ward 



and City Committee for four years, and of 
the Common Council of 1886, '87, '88, serving 
on a number of important committees. He 
has also been a member of Court Constantino 
Catholic Order of Foresters, for four years. 

HAYES, WALTER L., elected to serve in 
the Common Council during the year 1889. 

HAYNES, EDWARD F. 1 

HENRY, NEIL, bill-poster, born in County 
Derry, Ireland, March 29, 1853. He immi- 
grated to this country very early in life, and 
received his education in the Boston public 
schools. He is by occupation a bill-poster, 
and resides at the North End. He was a 
member of the Legislature of 1879 from 
Ward 7. 

HOAR, JOHN J., salesman, born in Brook- 
lyn, N.Y., June 17, 1863. In 1865 he re- 
moved to Dorchester with his parents. He 
attended the Dearborn School and Boston 
College. He was employed as clerk for R. 
H. White & Co. from 1880 to 1882, and 
later for Jordan, Marsh, & Co., where he left 
in 1 884 to take his present position as sales- 
man for Richardson & Co., dealers in paints 
and oils. He is a member of the Holy Name 
Society of St. Patrick's Church, Massachu- 
setts Lodge 1,226, Knights of Honor, was 
vice-president of the Norfolk Associates for 
a year and a half, and represented Ward 20 
in the Common Council of 1887, '88, '89, 
serving on the Committees on East Boston 
Ferries and Sewers. 

JENKINS, EDWARD J. 

JOYCE, JOHN, currier, born in London, 
England, May, 1857. He was educated in 
Ireland. He has served in the United 
States Army and Navy. He was a member 
of the House of Representatives from Ward 
19 in 1879, '80, '8 1, and served on the Com- 
mittee on Parishes and Religious Societies. 

See Lawyers. 



366 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



KEARINS, PATRICK, born in County Gal- 
way, Ireland, March 15, 1849. He attended 
the National School in Ballencurry, Ireland, 
and immigrated to New York in 1865, remov- 
ing to Vermont in 1 866, and, finally, to Bos- 
ton in the following year, where he has since 
been located. He was employed as a team- 
ster for three years, afterward as coachman; 
later with James O'Brien, dealer in whole- 
sale liquors, and then began the business of 
wholesale and retail liquors for himself. He 
served in the Common Council from Ward 6 
in 1884, '85, '86, and was a member of the 
Committees on Claims, Public Parks, Com- 
mon, Water, Fisher Hill Investigation, and 
chairman of Committee on East Boston 
Ferries. 

KEEFE, JOHN A., elected to the Common 
Council for the year 1889. 

KEENAN, THOMAS F. 1 

KELIHER, THOMAS J., grocer, born in Bos- 
ton, Oct. 13, 1858. He graduated from the 
Brimmer School in 1872. He was first em- 
ployed with his father in the grocery busi- 
ness, and afterwards obtained an interest in 
the concern, under the firm name of Keliher 
& Son. He was a, member of the Common 
Council of 1885/86, '87, '88, and served on 
many of the important committees. 

KELLEY, FRANCIS B:, painter, born in 
Ireland, Jan. 12, 1844. He came to Amer- 
ica in 1847, and received his education in the 
public schools of Roxbury. He represented 
Ward 22 in the Legislature of 1881. 

KELLEY, JOHN, assistant inspector of 
buildings, born in County Limerick, Ire- 
land, April 7, 1830. He immigrated to this 
country in ,1834, and located in Charlestown, 
where he has since resided. He was edu- 
cated in the Charlestown public schools, 
and afterwards went to work in a rope-walk. 
He subsequently learned his trade as a 

1 See Journalists. 



mason, and worked at it for a number 
of years. He represented Ward 3 in the 
Common Council of 1875, '76, '77. He 
was later appointed an inspector of build- 
ings, his present position. He has been 
connected with the St. Mary's Mutual Relief 
Society for thirty-one years; is a member 
of the Charlestown Veteran Fire Association, 
St. Mary's Temperance Society, and the 
Montgomery Veteran Association. 

KELLEY, JOHN P., plumber, born in Rox- 
bury, Mass., in 1849. He attended the pub- 
lic schools, and Bryant & Stratton's College 
during the evening. He learned the 
plumber's trade while employed by P. D. 
Allen. He was a member of the Common 
Council in the year 1888-89. He is a mem- 
ber of the Roxbury Bachelor Club, the Clan- 
na-Gael Society, and Company A, First 
Regiment, M.V.M. 

KELLEY, THOMAS F., printer, born in Bos- 
ton, Dec. 4, 1861. He graduated from 
the Mayhew School, 1873. He worked on 
the Boston " Daily Globe " about two years 
after leaving school, and then entered the 
Rand-Avery establishment to learn the 
printer's trade. He represented Ward 8 in 
the Common Council of 1887-88. He is a 
member of the St. Joseph's Young Men's 
Catholic Association and the Hendricks Club. 

KENDRJCKEN, PAUL H., manufacturer, 
born in the County of Galway, Ireland, De- 
cember 25, 1834. He received a common- 
school education in the Cooper-street and 
Mayhew schools in Boston. He possessed 
talent, and showed a decided inclination for 
mechanical engineering. He spent his even- 
ings in study to fit him for that occupation, 
and qualified himself laudably and success- 
fully. He passed an excellent examination 
as an engineer in the spring of 1862, and a 
few months later he was commissioned third 
assistant engineer in the U. S. Navy, and 
served in that capacity until promoted to the 
position of second assistant engineer, Sept. 6, 
1863, for bravery under the hardest fire. His 




PAUL H KENDRICKEN 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



367 



first service was" on board the " Connemaugh " 
of Admiral Dupont's fleet. Subsequently he 
was under Admirals Dahlgren and Farragut 
on board the ship " Circassian " and the moni- 
tor "Nauset," from which he was transferred 
to the " Connemaugh " by request of its com- 
mander. Mr. Kendricken's first engage- 
ment was at the attack on Fort Wagner, 
Morris Island, which was captured in 1863, 
after a long struggle, by the land and naval 
forces. He was with Admiral Farragut while 
passing Forts Morgan and Gaines, in Mobile 
Bay, when the celebrated ram " Tennessee " 
was captured. Thence he proceeded up the 
Mississippi river, and participated in the en- 
gagements at Baton Rouge and vicinity. Mr. 
Kendricken served in the navy four years and 
three months, and his resignation was ac- 
cepted Sept. 6, 1866, at which time he 
received a diploma from the Naval Depart- 
ment, on which were inscribed words of 
gratitude for his valuable services. He also 
received a similar diploma from the State of 
Massachusetts. At the close of his service 
he returned to Boston, and was at once ap- 
pointed superintendent of the steam-heating 
works of T. S. Clogston & Co., and filled the 
position until the death of Mr. Clogston, 
when he formed a copartnership with Mr. 
Ingalls, one of Mr. Clogston's partners, and 
established the firm of Ingalls & Kendricken, 
now one of the most successful and reliable 
firms in this line of business in the city. 
Mr. Kendricken married an estimable lady 
and settled at Boston Highlands,^ where his 
public spirit was quickly appreciated. He 
was elected a member of the Common 
Council of Ward 20 in 1878, and reelected 
in 1879 and 1880, when he positively declined 
to be reelected. A new honor was bestowed 
upon him by the people when they elected 
him to the aldermanic board, in 1883, where 
he served with credit to himself and benefit 
to the city. He was a director for Public 
Institutions, and introduced many improve- 
ments and reforms. In the fall of 1884 he 
was elected to the Massachusetts Senate, 
defeating Mr. Charles Whittier, president of 
the Whittier Machine Company, the Repub- 



lican candidate. He was the first Democrat 
that his party had been able to elect since 
the formation of the district, and his success 
caused much rejoicing. During his senatorial 
term he was on the side of popular govern- 
ment. He opposed the Metropolitan Police 
Bill vigorously, and advocated the bill com- 
pelling corporations to make weekly pay- 
ments to their employees, which would have 
applied to all incorporated cities and towns, 
as well as to business corporations. He 
urged and fought for the passage of the 
Soldiers' Exemption Bill, which was calculated 
to relieve veteran soldiers from the restric- 
tions of the civil-service rules in the matter 
of employment and appointment to office. 
The tenure of office bill for school teachers 
received his attention, and his efforts were 
directed towards its successful passage. This 
bill passed, and under it teachers retain their 
positions until removed by a vote of the 
committee. He was interested in the Tax 
Limitation Bill, which curtailed the borrowing 
capacity of the city. The passage of this 
law helped Mayor O'Brien in lowering the 
tax-rate. The new city charter shows much 
of his handiwork. In 1885 he was reelected 
to the Senate, defeating his Republican op- 
ponent, Mr. Halsey J. Boardman, by a hand- 
some majority. He proposed and effected 
the passage of the Park Loan Bill, amount- 
ing to two million five hundred thousand dol- 
lars. The vote stood eight to three against 
the bill before he had it passed. He is a 
large owner of real estate, notably the Hotel 
Nightingale, situated on Dudley, corner of 
Folsom street, which is assessed for ninety 
thousand dollars. He is a member of Ed- 
ward Kingsley Post 113, G.A.R., Commo- 
dore of the Kearsarge Association of Naval 
Veterans, and has a large interest in the 
Roxbury Club, of which he is a director. It 
includes some of the most influential and 
prominent men on its membership roll. 

KENNEDY, PATRICK J., trader, born in 
East Boston, Jan. 2, 1858. His early edu- 
cation was acquired in the public schools. 
He is a well-known Democrat of Noddle's 



368 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



Island, and has served in the Legislature 
during 1886 and 1887. As a member of the 
lower branch of the Legislature he was a 
member of the Committees on Cities and 
Printing. 

KIDNEY, JOHN A., auditor's clerk, born 
in Boston, Feb. 2, 1849. He graduated 
from the Eliot School in 1 864, and afterwards 
attended the English High School. He was 
employed by Geo. B. Upton, merchant, 
the New England Lithographic Company, 
and from 1874 to 1878 was engaged as 
treasurer and secretary of the shoe-machine 
companies of H. E. Townsend. He was 
in the insurance business for a short period, 
until he accepted the position, in July, 1880, 
of clerk in the auditor's office of the city of 
Boston. He represented Ward 6 in the 
Common Council of 1877, '78, '79, and to 
July, 1880. He is a member of American 
Legion of Honor, Paul Revere Mutual Bene- 
fit Association, and Irish Charitable Society. 

KINNEY, JOHN F., elected to serve in the 
Common Council for the year 1889. 

LAMB, ABRAHAM J., provision dealer, 
born in Boston, July 27, 1844. He received 
his educational training in the public schools 
of this city. He has been engaged in the 
provision business for some time past; repre- 
sented Ward 1 6 in the Common Council of 
1872-73 and the Legislature of 1881, '82, '83, 
serving on the Committee on Mercantile Af- 
fairs. 

LANE, THOMAS J., superintendent of print- 
ing, born in Mallow, County of Cork, Ireland, 
Dec. 15, 1843. He immigrated in 1850, 
and located in Boston. He attended the 
public schools until eleven years of age, 
when he left to learn the printer's trade. He 
served an apprenticeship in the offices of 
Damrell & Moore and J. E. Farwell & Co. 
He left the latter office at nineteen years of 
age to enter the service of the United States 
in the Rebellion, and enlisted as private in a 
company of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts 
Volunteers. The regiment did nine months' 



service in North Carolina, and upon its return 
Mr Lane reenlisted in the Fourth Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry, serving as the company 
quartermaster-sergeant, second and first lieu- 
tenant He served until the close of the 
war, when the company was disbanded at 
Galloupe's Island, by order of the adjutant- 
general. After the war he returned to Far- 
well's printing-office, where he remained 
until the spring of 1 866, when he entered 
the employ of Rockwell & Churchill. In 
1883 he was appointed superintendent of 
printing of the city of Boston. 

LAPPEN, JOHN EDWARD, wooden and 
willow ware, born in Chelsea, Mass., Jan. I, 
1855. He graduated from the Lawrence 
Grammar School in 1869, and attended the 
English High School for a year. He after- 
wards became employed by his uncle, of the 
firm of Owen Lappen & Co., dealers in 
wooden and willow ware, and on Oct. 
10, 1885, began business in the same line for 
himself. He served in the Common Council 
of 1883, '84, '85, and was a member of the 
Committees on Treasury and Collector's De- 
partments, City Hospital, Improved Sewer- 
age, and Finance. He is a member of the 
Royal Arcanum and Charitable Irish Society. 

LEAHY, DENNIS J., real estate, born in 
Boston, July 28, 1856. He was educated in 
the public schools of Boston. He is at pres- 
ent a member of the firm of Leahy & Kelly, 
real-estate dealers and auctioneers. He has 
been a member of the State Militia, and repre- 
sented Ward 6 in the Legislature of 1885-86, 
serving on the Committee on Mercantile 
Affairs. 

LEARY, EDWARD J., music compositor, born 
in South Boston, May 27, 1860. He was 
educated in the public schools of this city. 
He was first employed by the Suffolk Glass 
Company, and later, until 1 887, by Giles & Gay. 
He represented Ward 13 in the Common 
Council of 1886-87 an( i ^ e General Court 
of 1888, serving on important committees in 
both bodies. He is a member of St. Peter 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



369 



and Paul's Total Abstinence Society, South 
Boston Athletic Club, Knights of Labor, 
Avenue Hall Democratic Club, and Chief 
Ranger, St. Peter and Paul's Catholic Order 
of Foresters. 

LEE, JOHN H., reporter, born in Boston, 
April 26, 1846. He was educated in the 
public schools, and afterwards attended a 
private academy. He was first employed as 
an apprentice to a wood-turner; afterward 
learned chemistry; later became hotel clerk, 
and finally proprietor. He has been en- 
gaged, in recent years, as a reporter of the 
live-stock market for daily and trade papers. 
He is a resident of Brighton, and represented 
Ward 25 in the Common Council of 1883, 
'84, '85, '86, and served as president of that 
body during 1 884. He has been one of the 
leading Democrats of local fame for several 
years, and a member of the Democratic 
Ward and City Committee for ten years, 
serving as president during 1885-86. 

LOGAN, LAWRENCE J., born in Ireland, 
Aug. 12, 1842. He was educated in the 
national schools of his native country. He 
came to the United States in 1858, and first 
located in Worcester, Mass., where he went 
to work in an iron foundry. He served an 
apprenticeship of four years at the iron- 
moulding trade, when he removed to Boston 
and engaged as clerk for P. F. Logan. In 
1 86 1 he was admitted a partner, under the firm 
style of P. F. Logan & Brother, which contin- 
ued until 1873, when he succeeded to the 
business. He enlisted as private in the Ninth 
Massachusetts Regiment in 1866, was pro- 
moted from time to time, and now holds the 
position of lieutenant-colonel of the regi- 
ment. Thus he has rendered military ser- 
vice for twenty-three years. Mr. Logan 
has been a member of the Democratic City 
Committee since 1867, served four years as 
its treasurer, succeeding Michael Doherty, 
and represented the Fourth District in the 
Governor's Council of 1886-87. He is a 
leading Irish Nationalist, is -connected also 
with a number of American societies, was 



formerly a director of the Home for Desti- 
tute Catholic Children, and has always been 
a liberal contributor to Catholic charities. 
He is a member of the Charitable Irish 
Society, makes an excellent presiding officer 
at a public meeting, and is a large real-estate 



LOMASNEY, JOSEPH P., printer, born in 
Boston, March 10, 1863. He attended the 
Mayhew and Phillips Schools, and engaged in 
earning a livelihood at the age of fifteen years. 
After learning the printer's trade he became 
employed in the Lamp Department for two 
years. In 1 883 he took an active part in the 
Independent Democratic movement in Ward 
8. He was a member of the Common 
Council during 1888, representing the eighth 
ward. 

LYNCH, JOHN E., boiler-maker, born in St 
John, N.B., Jan. 28, 1852. He was educated 
in the public schools of both St. John and Bos- 
ton. He learned the trade of boiler-maker 
at the establishment of Cook, Rymes, & Co., 
Charlestown, and afterwards accepted a posi- 
tion hi 1 87 1 as clerk in the office of E. P. Hodge 
& Co., boiler-makers at East Boston, of which 
firm he is now a member. He was connected 
with (he Republican Ward and City Commit- 
tee for two years, a member of the Common 
Council of 1884-85, the Legislature of 1886- 
87, and is at present a director of East Boston 
Ferries. He is a member of Mt. Tabor 
Ix)dge F. and A.M., St. John's Royal Arch 
Chapter, East Boston Council Royal and 
Select Masters, Wm. Parkman Commandery 
of Knights Templars, Knights of Honor, An- 
cient Order of United Workmen, Massachu- 
setts Charitable Mechanic Association, and a 
director of the Suffolk Masonic Mutual Relief 
Association, Boston Citizens' Electric Light 
and Power Company, and the Free Press 
Publishing Company. He is a resident of 
East Boston. 

LYONS, THOMAS F., sign writer and painter, 
born in Boston, Nov. 17, 1850. He gradu- 
ated from the Lawrence Grammar School. 



370 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



On March 10, 1864, at the age of fourteen 
years, he entered the service of the United 
States Navy as a third-class boy, but was 
shortly promoted to the rank of first class. 
He was sent to the front on board the United 
States supply-boat " Connecticut," of the 
West Gulf blockading squadron under Ad- 
miral Farragut, and was engaged at Mobile 
Bay. He was ordered aboard the famous 
rebel ram " Tennessee," and took an active 
part in the engagement against Fort Morgan; 
afterward he did service at the mouth of the 
Red river, and on board the United States 
gunboat "Glasgow," in charge of Admiral 
Thatcher. At the age of sixteen he began 
an apprenticeship of about seven years at 
sign and decorative painting, his present 
business. He represented Ward 19 in the 
Common Council of 1888-89. 

MACNAMARA, DANIEL G., was born in Bos- 
ton, Mass., April 12, 1839, received a public- 
school and academic education; taught 
penmanship and book-keeping at the age of 
sixteen; is the youngest of three brothers, com- 
missioned officers of the Ninth, who recruited 
and organized Company E in April, 1861, 
for the Ninth Regiment. He was commis- 
sioned a lieutenant in the State Militia, but 
preferred to be mustered into the volunteer 
service in 1861 as first sergeant; was pro- 
moted commissary and quartermaster-ser- 
geant, second and first lieutenant, and at the 
age of twenty-two, quartermaster of the regi- 
ment; was constantly with his regiment dur- 
ing three years' service, and never off duty 
or on the sick list; was slightly wounded at 
Fredericksburg; was highly commended as 
brave, faithful, and competent in the dis- 
charge of all his duties by his superior offi- 
cers. He served in Texas as lieutenant in 
the Twenty-fifth Army Corps; was adjutant 
of the Ninth Militia Regiment in 1868-69. 
Read law with the intention of becoming a 
member of the Suffolk Bar, but subsequently 
accepted a clerkship under Collector Russell 
at the Boston Custom House in 1 867, where 
he is still employed, with the same faithful- 
ness and constancy that marked his career in 



the war. At the present time he is major of 
the Montgomery Veterans and president 
of the Society of the Ninth Regiment, in his 
sixth term. He is a past commander of 
John A. Andrew Post 15, G.A.R., of this 
city. His untiring and unselfish interest in 
his old comrades of the Ninth Regiment is 
highly appreciated by all, and their regard 
for him grows stronger as they grow older. 
His elder brother, Capt James W. Macnamara, 
was killed in action at the Wilderness under 
General Grant. He was a brilliant soldier. 
The history of the Ninth Regiment was 
written by his next oldest brother, Capt. 
Michael H., now living in the West. 

MACNAMARA, CAPT. JAMES WM., Ninth 
Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers, was 
born in Boston, Mass., Nov. 23, 1835. He was 
the oldest of three brothers, who served in the 
Ninth Regiment as commission officers. His 
father, Daniel Macnamara, and his mother, 
Mary iiee Hickey emigrated from Lim- 
erick, Ireland, and arrived in Boston in 1833. 
He received a public-school and academic 
education and learned the trade of printer. 
At the age of eighteen he chose seamanship 
for a profession, and after his first voyage 
around the world went through a thorough 
course of navigation under Captain Spear, of 
Boston, a professor of navigation, after which 
he followed the sea until he obtained the 
rank of mate, under an English firm at Lon- 
don. While on a trading voyage between 
London and the East Indies the Rebellion 
broke out, and on arriving in London, on a 
return voyage, he learned the situation of 
affairs at home, settled up with his firm, much 
against their wishes, and took the first steamer 
to Boston. On his arrival at Boston he found 
his two younger brothers, Michael and 
Daniel, raising a company for Cass's Irish 
Regiment. 

His intention was to enter the cavalry ser- 
vice, having served as a volunteer in the 
India service during his travels, but 
" blood being thicker than water " he joined 
his brothers, and was commissioned a second 
lieutenant of Company E, then unattached. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



371 



On the subsequent organization of the regi- 
ment, and final muster into service June II, 
1 86 1, he and his brother Daniel were left 
out of the list of commissioned officers, and 
he accepted the position of color-sergeant of 
Company I (colored company), and received 
the national flag from the hands of Governor 
Andrew the day the regiment marched for 
the seat of war. He was, on the arrival of 
the regiment at Washington, promoted first 
sergeant of Company I, and at the battle of 
Gaines's Mills severely wounded and taken 
prisoner. On his exchange he joined his 
regiment from hospital, and was promoted a 
second lieutenant, having previously received 
from his colonel the following letter on his 
return to duty : 

[COPY.] 

HEADQUARTERS NINTH MASS. VOLS., 
Oct. 15, 1862. 

FIRST SERGEANT JAMES W. MACNAMARA : 
SERGEANT, I hereby appoint you acting 
second lieutenant in this regiment, and as soon 
as I am officially informed of a vacancy, which 
no doubt now exists, I purpose to recommend 
you for commission. 

This opportunity affords me sincere pleasure. 
You were meritorious at Hanover, gallant at 
Gaines's Mills and the Chickahotniny, and in 
camp and on parade your conduct and appear- 
ance entitles you to my esteem, and to whatever 
reward I am able to bestow. 

(Signed) P. R. GuiNEY, 

Colonel commanding 
Ninth Massachusetts Volunteers. 

The fact that no such letter was issued by 
Colonel Guiney to any other non-commis- 
sioned officer in the regiment before or since 
is proof of the high esteem in which he was 
held. His soldierly and manly qualities soon 
advanced him to first lieutenant and cap- 
tain. He passed through all the campaigns 
of the regiment, and in every position of trial 
and danger proved himself a brave, cool, 
and daring leader. 

His motto was " Follow me," and he was 
never known to take men in where he could 



not take them out. At Hanover Court- 
House, where he is particularly mentioned, 
the right wing under command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Guiney became separated from the 
left wing under Colonel Cass, the latter being 
in the open wheat- field, and the former well 
into the woods and underbrush. Naturally 
the left wing swept forward in pursuit of 
rebel General Branche's retreating troops, 
breaking from and leaving far in the rear the 
right wing. It took but a few moments for 
Colonel Guiney to discover that he was alone 
in the woods with but one-half of the regi- 
ment. How to reach *and connect was the 
question. Sergeant Macnamara solved the 
problem. "Colonel," he said, "I will find 
the left wing, with your permission." On the 
left flank he deployed skirmishers, and in less 
time than it takes to write it his company 
were out on the open field and deployed six 
yards apart in single file until he struck the 
left wing in full pursuit of the enemy. 

To communicate with Colonel Cass and 
state the situation of affairs was but the work 
of a moment, and when the right wing came 
in sight on the double-quick and joined the 
left, the regiment raised an Irish cheer that 
made the retreating foe think that the 
" Yankees " had reinforcements. 

It was then that the Ninth rendered such 
gallant service that the " wind up " of the 
battle of Hanover Court-House was short, 
sharp, and decisive. 

Not until the last campaign of the Ninth 
did this intrepid soldier fall. It was at the 
Wilderness, May 5, 1864, under Grant, 
leading his men in a charge on the enemy. 
In the woods they lay concealed awaiting till 
the Ninth approached. The brigade to which 
the Ninth was attached fell in ambush flank 
and front. To go forward was slaughter, to 
retreat, the same. Nearly all the officers 
and one-half the men fell. Nineteen officers 
out of twenty-six were killed or wounded. 
Among the mortally wounded was Captain 
Macnamara, shot through and through. 

He now lies buried at Holyhood Cemetery, 
Brookline, where General Guiney and others 
of the Ninth " sleep their last sleep." 



372 



THE IRISH /A BOSTON. 



MAGUIRE, PATRICK JAMES, merchant tailor, 
born in County Fermanagh, Ireland, March 
14, 1840. He came to this city at five years 
of age, and studied at the public schools. 
He learned the tailor's trade under Lothrop 
& Godfrey, and was employed at Oak Hall 
Clothing House as foreman. He engaged 
in the tailoring business with George 
W. Jacobs, under the style of Jacobs & 
Maguire, and afterwards formed a partner- 
ship under the firm name of Sullivan & 
Maguire for the carrying on of the same 
business. His services in the Common Coun- 
cil include the years from 1879 through 
1884, during which time he made many street 
improvements which largely benefited his 
section of the city. He was a director for 
public institutions, 1882-83, and by his 
efforts the Catholic inmates at Deer Island 
were given the right by the city to partici- 
pate in their religious exercises under the 
guidance of a Catholic priest. Mr. Maguire 
introduced a new and economical process 
of manufacturing clothing at this institu- 
tion. The new hospital on Deer Island was 
built by his strong advocacy. He was a 
Democratic candidate for alderman, 1885, 
and was defeated. He received a re-nomi- 
nation, 1886, and was elected alderman by a 
majority of 860 votes. He was reelected 
Democratic alderman, 1887, by a majority 
vote of 1,200, the largest ever cast in the 
aldermanic district comprising Wards 19 and 
22. He was on nearly all the important com- 
mittees. The present system of heating, as 
conducted by the Boston Steam- Heating Com- 
pany, was proposed by Alderman Maguire, and 
successfully carried through over the Mayor's 
veto. The improvements made in Wards 19 
and 22 during the years of his aldermanic 
representation were much in excess of those 
made for twenty years previous, thus giving 
laborers more employment. In 1887 he in- 
creased the appropriation for paving streets to 
$200,000. He has been chairman of the Ward 
Committee since 1884. The vote in Ward 19 
was increased from 400 to 3,000 by his assist- 
ance, and the full Democratic vote will count 
2,100, He is an uncompromising Democrat. 



MAHAN, BENJAMIN F. , merchant, born at 
Northboro' April 14, 1816; died in Boston, 
Jan. 24, 1882. He came to this city while in 
his teens, and entered the ship-store ware- 
house of his brother, John Mahan, on Long 
Wharf, where he remained for four or five 
years, when he began business for himself, 
and for a period of almost a half-century 
was favorably known as a successful Long- 
Wharf merchant. He became interested in 
California and Colorado mines in the days 
when railroading in that part of the country 
was almost unthought of, and spent much of 
his time for two or three years in travelling 
over these territories. He was a Democrat 
in politics. He was at one time clerk of old 
Ward 3, and served as a member of the Com- 
mon Council of 1858-59. He took consid- 
erable interest in the Boston Fire Department 
in his younger days, and was an active mem- 
ber under Captain Barnicoat. He was a 
member of Columbia Lodge of Masons, and 
at one time a prominent Odd Fellow. He 
was also a member of the old "Winslow 
Blues," Handel and Haydn Society, and an 
honorary member of the National Lancers. 

MAHONEY, JAMES T., harness-maker, born 
in Kilworth, County Cork, Ireland, July 20, 
1843. He came to this country with his 
parents in 1845, an d attended the public 
schools of Boston until eleven years of age. 
He was first employed as errand-boy in a 
merchant's counting-room, afterward in a 
tobacco store, and finally was apprenticed to 
a harness-maker. While learning his trade 
the Rebellion occurred, and he enlisted in the 
First Massachusetts Regiment, serving until 
the battle of Fredericksburg, where he was 
wounded in the head and limb. He was 
honorably discharged for disability in March, 
1863, and returned to this city, where he 
learned his trade. He was one of the or- 
ganized members of the Montgomery Light 
Guard, and in 1875, '77, '78, '80 represented 
Ward 13 in the General Court, and 
served on the Committees on Prisons, Tax- 
ation, and the Joint Standing Committee on 
Printing. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



373 



MAHONEY, JEREMIAH S., book-keeper, born 
in Boston, Dec. 26, 1855. He was educated 
in the public schools, and at the age of four- 
teen years entered business. He was presi- 
dent of the Shawmut Rowing Club during 
188586. He was a member of the Com- 
mon Council from Ward 13 in 1888, serv- 
ing on a number of important committees. 

MAHONEY, PATRICK F., born in Boston, 
Feb. 5, 1847. He received his early educa- 
tion in the public schools of this city. At 
the age of seventeen be enlisted in Company 
M, Third Regiment, Massachusetts Heavy 
Artillery, and did creditable service during 
the Rebellion. He represented Ward 6 in 
the General Court of 1 880-81. 

MAHONEY, WILLIAM J., born in Boston in 
1854. He attended the Eliot Grammar 
School, afterward worked at painting and 
varnishing for five years, then for A. Winn 
and Byam & Carleton, when he engaged in 
the liquor business for himself, which he has 
been identified with for the last fourteen or 
fifteen years. He has been connected with 
the Democratic Ward and City Committee 
for nine years, was a member of the State 
Central Committee during 1886-87, served 
in the Common Council of 1886, '87,' 88, '89, 
for two years president of the Commercial 
Athletic Club, and a member of the North 
End Fishing Club. 

MALONE, EDWARD, restaurateur, born in 
County Kilkenny, Ireland, April, 1834. 
He came to Boston in May, 1849, and 
attended the public schools. In 1850 he 
became employed by Nathan Matthews, of 
this city, for whom he .worked twenty-two 
years, several years of which he had charge 
of his large real-estate interests. In 1872 he 
engaged in the restaurant business, and has 
continued in that line ever since. He repre- 
sented old Ward 2 in the Common Council of 
1 868-69, He was connected with the Bos- 
ton Light Dragoons for about eight years, 
and was also a member of the Charitable 
Irish Society. He is at present a member 
of the Royal Order of Good Fellows. 



MANNING, JOHN P. 1 

MANNING, PATRICK H., grocer, born in 
Roscommon, Ireland, Jan. 27, 1845. He is 
at present engaged in the grocery business, 
and represented Ward 19 in the Legislature 
of 1882-83, serving on the Committee on 
State House. 

MAQUIRE, JOHN J., hard- wood finisher, born 
in Boston, Jan. 4, 1 850. He was educated in 
the public schools of this city, and later 
learned the trade of a hard-wood finisher, his 
present occupation. He represented Ward 
13 in the Legislature of 1884. 

MARLEY, JAMES F., architectural metal 
work, born in Ireland, March 25, 1857. 
He came to this country in 1860, and 
located in Boston. He attended the public 
schools, Comer's Commercial College, and 
took a mechanical-drawing course of two 
years at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. He went into business in 1 876, and 
is at present a member of the firm of E. 
Marley & Bros. He was secretary of the 
Democratic City Committee in 1883, and a 
member of the Democratic State Central 
Committee in 1 884. He served in the Com- 
mon Council of 1883-84, and was on the 
Committees on Finance, Public Institutions, 
and Inspection of Buildings. He is at 
present secretary of the Shawmut Rowing 
Club. 

MARTIN, JOHN B., merchant, born in South 
Boston, March i, 1848. He was educated 
in the public schools of this city. He is a 
manufacturer of essences. In 1872, '73, '74 
he was a member of the Common Council, 
and in 1875 he served in the Legislature 
from old Ward 7. He represented the Sixth 
Suffolk District in the Senate of 1879-80. 
He is at present president of the Board of 
Directors for Public Institutions, and a promi- 
nent Democrat of South Boston, where he 
resides. In 1886 he was a candidate for 

i See Lawyers. 



374 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



Democratic nomination to Congress in the 
Fourth District Convention, the candidates at 
the time being Messrs. Martin, Dacey, and 
O'Neil. The supporters of Mr. Martin were 
steadfast till the last, until it was decided that 
Hon. P. A. Collins should succeed himself. 

MCCARTHY, NICHOLAS F., elected to serve 
in the Common Council of 1889. 

McCAULEY, ANDREW P., elected to serve 
in the Common Council of 1889. 

McCuLLOUGH, THOMAS, painter, born in 
Ireland, June n, 1840. He came to this 
country at an early age. During the War of 
the Rebellion he was a non-commissioned 
officer in Company B, twenty-second Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, and served three years. He 
participated in nineteen battles of the war, and 
was wounded at Gettysburg. He represented 
Ward 6 in the Legislature of 1881-82, and 
served on the Committee on Taxation. 

McDoNALD, JOHN W., real estate and ex- 
superintendent of streets, born in Ireland in 
1840. He came to this country in 1847. He 
was a graduate of the Brimmer School. He 
subsequently engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
and for twelve years afterwards was in the 
real-estate business. He was a member of 
the Board of Aldermen in 1884, and was 
appointed Superintendent of Streets of the 
city of Boston ip the latter part of 1885. He 
has been treasurer of St. Vincent de Paul 
Society since 1878, connected with the 
Home for Destitute Children for twenty 
years, vice-president of the Charitable Irish 
Society, and a member of the Catholic Union. 

McDoNALD, PATRICK F., iron merchant, 
born in Boston, July 10, 1852. He grad- 
uated from the old Boylston School, Fort 
Hill, in 1868, and afterward became em- 
ployed by Lothrop & Co., in the iron 
business. In 1877 he engaged in business for 
himself, and at present carries on a large 
wholesale trade throughout the New Eng- 
land States. He was president of St. James' 



Y.M.T. Association for two years, and repre- 
sented Ward 12 in the Common Council of 
1877-78 and in the General Court of 1881, 
'82, '83, serving on the Committees on Claims, 
Mercantile Affairs, and Hoosac Tunnel. He 
has been a member of the Democratic City 
Central Committee for nine years, and of the 
State Central Committee two years. 

McDoNOUGH, JOHN H., law student, born 
in Portland, Me., March 29, 1857. His early 
education was received in the public schools 
of that city. After coming to Boston he en- 
gaged in the trade of watch-making, which 
he followed for several years. Recently he 
abandoned his trade for the purpose of study- 
ing law, and is now located in the office of 
Hon. Charles J. Noyes. He represented 
Ward 20 in the General Court of 1886, '87, 
'88, '89, and served on the committees on 
Water Supply and Election Laws and Rail- 
roads. He is one of the prominent young 
Democrats of Massachusetts, and is one of 
the recognized leaders of his party in the 
Legislature. He is a member of the Boston 
Young Men's Congress, Young Men's Catho- 
lic Association of Boston College, Charitable 
Irish Society, Montgomery Branch of Irish 
National Land League, Roxbury Bachelor 
Club, and the Democratic State Committee. 

McENANEY, THOMAS OWEN, merchant 
tailor, born in East Boston, Oct. 23, 1857. 
He received his early education at the 
Adams School, of which he is a graduate, 
and supplemented his training at the Union 
Business College of this city. He was first 
employed as book-keeper for John G. Gil- 
bert & Co., afterward by Hardy, Mayhew, 
& Co. He served as a custom cutter for J. 
C. Littlefield, on Beacon street, and finally 
opened business on his own account the 
1st of January, 1888. He was a member 
of the Common Council in 1885-86. 

McErnucK, MICHAEL J., was born in 
Roxbury, June 22, 1 846, in the very district 
which he represents in the Massachusetts 
Legislature, and in the same house that his 




JOHN H. McDONOUGH. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



375 



grandfather lived in over seventy years ago. 
His father, Matthew McEttrick, was for 
many years a prominent and respected citi- 
zen of Roxbury, and his mother was Mary 
McDonough, daughter of Patrick McDon- 
ough, one of the earliest Irish settlers in 
Roxbury, who commenced business there in 
1819. Young McEttrick received his early 
education in our public schools, graduating 
from the Washington Grammar School at the 
early age of eleven years, the youngest boy 
in his class, and at its head. In 1857 he 
entered the Roxbury Latin School, graduat- 
ing with honors therefrom in 1862. He 
was entered at the office of Mr. Charles 
Whitney, the City Engineer of Roxbury, for 
the purpose of becoming a civil engineer. 
Commensurate with his intellectual growth 
was his physical development. At the age of 
sixteen he was able to outstrip any of his 
companions in all field sports, and he met 
and vanquished even the athletes of his dis- 
trict in feats of physical strength and endur- 
ance. At the age of twenty-one his strength 
had increased by cultivation and natural 
growth to such an extent, that his remark- 
able feats began to attract the attention of 
the outside world. He was one of the first 
in America to establish the fact that the 
powers of endurance in man were capable 
of severe tests; and, as a youth, he bore 
off the palm for pedestrianism in these parts. 
He entered long-distance walking matches in 
the summer of 1868, won the championship 
of America, and held it against all comers for 
four years. He distinguished himself as a 
thorough-going, all-round athlete, excelling 
in wrestling, jumping, and field sports, so 
that his reputation extended all over the 
country. 

In the last year of the war he served in 
the army, and was transferred by special 
order of the War Department to the regular 
army, in the corps of engineers. In the 
spring of 1884 he was elected to the position, 
of assistant assessor, receiving a unanimous 
vote in both branches of the city govern- 
ment. In the fall of the same year he was 
nominated by the Democrats for representa- 



tive to the Legislature from Ward 20, Bos- 
ton. He received the highest number of 
votes ever accorded any man in his district, 
and has since been four times reelected, each 
time being more strongly endorsed than 
before. Each year showed him to be a 
strong and well-equipped man for the place. 
Alone and single-handed he has fought his 
way up to be one of the acknowledged 
leaders in the House, and one of its foremost 
debaters. He has served on some of the 
most important committees of the House; 
viz., Roads and Bridges, Finance, Expen- 
ditures, Education, Liquors, Constitutional 
Amendments, and the Child Labor Commit- 
tees. His work here has been characterized 
by thoroughness, signal ability, and wholly 
in the public interest. Says the Roxbury 
" Gazette : " " The two features of his legisla- 
tive experience which come directly home to 
the very firesides of the district, to the rich 
and poor alike, are the passage of the 
Franklin Park Loan and the Stony Brook 
bills, which conjointly will put over $3,000,- 
ooo into the pockets of our laboring men. 
To him was intrusted the charge of both 
of these measures in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. His skilful and successful man- 
agement of the Stony Brook substitute bill in 
the House, as well as his eloquent speech 
upon the passage of the Franklin Park Loan 
bill, determined in a high degree the success 
of these two measures, which will eventually 
prove blessings to the community. His 
minority report on the private school was 
the crowning feature of his legislative career. 
The broad grasp of principle on constitu- 
tional law, which this report showed, and the 
high plane on which it placed the whole 
discussion, soon attracted attention to the 
man, and gave him a reputation far beyond 
the State lines of Massachusetts." "The 
Pilot," commenting on the matter edito- 
rially, in its issue of June 2, 1888, said: 
" Now that the battle over the State inspec- 
tion of private schools has ended in a splen- 
did victory for the only people whom the 
measure really assailed, the Catholics, it 
would be ungrateful not to emphasize the 



376 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



credit due to Representative Michael J. Mc- 
Ettrick. He took up the cause of the pri- 
vate schools at risk of place and popularity. 
He saw and exposed the true nature of the 
proposed enactment. He framed the proper 
lines of resistance in his minority report. 
He was the only member who discerned the 
real intent and purport of the bill, and had 
the courage of his convictions. All through 
the legislative hearings he watched over 
Catholic interests with a vigilance and fidelity 
beyond praise; and it is not too much to say 
that to him, more than to any other single 
influence, is due the completeness of the dis- 
graceful defeat that has overtaken an unwar- 
ranted and un-American attempt to invade 
parental and citizen rights. The triumph is 
his triumph, and ' The Pilot ' tenders him its 
hearty congratulations." 

He is a forceful speaker, his remarks 
always showing thought and broad under- 
standing, and he frequently becomes really 
eloquent. His voice is large and full, well 
rounded and well controlled, and the ser- 
vices he has rendered his party as a stump 
speaker have been acknowledged in many 
ways. 

McGAHEY, ALEXANDER B., born in Bos- 
ton, March 30, 1855. He was educated in the 
public schools of this city. He represented 
Ward 7 in the Common Council of 1878-79, 
and he was a member of the Legislature of 
1881-82, serving on important committees. 
He was nominated by the Independent 
Democrats four years ago ; was a candidate 
for the Senate of 1885 from the Third Suf- 
folk District. He was declared elected, but 
his seat was contested on the ground of an 
irregularity at the polling-places. At the 
special election which was held in March, 
1885, his right to be a member of the Sen- 
ate was settled in his favor. He was the 
regular Democratic nominee the following 
year, and was reelected to the Senate of 1886. 
During his two terms he served on the Com- 
mittees on Federal Relations and on Street 
Railways. He has been a member of the 
Democratic City Committee for several years. 



McGARAGLE, PATRICK F., builder and 
contractor, born in Boston, Feb. 2, 1845. 
He received his education in the public 
schools, and is now engaged in business as 
a contractor and builder. He was connected 
with the militia for about seven years, a 
member of the Common Council of 1878-79, 
and of the General Co'urt of 1880-83 from 
Ward 8, serving on the Committee on Hoosac 
Tunnel. He was a trustee of the City Hos- 
pital during 1879, and is an active member 
of the Montgomery Veteran Associates. 

McGEOUGH, JAMES A. 1 

McGowAN, WILLIAM S., chief clerk of the 
Metropolitan Steamship Company, born at 
Gardner, Me., December 26, 1826. His 
father's name was Felix McGowan, a native 
of Manahamilton, County Leitrim, Ireland. 
His mother, Judith McGowan, was born at 
Northport, Me. The family settled in 
Lowell, Mass., in 1837, where young Mc- 
Gowan went to school, and graduated from 
the Lowell High School. He afterwards 
learned the drug business in Boston, and 
pursued it until 1842. His public services 
include his appointment as Clerk of the 
Water Commissioners, in 1846, when water 
was introduced into Boston from Lake 
Cochituate. He remained in this position 
until the commission surrendered their work 
to the city of Boston, in 1848. Then his 
services were engaged in the counting-room 
of the Boston " Daily Advertiser " as clerk, 
under Nathan Hale, Nathan Hale, Jr., and 
Charles Hale, who were then the proprietors 
and publishers. About 1852 he went into the 
drug trade on his own account, and con- 
tinued this business for six years. The gold 
fever led him to California, where he stayed 
one year. He returned, engaged in the 
steamship business, with which he has been 
connected ever since. He was a Democratic 
member of the Common Council in 1857, 
chairman of the Democratic Ward and City 
Committee in 1858, and the first steam fire- 
engine ever used in Boston was put in opera- 

i Se Lawyers. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



377 



tion by the passage of his order while in the 
Common Council. He was president of the 
Young Men's Catholic Association in 1854. 
He has always been prominently identified 
with the various charitable undertakings in 
this city. 

McGuNiGLE, JAMES F., born in the County 
Donegal, Ireland, and is now in his fifty- 
second year. His father, William, with his 
wife and son, immigrated to this country in 
1837, settling in Boston, Mass. James, at an 
early age, was placed in attendance at the 
public schools, continuing thereat until his 
eighteenth year, when he went to work at the 
cutler's trade, which he soon abandoned to 
learn the trade of boot and shoe maker, 
which he did at East Stoughton, Mass. Here 
he first met his present wife, to whom he was 
married in 1855, by whom he had four chil- 
dren before the breaking out of the War of 
the Rebellion. 

Upon the issue of the call of President 
Lincoln for seventy-five thousand troops, 
April 15, 1861, the next day Captain McGuni- 
gle, having cut the proclamation from a news- 
paper, copied it upon a roll, went through the 
shops of the village and secured the signatures 
of twenty-one Irishmen, or those who were 
descendants of Irishmen, which was the nu- 
cleus of Company K of the Irish Ninth Mas- 
sachusetts Infantry Volunteer Regiment. It 
was the captain's desire to get a company to- 
gether which might go to the front at once, to 
this end giving his time and labor. Besides 
securing these twenty-one recruits in East 
Stoughton, others to the number of sixty-three 
were secured in Stoughton Centre and the 
adjoining village of North Bridgewater, with 
which the captain went to Boston. Upon 
reporting and offering their services they were 
informed that they could not be then placed 
with any regiment, but to retain their organi- 
zation, return to their several towns, elect offi- 
cers, and stand in readiness to be called upon 
at an hour's notice This they did, the cap- 
tain being elected first lieutenant, and he only 
of the five officers chosen satisfactorily passed 
and received recommendation for a commis- 



sion. His company about two weeks subse- 
quently was ordered to report to Col. Thomas 
Cass at Long Island, Boston Harbor, and was 
designated as Company K of the Irish Ninth, 
being recruited to one hundred and one men, 
rank and file, when it went to the front on 
the 24th of June, 1861, landing at the Navy 
Yard in Washington a few days later. 

The captain's first military experience was 
with a company in Wilh'amsburg, N.Y., con- 
nected with the Seventy-second Regiment, 
N.G., S.N.Y., commanded by Colonel Powers, 
which he joined in 1855, continuing with the 
same for about six months, when he returned 
to Massachusetts, and became a call member 
of Capt. Z. Bumpa's company of infantry of 
Braintree, with which he continued until 
President Lincoln's call, before mentioned. 
Captain McGunigle received his commission, 
as such, from Governor Andrew, bearing 
date the 2;th June, 1862 (the battle of 
Gaines's Mill), in place of Captain Carey, 
who was killed in this engagement. The cap- 
tain participated in every battle, skirmish, and 
engagement of the regiment during its term 
of service up to the battle of Spottsylvania, 
May 12, 1864, in which engagement he 
received a gunshot wound in his left breast, 
the bullet penetrating a silver watch carried 
by him, and for the time being entirely pros- 
trating and rendering him unfit for service 
thereafter. The captain also received a gun- 
shot wound through his collar-bone at the 
battle of Malvern Hill, July i, 1862, being 
taken off the field in the same ambulance 
with Colonel Cass and Major Button. 

McKENNA, MAURICE J., grocer and pro- 
vision dealer, born in County Kerry, Ireland, 
Dec. 15, 1845. He arrived in Boston in 
1857, where he has since resided. He was 
educated in the national schools of his native 
place and the public schools of this city. 
He was first employed for Fleming & Has- 
kell, bookbinders, where he learned the 
trade, and later with Roberts Bros. He 
later entered the grocery business, where he 
has been very successful. He has served 
in the Democratic Ward and City Committee 



378 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON, 



and in the Common Council of 1887-88, 
being & member of many important com- 
mittees. 

MCLAUGHLIN, DANIEL, clerk, born in Ire- 
land in 1847. He was educated in his native 
country, and came to America while a young 
man. In 1882-83 ne represented Ward 7 
in the Common Council, and was a member 
of the Legislature of 1885-86, serving on the 
Committees on County Estimates, Parishes, 
and Religious Societies. 

MCLAUGHLIN, EDWARD A. 1 

MCLAUGHLIN, JOHN A., undertaker, born 
in Boston, Feb. I, 1853. He attended the 
Eliot and Mayhew Schools, and received a 
five years' course at Boston College. He is 
by occupation an undertaker, but has been 
employed by the city of Boston as an over- 
seer of the poor for a few years, until he was 
elected to the Board of Aldermen. He 
represented Ward 7 in the Common Council 
of 1881-82, in the General Court of 1883- 
84, serving on the Committee on Water 
Supply. In 1887 he was elected from the 
Third District to the Board of Aldermen, 
and was reelected to the Board of 1888-89. 
He has been a member of the Democratic 
Ward and City Committee for about nine 
years, and secretary of that organization 
three years. 

MCLAUGHLIN, PHILIP J., clerk, born in 
Boston, Feb. 7, 1850. He graduated from 
the Mayhew School in 1866. After leaving 
school he entered the employ of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, where he is still 
employed as clerk in the superintendent's 
office. He served in the Common Council 
of 1880, '81, '88. He is secretary of the 
North End Fishing Club, Lakeman Boat 
Club, and the Atlantic Yacht Club. 

MCNAMARA, JEREMIAH J., born at County 
Cork, Ireland, March 16, 1842. He immi- 

J Se Lawyers. 



grated to Boston, 1852, and attended the 
grammar schools until he was seventeen years 
of age. He enlisted in the United States 
Navy in 1861, and joined the naval brigade 
at Fort Ellsworth, Alexandria, Va. He was 
there three months, at the end of which time 
he was drafted into service on the Mississippi 
flotilla. He was assigned to duty on the 
gunboat " Essex," Commander Foote, and was 
at the bombardment of Fort Henry. Thirty- 
four lives were lost on board the " Essex," 
which was blown to atoms; Mr. McNamara 
was thrown into the river by a stearr. explo- 
sion, but was rescued. He fought under 
Commodore Davis at Fort Donelson, which 
suffered bombardment, but the enemy was 
compelled to surrender. He was one of 
eleven men who volunteered to spike a bat- 
tery of eleven heavy guns which were 
placed in the bend of the Mississippi river. 
They successfully spiked the guns at mid- 
night. He afterwards received a rating as 
able seaman. He was in the running of the 
blockade at Vicksburg, Miss., and there 
joined Admiral Farragut's fleet. On a forag- 
ing expedition, under Captain Porter, they 
met the enemy at Port Hudson; an engage- 
ment ensued, which resulted favorably to the 
Union troops. He can claim the honor of 
having been in the naval engagement at 
Vicksburg, in 1862, the Red- river expedi- 
tion, and the Array of the Tennessee under 
General Hooker. Mr. McNamara stayed at 
Chattanooga, Tenn., until General Lee sur- 
rendered, and received an honorable dis- 
charge from the service. He was a police 
officer from 1864 to 1871, promoted to ser- 
geant the latter year ; remained on the police 
force until 1879, when he engaged in the 
saloon business. He served in the City 
Council from 1880 to 1884, inclusive, was on 
many important committees, and is a member 
of Post 7, John A. Andrew, G.A.R. 

McNAMARA, JOHN, builder, born in County 
of Cork, Ireland, May i, 1848. He came 
to this country May 7, 1867, and located in 
Boston. He was educated in the National 
School of his birthplace. He first worked 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



379 



at his trade with John L. Shapleigh, and 
then with Jonas Fitch, and finally he 
branched off for himself. He is a member 
of the Royal Arcanum, Knights of Honor, 
United Order of Friends, South Boston 
Yacht Club, and Company K, Boston Light 
Infantry. In 1888 he represented Ward 14 
in the Common Council. 

McNELLEY, JOHN E., baker, bora in 
Plymouth, Me., Jan. 23, 1854. He received 
a common-school education, and learned the 
baker's trade. He became engaged in the 
business at the West End some years ago 
with his brother. He represented Ward 8 
in the General Court of 1882, and was 
elected on the Independent Democratic 
ticket in 1884, to fill a vacancy in the Com- 
mon Council caused by the resignation of 
Francis P. Maguire. 

McSoRLEY, JOHN, United States weigher, 
born in County Tyrone, Ireland, Jan. 29, 
1836. He was educated in the schools of 
his native place. He immigrated to this 
country in 1851, and settled in New York 
City, where he remained until the breaking 
out of the Rebellion, when he enlisted in the 
" Excelsior Brigade," Seventy-first Regiment, 
and served twenty-five months. In 1 866 he 
was appointed weigher in the Boston Custom 
House, his present position. He has been 
a resident of Everett, Mass., for twenty 
years. He is now serving his second term as 
commander of G.A.R., Post 156, of that 
town, and is also a member of Lincoln 
Council A. L. of H., of which he has been 
treasurer and commander. 

MILLER, JOHN, born in Ireland in 1821. 
He received his early education in the 
schools of his native country. He immigrated 
to this country about 1847, and settled in 
Boston. He first began business as a grocer, 
and in 1850 engaged in the wholesale and 
retail liquor business. By careful business 
application and integrity he has accumulated 
a fortune, and ranks among the successful 
business men and large taxpayers of this 



city. He was a member of the Common 
Council of 1865 and 1866, and of the Legis- 
lature of 1867 and 1868, representing old 
Ward 2, now Ward 6. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Democratic City Committee for a 
number of years. His present extensive 
trade is carried on principally throughout the 
United States and Canada. He received 
his son, William H., into partnership in the 
year 1880, and the business was increased 
by the latter. Their volume of business is 
said to reach $500,000 annually, including a 
large domestic cigar trade. Mr. John Miller 
is practically retired from the business, and 
it is now managed by his son. 

MITCHELL, GEORGE F., elected to serve in 
the Common Council during the year 1889. 

MONAHAN, WILLIAM H., boot and shoe 
dealer, born in Roxbury in 1857. He 
learned his trade as an iron-moulder, but 
finally abandoned the occupation to engage 
in the boot and shoe business in Roxbury, 
his present occupation. He was a member 
of the Boston Fire Department for five 
years, and represented Ward 19 in the Legis- 
lature during 1887. 

MOONEY, THOMAS, printer, born in Bos- 
ton, November, 1840. He was educated in 
the public schools of this city; afterward 
learned the printer's trade. He represented 
Ward 2 in the Common Council in 1874-75, 
and in the General Court of 1876-77. 

MORRISSEY, DENIS H., chief clerk of the 
Board of Assessors, City Hall, was born in 
Boston, July 10, 1851. He was graduated 
from the Lawrence School, 1864. In that 
year he was employed by the Adams Express 
Company, became clerk of the money de- 
partment, resigned the position in 1871, and 
entered the auditor's department, to take 
charge of the books for the United States 
and Canada Express Company. He left 
there May, 1872, to act as ward clerk in the 
Assessors' Department of this city. He was 
elected chief clerk, Dec. 6, 1873, by a vote 



380 



THE Ii:iSH IN BOSTON. 



of the principal assessors, to fill a vacancy 
made by Frederick W. Smith, who had re- 
signed. Mr. Morrissey has been mentioned 
three different times for the position of prin- 
cipal assessor. He served two years on the 
late lamented Col. B. F. Finan's staff, Ninth 
Regiment, as paymaster, and was commis- 
sioned by the then lieutenant-governor, 
Thomas Talbot, Aug: 13, 1874. Mr. Mor- 
rissey resigned and received an honorable 
discharge Feb. 25, 1876. He served on 
General Martin's staff, Sept. 17, 1880, at 
the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary 
of the settlement of Boston. He was ap- 
pointed a Justice of the Peace, 1877, and 
reappointed, 1884. He increased the mem- 
bership of the Charitable Irish Society from 
two hundred to five hundred members, and 
introduced the annual ball, which is a great 
social event of the year. Mr. Morrissey is a 
member of many benevolent and social or- 
ganizations. 

MORRISON, PETER, grocer, born in Boston, 
Aug. 31, 1853. He attended the public 
schools of this vicinity, and is at present en- 
gaged in the grocery business. He repre- 
sented Ward I in the Common Council of 
1881, '82, '83, and in the Legislature of 1884. 

MULCHINOCK, JOHN D. 1 

MULHALL, JOHN -F. J., elected to serve as 
member in the Common Council during the 
year 1889. 

MULLANE, JEREMIAH H., born in Boston, 
Mass., August, 1852. His early studies were 
made at the Boston public schools, until 
1867. In 1872 a copartnership was formed 
by and between father and son, which existed 
until 1879; then his father died, leaving 
his heirs in full possession of the entire 
estate. Mr. Mullane is a born politician. 
He was a member of the Common Council 
from 1877 to 1880. He served in the House 
of Representatives from the year 1880 to 

1 See Lawyers. 



1883, inclusive. While in the Legislature he 
was one of the Committee on Finance. This 
was an honor without precedent, for he was 
the first Democrat who had ever served on 
that important committee. He was Commis- 
sioner on Public Service, 1880 to 1885 ; elected 
to the Board of Aldermen; in the latter year 
he was a Director of Public Institutions, 
1885; and on Jan. 10, 1887, elected to fill the 
unexpired term of Joseph H. O'Neil, who 
resigned; and on the same day he was elected 
for three years, from May i, 1887, an execu- 
tive appointment by Mayor O'Brien. His 
term of directorship will expire in 1890. He 
is a member of the Boston Light Dragoons, 
the Montgomery Veteran Association, and 
many other organizations. 

MULLEN, JAMES F., pork dealer, born in 
South Boston, July 2, 1863. He graduated 
from the Bigelow Grammar School in 1878, 
and then engaged with his father in the gro- 
cery and provision business, whom he now 
succeeds. He was a member of the Common 
Council of 1887-88, serving on the Commit- 
tees on Lamps and Treasury Department; 
is also a member of the Democratic City 
Central Committee and the Fourth District 
Congressional Association. 

MURPHY, FRANCIS J., dry goods, born in 
Charlestown, Mass., Sept. 22, 1852. He 
was educated in the public schools of his 
native city. He has been a prominent Demo- 
crat of the Bunker Hill district for several 
years past. He represented Ward 3 in the 
Common Council of 1881, '82, '83, '84, '85, 
and in the Legislature of 1886, and in both 
the municipal and State legislative branch he 
served on important committees. 

MURPHY, JAMES A., contractor, born in 
Boston in 1857, and was graduated from the 
Bigelow Grammar School. In 1873 he re- 
ceived a high-school diploma, and then at- 
tended a special course of instruction at 
Comer's Commercial College. Afterwards 
he became a clerk and salesman in the 
grocery business of Wadleigh, Spurr, & Co., 




JOHN R. MURPHY. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



381 



in whose employ he continued until 1884, 
when he resigned to enter business for him- 
self as a contractor. 

Mr. Murphy was a member of the Common 
Council from Ward 13 during the years 1882, 
'83, and '84, holding during the latter year 
positions on the following committees : Claims, 
Harbor, Public Parks, Joint Rules and Or- 
ders, Municipal Elections, Council Rules and 
Orders. Mr. Murphy has also been a member 
of the Board of Directors for Public Institu- 
tions. He has always been a vigorous sup- 
porter of the Democratic side of the Council 
Chamber. During 1884 Mr. Murphy was 
one of the leaders of the Democracy in de- 
bate on the floor of the Council. He has 
been a member of the Democratic City Com- 
mittee and of the Executive Committee since 
1884. He is familiar with the machinery of 
Boston's city government, and well acquainted 
with the ordinances and the rules and law of 
procedure. At a special election on Feb. 21, 
1 888, Mr. Murphy was elected an alderman 
from the Sixth District, to fill the place made 
vacant by the death of the late Alderman 
William P. Carroll. Mr. Murphy has done 
effective work as alderman since then. 

As a debater he is forcible and aggressive 
when needs be, yet passive and keen at every 
turn. He is a good tactician, possessing many 
resources and much reserve power. 

MURPHY, JOHN R., fire commissioner, 
was born in Charlestown, Mass., Aug. 25, 
1856. He was graduated from the Harvard 
Grammar School, 1869, and from the Charles- 
town High School, 1873. He entered the 
office of Silsbee & Murphy, and engaged with 
them in the merchandise brokerage business, 
until 1875, when he became connected with 
the Boston " Pilot," of which his brother-in- 
law, Mr. John Boyle O'Reilly, is the editor and 
publisher. Mr. Murphy accepted the position 
of business manager of that newspaper, and 
was associated with Mr. O'Reilly during ten 
years. The ambition which prompts many 
men to become masters of their own actions 
prompted Mr. Murphy to establish a business 
for himself. Accordingly, he embarked in 



newspaper advertising, in which he was suc- 
cessful. In 1886 he was appointed a fire 
commissioner by Mayor O'Brien, and he 
continues to hold that office. Mr. Murphy 
was a member of the House of Representa- 
tives during three years, from 1883-85, inclu- 
sive, a member of the Massachusetts Senate 
in 1886. He is a Democrat, and his public 
speaking has won the applause and favor of 
his party, while those who differ from him 
politically acknowledge his ability as a leader 
in politics and a forcible, persuasive speaker 
on the platform. 

MURPHY, PATRICK F., book-keeper, born 
in Boston, July 25, 1855. He attended the 
Quincy Grammar and English High Schools, 
and is at present connected with Murphy & 
Kennedy, harness dealers. He represented 
Ward 12 in the General Court of 1878-79. 

MURPHY, TIMOTHY A., dealer in paper and 
twine, born in Boston in 1842. He was 
educated in the public schools. He is a 
resident of the Roxbury district, and repre- 
sented Ward 20 in the Common Council in 
1879-80, and was a member of the General 
Court in 1881. 

MURPHY, WILLIAM H., men's furnishing 
and jewellery, born at Charlestown, Mass., 
Dec. 18, 1855. He studied at the Boston 
public schools, and at an early age was en- 
gaged by the Boston Shirt Company, where 
he learned his business. He is very popular 
among the residents of Ward 3, who elected 
him to the Common Council in 1885, '86, '87, 
'88. He has been appointed on various im- 
portant committees. 

MURPHY, WILLIAM J., grocer, born in 
Boston, March 29, 1854. He attended the 
public schools of this city until 1867, when 
he left to learn the shoemaker's trade, which 
he followed till 1881, and was employed in 
many of the large suburban shoe factories at 
various times. 

In 1 882 he engaged in the grocery business 
at South Boston on his own account, which 



382 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



he still continues to transact. He represented 
Ward 15 in the Common Council of 1888, 
serving on the Committee on Parks and 
Markets. 

MURRAY, GEO. F. H., deputy collector of 
internal revenue, born on board a Peabody 
packet ship (American vessel) at sea, while 
his parents were coming from Australia, on 
Dec. 12, 1858. He attended the Boston 
public schools and St. Charles College, 
Ellicott City.Md. In 1878 he returned to 
Boston, and became employed by Endicott 
& Macomber, insurance agents. He later 
engaged with C. A. Richards, wine merchant, 
but after a short period entered the insurance 
business again, on his own account. In 1885 
he was appointed to his present position as a 
deputy collector of internal revenue. He 
represented Ward 13 in the Common Council, 
1883, '84, '85, and was secretary of the Demo- 
cratic Ward and City Committee in 1884, '85, 
'86. He is a life member of the Young Men's 
Catholic Association of Boston College, and 
a member of the Bay State Club, Charitable 
Irish Society, Montgomery Veteran Associa- 
tion, Bachelor Club of South Boston, John 
Mitchell Branch, I.N.L., and Captain of Com- 
pany B, Ninth Regiment 

MURRAY, JEREMIAH A., kitchen-furnish- 
ing goods, born in Boston in 1843. He 
attended the public schools, and early in life 
engaged as a dealer in kitchen-furnishing 
goods, his present business. From 1862 to 
1865 he served as sergeant in Light Battery, 
Eleventh Massachusetts Regiment, in the 
Army of the Potomac. He represented old 
Ward 3 in the Common Council of 1875-76. 
He is a member of the Catholic Order of 
Foresters, Knights of St. Rose, and Dahlgren 
Post 2, GA.R. 

MURRAY, RICHARD J., court officer, born 
in Boston, Nov. 13, 1859. He attended the 
Mayhew School, and after completing his 
education became employed as clerk. He 
was later employed for two years as water- 
inspector for the city of Boston. He was a 



member of the Democratic Ward and City 
Committee for six years, and represented 
Ward 8 in the Common Council of 1885-86. 
He was appointed an officer of the Supreme 
Judicial Court in 1887, his present position. 
He is a member of the Fourth District Demo- 
cratic Congressional Qub. 

NAPHEN, HENRY.' 

NOONAN, DANIEL, printer, born in County 
Limerick, Ireland, Feb. 7, 1834. He arrived 
in this country at an early age, and attended 
the Boylston School of this city. He was a 
member of the State Police from November, 
1867, to August, 1873. He served in the 
General Court of 1875-76. 

NORRIS, MICHAEL W., trader, born in 
County Cork, Ireland, in 1855. He immi- 
grated to this country in 1864, and settled in 
Boston. He graduated from the Boylston 
School, and at the age of fifteen went to work 
as messenger for the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company. He afterward engaged as a 
seaman on the Lakes, and for a time was 
employed at the Pittsburg Lead Mills. He 
later returned to this city, and became 
employed by Haskell & Son, fish dealers. 
After a brief visit to the South in the interest 
of the fish business, he again returned to 
Boston in 1877, where he has since resided. 
He represented Ward 13 in t> Common 
Council of 1888-89, serving on a number of 
important committees. He is a member of 
the Royal Society of Good Fellows, A.O.H., 
Charitable Irish Society, American Society 
Hibernians, Fourth Congressional Club, and 
the National Athletic Association. 

NUNAN, THOMAS F., shipper, born in 
South Boston, Aug. 29, 1843. He graduated 
from the Lawrence School in 1859, and 
attended the High School for one year. In 
1860 he became employed by Christopher 
Blake, furniture manufacturer, with whom 
he remained for fourteen years. He is a 

1 See Lawyers. 




JOHN B. O'BRIEN. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



383 



member of the Irish American Club, City 
Point Lodge, Knights of Honor, American 
Hibernians of South Boston, and represented 
Ward 15 in the Common Council of 1 886, 
'87, '88, '89. 

O'BRIEN, CHRISTOPHER, born in Dublin, 
Ireland, Nov. 27, 1839. He came to this 
country in 1844, and received his early edu- 
cation at the Mayhew School of this city. 
He became employed as a laborer for a 
time, and in 1863 enlisted in the navy, and 
served on board United States steamer " Ni- 
agara " for three years and six months. He 
returned to Boston in 1867, and shortly after- 
ward engaged in the liquor business, in which 
he has continued ever since. He represented 
Ward 6 in the Common Council of 1887. 
When quite a young man he actively prac- 
tised athletic sports, particularly in the aquatic 
line. He rowed with George Faulkner at 
various times from 1858 to 1863, and was an 
active member of the McClellan, Commercial, 
and Boston Boat Clubs. He is at present a 
member of A.O. Foresters, John A. Andrew 
Post 15, G.A.R., and the Kearsarge Veteran 
Association. 

O'BRIEN, JAMES M., elected to serve as a 
member of the Common Council during the 
year 1889. 

O'BRIEN, JAMES W. 1 

O'BRIEN, JOHN B., sheriff of Suffolk 
County, State of Massachusetts, born in 1844. 
He attended the public schools in this city. At 
seventeen years of age he entered the army 
as a private in the Twenty-fourth Regiment, 
Massachusetts Volunteers, and served three 
years. At the battle of Deep Run, Va., 
Aug. 1 6, 1864, he was severely wounded, but 
remained at his post of duty till the expira- 
tion of his term of service, in October, 1864, 
when he received an honorable discharge. 
In the year 1865 he entered the sheriffs 
office as clerk and collector, and in 1872 was 



' l See Lawyers. 



appointed deputy sheriff by Sheriff John M 
Clark. In the year 1883, Mr. Clark wishing 
to retire from the office of sheriff, Mr. 
O'Brien received the unanimous support of 
all parties, and was elected Sheriff of Suffolk 
County, which office he has held for nearly 
three years, performing its duties to the sat- 
isfaction of all and with credit to himself. 
On the first day of October, 1886, he received 
by acclamation the nomination of the Repub- 
lican party, and on October 20, the nomina- 
tion by acclamation of the Democratic 
Convention, for sheriff, for another term of 
three years. 

Mr. O'Brien has filled various other places 
of trust and honor in the city. He was su- 
perintendent of St. Joseph's Sunday-school 
for ten years, president of St. Joseph's Con- 
ference, of St Vincent de Paul Society six 
years, president of St. Joseph's Temperance 
Society five years, clerk of the Emigrant 
Savings Bank four years. He is a member of 
the Catholic Union of Boston, the Charita- 
ble Irish Society, Massachusetts Catholic 
Order of Foresters, the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and he is the president of the Home 
for Destitute Catholic Children, on Harrison 
avenue. Hon. John M. Clark, sheriff of Suf- 
folk County for more than a quarter of a 
century, speaking of Mr. O'Brien since his 
election, said : " He stands without a peer 
in the array of sheriffs of this Commonwealth, 
in the way of his bright accomplishments and 
ability." 

The judges of the court are warm in com- 
mendation of his administration. 



O'CONNOR, DENNIS, born in County Cork, 
Ireland, June, 1840. He was educated in 
Dublin, and graduated from the Normal 
School of that place. He was a teacher of 
the National Board of Education for nine 
years. He immigrated to this country in July, 
1865, and located in Boston. He engaged in 
the liquor business shortly after he became a 
resident here, and in 1869 formed with his 
brother the partnership of D. & T. O'Con- 
nor, which has since continued. He rep- 



384 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



resented Ward 8 in the Legislature of 1 877- 
79 and in the Common Council of 1878. 

O'CONNOR, MICHAEL, contractor, born in 
Oranmore, County Galway, in 1831- He 
was brought up with his mother's folks in 
Kilrush, County Clare, where he received 
his musical education under Bandmaster 
Hurley, playing 2d clarinet in Father 
Meehan's band of temperance boys at the 
age of nine. Three years later he and 
Michael Gamble played the clarinets in the 
band, and were a part of the parade that 
received Smith O'Brien in Limerick on his 
return after his imprisonment, July 4, 1 848. 
Mr. O'Connor came to Boston in 1849, with 
nothing but a set of clarinets and a flute 
as his stock in trade. He was mustered into 
the service of the United States as bandmas- 
ter, Ninth Regiment, June II, 1 86 1, to go to 
Washington. 

He served with the Ninth, and participated 
in the battles of Mechanicsville, Hanover 
Court-House, Gaines's Mill, Fair Oaks, and 
Malvern Hill, and was mustered out at Har- 
rison's Landing by order of the War Depart- 
ment in 1 862, with all other bands in the 
corps. After going home he became band- 
leader in the Naval Station in Boston, 
under Admirals Stringham, Montgomery, and 
Rodgers, organizing the first regular band 
at that station. 

Mr. O'Connor is now in the business of 
general contracting. After the Ninth was 
mustered out, the survivors living in Boston 
formed the Society of the Old Ninth, to meet 
once a year " to fight the battles and reunions 
over again," and help comrades if required. 

O'CONNOR, PATRICK, grocer, born in Ire- 
land, Oct. 15, 1842. He was educated in his 
native country, and came to America in 1857. 
He settled in Boston upon his arrival, and 
has remained here ever since. He is at 
present engaged in the grocery business. He 
represented Ward 2 in the Common Council 
in 1870-71, and was a member of the Legis- 
lature of 1872. 



O'CONNOR, THOMAS, born in Cork, Ire- 
land, May 30, 1849. He was educated in 
the National Schools of his native place, and 
came to this country in 1867. He located in 
Boston, and engaged in the liquor business. 
In 1869 he formed a partnership with his 
brother, under the firm name of D. & T. 
O'Connor, which has since continued. He 
represented Ward 8 in the Common Council 
of 1877, and was chairman of the Demo- 
cratic Ward Committee during 1877-78. He 
is a member of the National Irish Athletic 
Association, Montgomery Club, Montgomery 
Veteran Association, and of the executive 
committee of the Massachusetts Protective 
Liquor Association. 

O'DoNNELL, JAMES, born in County of 
Donegal, Ireland, June 22, 1846. He was 
educated in the National School of Carndon- 
nough, in Barony of Irishowen; his teacher 
was Philip Doherty. Mr. O'Donnell came 
to this country in July, 1863. He was first 
employed as clerk by Philip O'Donnell, and 
finally became his partner in the liquor busi- 
ness in 1876. He served in the Common 
Council of 1876 from Ward 7, being a mem- 
ber of the Committees on Bonds of City Offi- 
cers, Bathing, etc. 

O'Dowo, ANDREW A., clerk and account- 
ant, born in Cork, County of Cork, Ireland, 
Jan. 29, 1851. He arrived in this country in 
1856, and located in Boston. He graduated 
from the Eliot Grammar School in 1 864, and 
afterwards attended the English High School. 
He was for a time employed by the Insulated 
Lines Telegraph Company, later as clerk for 
Richards & Co., and for ten years clerk in the 
office of the Paving Department In 1886 
he was appointed to his present position as 
clerk and accountant in the office of the 
Superintendent of Bridges. He served in 
the Common Council of 1879-80, and is a 
member of the Catholic Order of Foresters, 
and was director of Young Men's Catholic 
Association during 1876, '77, '78. 

O'FLYNN, THOMAS, grocer, born in Ire- 
land, March I, 1846. He was educated 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



385 



under the Board of National Education in his 
native country. He immigrated to this coun- 
try when quite young, and began business as 
a grocer's clerk at seventeen years of age. 
He worked at this occupation in New York 
City for a time, and is now engaged in the 
same business in this city. He was elected 
clerk of Ward 19 in 1878, and to the Common 
Council for the years 1883, '84, '85. He has 
for many years been identified with various 
local benevolent and business organizations 
in this city. He took a prominent part in 
the organization of the Irish National Land 
League of the United States; was the chief 
mover in organizing the Retail Grocers' As- 
sociation of this city, the idea having been 
first suggested by him in the " New England 
Grocer," during September, 1878. In 1883 
he was elected a member of the Democratic 
Ward and City Committee. During Gover- 
nor Robinson's administration he was ap- 
pointed a Justice of the Peace. 

O'GRADY, THOMAS, architect, born in Rox- 
bury, Mass., March 27, 1858. Graduated 
from the Comins Grammar School in 1872, 
and from the Roxbury High School in 1875. 
He was taught a special course in the depart- 
ment of architecture at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, under the instruction 
of Prof. William R. Ware, and was gradu- 
ated with the class of 1 880. Later he studied 
in the office of Ware & Van Brunt, Boston, 
for two years, and there received invaluable 
and practical knowledge of his profession. 
He studied one year in Baltimore, Md., at 
Charles Carson's office, returned to his 
native city, and established himself in the 
architectural profession. His best skill 
in design is displayed at the Convent of 
the Good Shepherd, Troy, N.Y., in a memo- 
rial granite and marble monument, erected 
by the Redemptorist priests, and now orna- 
menting their lot at Calvary Cemetery. 
St. Anne's School of Industry and Reform- 
atory of the Good Shepherd, Albany, N.Y.; 
the new parochial residence in St. James' 
parish, Boston; and the residence of S. M. 
Weld, at Wellesley, Mass., are all beautiful 



specimens of his ability. He was instructor 
of architecture at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology in 1887-88; a member of the 
American Institute of Archaeology and Bos- 
ton Society of Architecture. He was elected 
to the School Board in 1887, and his tenure 
of office will continue until 1890. He re- 
ceived prize No. 2 for the second best design 
in the competition of architects for the Bos- 
ton Public Library building. The prize for 
design on the new Court House, Boston, was 
awarded him from among eighty Boston con- 
testants. He is the originator of a standard 
periodical, " The Technological Architectural 
Review;" the first number appeared in 1888. 
It is issued monthly, and contains heliotype 
reproductions of drawings by the students of 
the Institute, which are selected by four 
jurors, of whom Mr. O'Grady is one. The 
published drawings are the finest executed in 
the school. 

O'KANE, JOSEPH, clerk of the Common 
Council, born in Boston, Jan. II, 1847. He 
attended the Boston Grammar and Latin 
Schools, and afterwards went to Holy Cross 
College, Worcester, Mass. He was ap- 
pointed assistant clerk of the Council 
by Clerk Washington P. Gregg, October, 
1865. He retained the position of assist- 
ant clerk for nineteen years. Mr. Gregg 
resigned in 1884, and Mr. O'Kane then suc- 
ceeded him to the clerkship. The succes- 
sive councils have unanimously elected him 
clerk since that time. He was a member of 
the School Committee from 1873 to 1876. 
The organizations with which he has been 
prominently associated are the Catholic Ly- 
ceum, of which he was the president. He 
was president of the Massachusetts Catholic 
Total Abstinence Union in 1874, and super- 
intendent of the Sunday School of the 
Cathedral of the Holy Cross. He has ad- 
dressed assemblages on 'behalf of the tem- 
perance cause, to which he strongly adheres. 

O'MEALEY, JOHN W., druggist, born in 
Boston, June 25, 1861. He was educated 
in the public schools, and graduated from 



386 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, of 
which institution he is now a director. He 
was employed ten years for Kelley & Durkee, 
and is at present with Heath & Co. He was 
a Democratic member of the Common 
Council of 1886, and served in the Legisla- 
ture of 1887 from Ward 17. 

O'NEiL, JOSEPH H., of the firm of M. F. 
& J. H. O'Neil, dealers in china, glass, and 
earthenware, was born in Fall River, March 
23, 1853. Educated in public schools of Bos- 
ton. He was a member of the School Com- 
mittee in 1874, '75, '76, and a member of the 
House of Representatives from 1878-82, in- 
clusive, and in 1884. He served on the Com- 
mittees on Liquor Laws, Public Buildings, 
Street Railways, on Rules and Orders, on the 
Revision of the Statutes, and on Redistrict- 
ing the State, among others. In the national 
campaign of 1884 he ran against General 
Collins for Congress, but was defeated. He 
was a director and president of the Board 
of Directors for Public Institutions, and was 
the City Clerk in 1887-88. He was re-nomi- 
nated and elected to Congress in 1888, 
from the fourth district. He has been a 
member of the Democratic Ward and City 
Committee for many years. 

O'NEIL, JOHN W., painter, born in Charles- 
town, Sept. 21, 1859. He graduated from 
the Winthrop Grammar School, July, 1875. 
He was elected a member of the Democratic 
City Central Committee in 1885, and repre- 
sented Ward 4 in the House of Representa- 
tives during this year, serving on the 
Committee on Election Laws He was a 
strong advocate of the Australian system of 
balloting. He is a member of the St. 
Francis de Sales Total Abstinence Society. 

O'RiLEY, ALLEN, furniture dealer, born 
at Shercock, County Cavan, Ireland, 1825. 
Emigrated from Ireland in 1847, an d came 
to Boston in 1849. He was educated in 
Ireland. Elected to the City Council in 
1865. He was a member of the City Coun- 
cil of Somerville later. He has retired from 
business and politics. His membership in 



the Massachusetts State Militia, the Dragoons, 
covers a period of sixteen years. 

PLUNKETT, CHRISTOPHER, day inspector, 
Boston Custom House, born at Mount 
Bellew, County Galway, Ireland, April 20, 
1829; died at Medford, Nov. 25, 1888. His 
father and mother came to this country and 
settled in Boston, Mass., in 1834, where his 
father followed his business as a stucco- 
worker. The boy Chris followed his parents 
to Boston at an early age, and after three 
years' private schooling he entered the em- 
ploy of Hudson & Smith, proprietors of the 
Maine "Telegraph" and superintendents of 
the Merchants' Exchange News Room, where 
he stayed a number of years. When Hugh 
Downing, of Philadelphia, introduced the 
magnetic telegraph between New York and 
Boston, he offered young Plunkett a position, 
which he accepted, and remained in for 
some time. After 1847, when Irish immi- 
gration was very heavy, he was one of the 
organizers of the Irish Emigrant Society, 
which was for the purpose of assisting and 
protecting newly arrived immigrants. He 
served as a member of the board of di- 
rectors for some years. Captain Plunkett 
served the State creditably in the militia as 
a lieutenant in the Shields Artillery, Capt. 
Edward Young, one of the Irish-American 
companies which was disbanded by the 
Know-Nothing Governor, Henry J. Gardiner. 
At the time of the attack on Fort Sumter, in 
April, 1861, Captain Plunkett held a lucra- 
tive position in the city of Boston. On 
the first call to arms he relinquished his 
position and threw all his energies into the 
recruiting and assisting in organizing the 
Ninth Massachusetts Regiment. He raised 
his company, and was elected captain of 
Company B, Otis Guards, April 29, 1861, 
and commissioned by Governor Andrew, 
May 2, 1861, and went to the front with the 
regiment. But a difference having arisen 
between the captain and colonel, it cul- 
minated in the resignation of the former, 
only to return again in a short time as an 
enlisted man. He was rapidly promoted to 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



387 



second and first lieutenant, and performed 
staff officer's duty at brigade headquarters, 
and during the first battle of Fredericksburg, 
in December, 1862, while running orders in 
front of Marye's Heights to the brigade to ad- 
vance at double-quick, he had his horse shot 
dead under him, and received a slight wound 
in the left leg. In 1863 he was one of three 
officers, with eighteen men, detailed on de- 
tached duty to proceed to Long Island, Bos- 
ton Harbor, for recruits to fill up the reduced 
ranks of the regiment, where he stayed eight 
weeks, when he asked to be relieved and 
sent back to his regiment. 

Captain Plunkett participated in all the 
battles with his regiment, from Antietam to 
the battle of North Anna river, on the twenty- 
third day of May, 1864, in which battle he had 
his right arm shot off by a twelve-pound 
solid shot. He also received a bad wound 
in the left side. The same shot killed two 
of his men, Privates Kelly and Sheehan. 
This was within eighteen days of the expira- 
tion of the term of service of the regiment. 
When the regiment was mustered out on 
Boston Common he was .in the Mansion 
House Hospital, Alexandria, Va. In 1866, 
Gen. Darius N. Couch, who was then 
collector of the port of Boston, appointed 
Captain Plunkett a day inspector in the 
Boston Custom House, which position he 
held until his death. 



POWERS, EDWARD J., printer, born in 
Boston in 1859. He attended the Lawrence 
and Bigelow Grammar Schools, and is at 
present engaged as a job printer. He repre- 
sented Ward 14 in the Common Council of 
1886, '87, '88, serving on the Committees on 
Common, Public Library, Badges, Fourth of 
July, Assessors' Department, Department of 
Survey and Inspection of Buildings. He is 
a member of the Charitable Irish Society, 
St. Vincent de Paul Society, Park Square 
Club, Young Men's Catholic Association, 
Winthrop Council 538 R.A., and was con- 
nected with Company K., Ninth Regiment, 
in 1879. 



QUIGLEY, CHARLES F., leather manufact- 
urer, born in St. John, N.B., Jan. I, 1855. 
He located in Cambridgeport, Mass., in 
1868, and attended the public schools. 
About 1 869 he learned his trade as a currier, 
and has followed the different branches of 
the business ever since, and is at present a 
member of the firm of Quigley & Mc- 
Donough, leather manufacturers, Chelsea, 
Mass. He represented Ward 2 in the Com- 
mon Council of 1 88 1, '82, '83. 

QUIGLEY, EDWARD L., insurance, born in 
East Boston, Feb. 17, 1859. He attended 
the Adams Grammar School, and became 
employed in the insurance office of C. W.- 
Holden in February, 1872, where he has 
had a business connection ever since. He 
represented Ward 5 in the Common Council 
of 1885-86. In addition to his insurance 
office in Boston he has another one in 
Charlestown. He is a member of the 
Young Men's Catholic Association of Boston 
College. 

QUIGLEY, JAMES L., finisher, born in Bos- 
ton, Sept. 8, 1848, where he has always 
resided. He was educated in the Mayhew 
and Eliot Grammar Schools of this city. 
He is by trade a furniture finisher, and has 
been quite prominent in local politics. He 
has been a member of the Democratic Ward 
and City Committee for a number of years. 
He was an assistant assessor in 1876, and 
represented Ward 6 in the Legislature of 
1877, '78, '79, '80, and was a member of 
the Senate of 1881. 

QUINN, DENIS J., clerk, born in Boston, on 
Old Fort Hill, June 2, 1861. He is a grad- 
uate of the Quincy Grammar School. He 
has been in the employ of Messrs. Carter, 
Rice, & Co. for the past five years. Mr. 
Quinn has been prominently identified in 
Ward 1 2 politics for several years, and was 
elected to the Legislature for 1888. He 
is also a member of the Democratic Ward 
and City Committee. 



388 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



QUINN, PATRICK H., elected to serve as a 
member of the Common Council for the 
year 1889. 

QUINN, PHILIP H., clerk, born in Boston, 
March n, 1859. He attended the old Boyl- 
ston, and afterward the Quincy School, from 
which he graduated in 1872, and also grad- 
uated from the English High School in 
1875. He then became engaged with his 
father, Capt. John Quinn, in the stevedore 
business, which he still continues. He rep- 
resented Ward 12 in the General Court of 
1886, '87, '88, and served on the Committees 
on Taxation, Harbors, and Public Lands. 
He is a member of the Ward 12 Oak Club, 
composed of prominent Irish-Americans. 

READE, JOHN, real estate and under- 
taker, born in Kilkenny, Ireland, Dec. I, 
1824. He immigrated to this country May 
I, 1846. He lived two years at Blackstone, 
Mass., and twenty years at Milford, Mass., 
when he became a permanent resident of 
Charlestown. During the war he served as 
first lieutenant in the Fifty-seventh Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, and was in active service 
three and a half years, participating in all 
the battles fought from the Wilderness 
through to Petersburg. He was captured 
at the blowing up of the mine, and impris- 
oned for ten months and seven days at 
Columbus, S.C. He was afterward brevetted 
captain by Andrew Johnson for meritorious 
services. He represented Charlestown in the 
House of Representatives of 1880, '81, and 
'82, serving on the Committees on Street 
Railroads and Parishes and Religious Socie- 
ties. He is a Justice of the Peace, a member 
of Post II, G.A.R., Union Veterans No. 3, 
Charitable Irish Society, Montgomery Light 
Guard Veteran Association, and Ancient Or- 
der of Hibernians. He is engaged in the 
real-estate business, and is also an under- 
taker in Charlestown. 

REARDON, PETER J., marble-cutter, born 
in Boston, Dec. 17, 1859. He was a graduate 
of the Bigelow School. He was also a promi- 
nen* member of St. Augustine's Lyceum. 



He represented Ward 15 in the General 
Court of 1886. 

REILLY, EDWARD F., clerk, born in Bos- 
ton, Oct. 8, 1853. He removed to Charles- 
town in 1859, and attended the old Harvard 
and High Schools, from both of which he 
graduated. He was first employed by 
Parker & Dupee in the wool business, and is 
at present with Nichols, Dupee, & Co. He 
assisted in organizing St. Mary's Young 
Men's Temperance Society in 1876, and was 
vice-president the second year of its exist- 
ence. He has taken an active interest in 
politics for twelve years past, was secretary 
of the Democratic City Committee of 1887- 
88, and has been a member of the Common 
Council of 1886, '87, '88. 

REYNOLDS, JOHN P. 1 

ROACH, RICHARD, grocer, born in Fer- 
moy, County Cork, Ireland, June, 1838. He 
was educated in the National School of his 
native town. He is at present engaged as 
a dealer in groceries and liquors in Boston. 
He represented Ward 7 in the Common 
Council of 1877-78 and in the Legislature 
of 1879. 

ROBINSON, NATHANIEL G., sheriffs clerk, 
born in Boston, March 18, 1856. He at- 
tended the Phillips Grammar School, from 
which he was a graduate. At fifteen years 
of age he became employed at the book- 
binder's trade, and served two years and four 
months at the business, with Ira Bradley & 
Co. In August, 1873, he obtained employ- 
ment as conductor on the Metropolitan Rail- 
road, where he remained for about a year. 
He subsequently returned to the book- 
binding trade, and was actively engaged in 
that line until 1883, when he accepted bis 
present position as clerk in the office of the 
sheriff of Suffolk County. He was elected 
from Ward 8 as a member of the Common 
Council of 1 889. 

ROGAN, EDWARD A., steam and gas fitter, 
born in Boston, Jan. 12, 1849. He attended 

1 See Lawyers. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



389 



the public schools of this city, and after 
leaving school learned the trade of a steam 
and gas fitter. He represented Ward 7 in 
the Common Council of 1885-86. 

ROGERS, ABRAHAM T., assistant inspector 
of buildings, born in Roxbury, July 30, 1851. 
He was educated in the public schools and 
at French's Commercial College. He first 
became employed by his father in the real- 
estate business, where he continued for some 
time. He represented Ward 22 in the Com- 
mon Council of 1880-81, and until July, 
1882, when he resigned as a member of that 
body to accept his present position as assist- 
ant inspector of buildings. He was at one 
time connected with Company C, Ninth Reg- 
iment, and is at present a member of the 
Royal Society of Good Fellows. 

ROGERS, PATRICK H., real estate, born 
in County Louth, Ireland, July 25, 1813. 
He immigrated to St. John, N.B., when about 
twelve years of age, where he attended the 
public schools. When about twenty-nine 
years old he came to Roxbury, where he has 
since resided. He learned his trade as a 
carpenter early in life, which he continued 
for many years, until he extended his busi- 
ness as a builder and real-estate dealer. 
He was a member of the Roxbury Common 
Council of 1858, '59, '63, '65, '67, and repre- 
sented old Ward 15, -Boston, in the same 
body in 1870. He is a member of the Rox- 
bury Charitable Society. 

SANTRY, JOHN P., plumber, born in Bos- 
ton, April 9, 1852. He graduated from the 
Boylston Grammar School and went to learn 
the plumber's trade at fifteen years of age, 
and worked at it until 1876, when he en- 
gaged in business for himself, and he has 
been very successful. He served in the 
Common Council in 1878, is a member of 
the Democratic Ward and City Committee 
and Finance Committee, and he was elected 
a member of the Board of Directors for 
Public Institutions in 1883. He is a member 
of the Charitable Irish Society, the Central 
Club, and the Orpheus Club. 



SCOLLANS, WILLIAM, cattle-dealer, born 
in Newton, Mass., Aug. i, 1835. When 
quite young he removed to Brighton, where 
he attended the public schools. He has 
been engaged slaughtering and selling cattle 
since he left school. He served in the Com- 
mon Council from Ward 25 during 1886, 
and was on the Committees of Sewers and 
Bridges. 

SHEA, JOHN B., book-keeper and real- 
estate agent, born in Boston, Aug. 15, 1851. 
He was educated in the Boylston and Latin 
Schools of this city. He represented Ward 
13 in the Legislature of 1878. 

SHEA, JOHN F. 1 

SHEERIN, JOHN B., clothing salesman, born 
in Boston, Feb. 22, 1849. He attended the 
Mayhew School of this city, and is at present 
engaged in the clothing business. He rep- 
resented Ward 6 in the Legislature of 1882. 
He was elected a visiting agent for' the 
Board of Overseers of the Poor, and has 
been almost, constantly engaged in assisting 
various Catholic charitable undertakings and 
relief bureaus throughout the city. 

SHORT, JOHN C., tradesman, was born in 
Boston, of Irish parents, Nov. 27, 1860. 
Eight years ago young Short was bending 
over his work at manual labor, a carpet- 
color mixer, performing his daily duties for 
a rich corporation, the Roxbury Carpet Com- 
pany, and there receiving his rudimentary 
and beneficial experience of the woes and 
wants of his co-workers. Thence he engaged 
in the service of the Metropolitan Railroad 
Company, of Boston, for whom he was to 
legislate some time later. His schooling was 
first received in the Boston public schools and 
the grammar schools in New York, Rutger's 
College, New York, at which he graduated 
in 1875. ^^ m i n d, then piously inclined, 
prompted him to test his vocation for the 
priestly calling, consequently he entered the 

1 See Lawyers. 



890 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



seminary of Our Lady of Angels, Suspension 
Bridge, Niagara, N.Y., but was obliged to 
leave there at the end of two years to return 
to the death-bed of his father. Mr. Short 
has been actively engaged in ameliorating 
the condition of his associate workmen, and 
extending his natural abilities towards the 
improvement of those who engage in the 
various occupations of manual labor. Mr. 
Short was a member of the Common Council 
in 1887, and his intelligent service on the 
important committees to which he had been 
assigned won him the confidence of the 
public. He was elected a member of the 
Board of Aldermen in i887,'88,'89, and is now 
accomplishing good work. Alderman Short 
is the son of James and Mary F. Short. His 
father was a member of the Roxbury Com- 
mon Council, and a well-to-do manufacturer of 
carpets. The elder Short was superintendent 
of John Crosby's carpet factory, in Bridge- 
port, Conn., and afterwards superintendent 
of the New Brunswick Carpet Company, 
of New Jersey, of which he became a 
partner. Alderman Short has been the 
honored recipient of many tokens of esteem 
and -regard from the Boston workingmen, 
whose cause he has always espoused. He 
was presented with a gold watch and chain 
by them on Feb. 18, 1887, and $400 in 
money, and his portrait in crayon at a 
ball which they gave in his honor. He 
also received 200 from them at another 
time. He is the worthy foreman of the 
State Assembly of Massachusetts Knights of 
Labor, and he has remained a consistent friend 
to the men who have intrusted to his ability 
their interests. He was nominated by Mayor 
O'Brien a director of the Workingmen's 
Loan Association, of which Robert Treat 
Fame is the president. 

SPILLANE, TIMOTHY B., carpenter, born 
in Ireland in 1849. He came to the United 
States when quite young, and received his 
early education in the public schools of 
Amesbury, Mass., and completed his school 
training at a later period in the public schools 
of Boston. He was at one time a member 



of the old Seventh Regiment, M.V.M., and 
served in the Legislature from Ward 16 in 
1879. 

SPLAINE, HENRY, stable-keeper, born in 
Ireland, Aug. 6, 1837. He was enrolled as 
a member of Company E, Seventeenth 
Regiment, at Haverhill, in 1861, and subse- 
quently elected lieutenant and then colonel 
of the regiment. He was mustered out of 
service Aug. 19, 1865. He was a member of 
the General Court, from Ward 2, in 1872-73. 

STACK, JAMES H., born in Boston, Aug. 6, 

1855. ^ e attended the Boylston Grammar 
School, which he left in 1867 to learn the 
printer's trade. From 1867 to 1879 he was 
employed by Rockwell & Churchill, when he 
engaged in the liquor business for himself, 
and now represents real and personal prop- 
erty to the amount of $50,000. He served 
in the Common Council of 1882; is a mem- 
ber of the Montgomery Veteran Association 
and Charitable Irish Society. 

SULLIVAN, BENJAMIN J., post-office super- 
intendent, born in East Boston, Jan. 12, 

1856. He attended the public schools, and 
at the age of fifteen became employed in a 
dry-goods store, where he worked three 
years. He then learned wood-carving and 
upholstering, and was engaged in the latter 
trade for eleven years. He represented 
Ward 2 in the Common Council of 1886. 
He has been identified with the Democracy 
of East Boston for several years, and was 
recently appointed superintendent of the 
post-office for that district, his present 
position. 

SULLIVAN, JAMES, stable-keeper, born in 
Kerry, Ireland, in 1844. He was educated 
in the Boston public schools, having come 
to this city when quite young. During the 
war he served in one of the Massachusetts 
regiments, and is a member of the G.A.R. 
He is also a member of the Charitable Irish 
Society and the Foresters. He was elected 
to the House of Representatives of 1886-87, 
from Ward 13. 



BIO GRAPHICAL SKE TCHES. 



391 



SULLIVAN, JAMES H., elected to serve as 
a member of the Common Council during 
the year 1889. 

SULLIVAN, JOHN H., stevedore, born in 
Ireland in 1848. He was educated in the 
National Schools of his birthplace. He ran 
away from home at the age of eighteen years 
to go to sea, and arrived in America in 1867. 
Later he was an inspector of East India 
merchandise in East Boston. He finally be- 
came stevedore in charge of the National, Do- 
minion, Warren, and Iceland Steamship Line 
docks. He was a member of the Common 
Council of 1884-85, Board of Aldermen of 
1886-87, an d the Massachusetts Senate of 
1888. 

SULLIVAN, MICHAEL, born in London, 
England, April lo, 1837. He emigrated 
when very young, and settled in this city, 
where he was educated at the public schools- 
He represented Ward 5 in the Legislature of 
1876. 

SULLIVAN, RICHARD. * 

SULLIVAN, THOMAS F., cigar manufact- 
urer, born in Fitchville, Conn., March 22, 
1862. He removed to New Hartford at an 
early age, where his parents still reside. He 
attended the public schools of the latter 
place, and at the age of fifteen engaged in the 
milk business with his father. In 1 879 went 
into the grocery business at South Boston, 
which he continued till 1881. Later he 
accepted a position as travelling salesman for 
Allen & Woodworth, and remained with them 
for three years. In 1884 he entered the 
firm of McCormick & Sullivan, as manufact- 
urers of cigars. He was a member of the 
Legislature of 1887, from South Boston. 

SWEENEY, DANIEL J., printer, born in 
Boston, Jan. 25, 1834. He was educated 
in the public schools of this city, and after- 
ward learned the printer's trade. He was 



1 See Lawyers. 



employed by Rockwell & Churchill for sev- 
eral years, and represented Ward I in the 
Common Council of 1863, '64, '67, '79, '80, 
and in the Legislature of 1874-75. He has 
been employed as keeper of the city tombs 
during recent years. 

SWEENEY, THOMAS E, artist and in- 
structor, born in North Abington, Mass., Aug. 
31, 1864. He graduated from the North Ab- 
ington High School and Massachusetts State 
Normal Art School, and supplemented his 
art studies in Paris. At the Normal School 
he stood first in his class on mechanical 
drawing, modelling in clay, and free-hand 
drawing, and was engaged as instructor at 
the school at which he graduated, a position 
which he still retains. He is also engaged 
as a teacher of mechanical drawing at the 
East Boston Evening Drawing-School, and 
as teacher of monumental drawing at the 
Evening Drawing-School of Quincy, Mass. 
He has resided in Boston since 1884, and 
during his business experience has executed 
many creditable works of art in different 
departments. 

TAYLOR, WILLIAM, was born of Irish parents 
in St. John's, Newfoundland, April 15, 1831, 
and received a good common-school educa- 
tion. A taste of sea life on fishing-trips 
woke the sailor instinct in him. School- 
books and slate went overboard, and at the 
age of fourteen he tried his luck as a stowa- 
way. Once he was found and put ashore in 
a wild country, with a three days' tramp 
through heavy snows between himself and 
home. The next attempt landed him at 
Figueira, in Portugal. During the next twelve 
or fifteen years he sailed in every quarter of 
the globe, varying the monotony of the sea 
by ventures, not altogether unrewarded, in the 
gold mines of Australia and California. In 
the forecastle he saw tyranny and cruelty 
enough to make him forever unwilling to 
trust any man to the unchecked and irre- 
sponsible power of another, and it is inter- 
esting to tract in the statute books of the 
State of Massachusetts the effect of this ex- 



392 



'THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



perience on Mr. Taylor's career as a legislator. 
Before he abandoned the sea he rose to the 
rank of captain. Mr. Taylor settled in Bos- 
ton in 1859. He was a member of the Com- 
mon Council in 1870 and 1871, and again in 
1876; a member of the Massachusetts House 
of Representatives in 1872-73, and of the 
Senate in 1879-80. While on the Committee 
on Federal Relations in the House he pre- 
sented a resolution requesting Congress to 
legislate for the more effectual security of the 
rights of seamen in cases of shipwreck or 
freight losses; and though opposed by the 
rest of the committee, the measure was car- 
ried by both House and Senate, and was in- 
fluential in changing the maritime law of the 
nation. Mr. Taylor stood with the minority 
of the same committee in opposing the vote 
of censure passed on Charles Sumner in 1873. 

In the Senate he served with credit on the 
Committees on Fisheries and Harbors; orig- 
inated the appeal, which has since been an- 
nually repeated, for manhood suffrage, and 
which effected the reduction of the suffrage 
qualification to one dollar instead of two; 
proposed a modification of the alien laws, 
tending to avoid expense and prevent fraud, 
which was rejected; secured the enactment 
of legislation compelling private detectives 
to be licensed; was selected by the special 
committee of 1879 on contract convict labor 
to draft a bill for a reformatory, and embodied 
in this bill some of the most important of the 
humane ideas of prison reform then first 
coming into public notice. Mr. Taylor's work 
in this connection attracted wide attention, 
and resulted in the passage, in 1883, of the 
present law, which is a slight modification of 
the bill originally reported by him. 

He was a delegate to the National Demo- 
cratic Convention in 1881. In 1883 Mr. 
Taylor was appointed on the health com- 
mission. To his energetic administration of 
his share of this office is largely due the very 
noticeable improvement in the sanitary con- 
dition of the city during the last six years. 

TEEVENS, JOHN J., born in Darrlheyk, 
County Leitrim, Ireland, Nov. II, 1844. He 



received his early education at the National 
Schools in Ireland, and emigrated, July 12, 
1860, locating in Boston. In 1860 he en- 
gaged to learn the trade of coppersmith with 
A. B. & S. H. Loring, where he was employed 
for fifteen years. In 1875 ne entered into the 
liquor business for himself at South Boston, 
and now represents real estate to the amount 
of about {40,000. He was a member of the 
Common Council of 1887, '88, '89, serving on 
the Committees on Printing, Public Library, 
Ordinance, and Judiciary. He is a member 
of a number of Irish societies. 

TOBIN, RICHARD F., fire commissioner, 
born in Boston, Nov. 20, 1844. He was a 
pupil of the public schools, and was appren- 
ticed at sixteen years of age to Lyman, Kins- 
ley, & Co., iron moulders. He entered the 
service of the United States sloop-of-war 
"Preble"in 1862, and after the destruction 
of that vessel he was transferred to the 
frigate " Potomac." He rendered creditable 
service under Admiral Farragut in the West 
Gulf squadron. He has served in the Cam- 
bridge City Council, and was assistant engi- 
neer of the Cambridge fire department, and 
a Democratic member from Boston of the 
State Legislature, where he distinguished him- 
self by championing the " Soldiers' Exemption 
Bill." He has been a member of different 
posts of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
and he became a member of Post 30, at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and was elected senior vice- 
commander and afterwards commander. He 
is now a member of Post 2, at South Boston. 
He was a member of the Council of Adminis- 
tration, Department of Massachusetts; junior 
vice department commander; and was unan- 
imously elected senior vice-commander, De- 
partment of Massachusetts, G.A.R. Mr. 
Tobin learned the iron business, and he was 
appointed the superintendent of the Wai- 
worth Manufacturing Company's extensive 
iron works at South Boston. He was ap- 
pointed a fire commissioner by Mayor O'Brien 
in April, 1877, on account of his fitness for 
the place, as well as in recognition of his ser- 
vices as a fireman and practical master of the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



technique of the department. His appoint- 
ment satisfied many of our citizens, and sur- 
prised Commissioner Tobin, who had never 
solicited the office. 

TOLAND, HUGH J., superintendent of 
lamps, born in Boston, Sept. I, 1844. He 
graduated from the Lawrence Grammar 
School in 1859, and from Boston English 
High School with the class of 1862. He 
devoted three years to private study of the 
classics and modern languages; was taught 
the trade of watchmaker by his father, Mr. 
John Toland, with whom he remained in that 
business until 1 872. He became actively en- 
gaged in politics, and he has filled many 
honorable positions in the service of the State 
and City governments. In 1869 he was 
elected to membership on the Boston School 
Board. He was an assistant assessor from 
1870-76; a Democratic member of the 
House of Representatives 1871-75, inclusive ; 
a member of the Massachusetts State Senate 
from 1874-75, inclusive; a first assistant as- 
sessor in 1876; and a member of Governor's 
Council in 1877. 

He was the sealer of weights and measures 
from 1879-83, inclusive, and the superintend- 
ent of lamps from 1885-89. He effected a 
change in the settlement laws while in the 
Legislature, whereby the right of settlement 
was granted to those persons who would pay 
taxes for three successive years, instead of 
for five years, as required by the old law. 
The painting of the building and the 
gilding of the dome of the State House in 
1874 was due to Mr. Toland 's persistent 
efforts, at an expense of $30,000. He 
was appointed on the Committee of In- 
vestigation, whose duties consisted of learn- 
ing the manner in which the money was 
spent. He was the chairman of the House 
Committee on Ventilation in 1875, and the 
attorney-general complimented him for the 
economical outlay which he had regulated on 
behalf of the State. In 1876 was the prin- 
cipal in the management of the campaign of 
Benjamin Dean, who was elected by twenty- 
five votes; the Prince campaign in 1877; 



the Butler campaign in 1878 and 1882. In 
1878 General Butler suffered defeat; but in 
1882 he was successfully elected by a majority 
vote of 1 3,000. 

TRACY, THOMAS F., cigar-maker, born in 
Boston, May 20, 1861. He graduated from 
the Quincy Grammar School in 1877. ^ e 
was first employed for Shepard, Norwell, & 
Co., where he remained for three years, and 
then left to learn the trade of a cigar-maker, 
his present business. He served in the Com- 
mon Council of 1887-88 from Ward 12, and 
was on the Committees on City Hospital, 
Cambridge Bridge, Queen Kapiolani's Re- 
ception, City Hospital, Joint Contingent 
Expenses, and Health Department. To him 
is due the credit of first introducing the 
Saturday half-holiday order. He is a mem- 
ber of the Cigar-Makers' Union. 

WALSH, JOHN H., hotel-keeper, born in 
Kilsheelan, near Qonmel, Tipperary, Ireland, 
Nov. 28, 1842; died at Brighton, Mass., Sept. 
3, 1888. He was educated in the schools of 
his native place, and early in life took an 
active part in the Fenian movement. He 
was one of the organizers of a circle in the 
town in which he lived, and took such a 
prominent part, that in 1865 he was com- 
pelled to flee from home to save his life. 
During that year he came to this country, 
and located in Boston, where he engaged in 
the liquor business. In 1874-75 he repre- 
sented old Ward 5 in the Common Council. 
About 1876 he became a resident of Brigh- 
ton, and established the Centennial House, 
Allston, the same year. He was a member of 
the Democratic City Committee for several 
years, and the State Central Committee one 
year. He was a stanch Democrat in politics, 
independent in action, but with the utmost 
honesty of purpose. He was always identi- 
fied with Irish affairs, and was one of the 
organizers of the Irish Athletic dub of 
Boston. 

WALSH, JOHN L. 1 

1 See Lawyers. 



394 



THE IRISH IN BOSTON 



WALSH, MATTHEW, assistant inspector of 
buildings, born in County Kilkenny, Ire- 
land, June 20, 1836. He immigrated to 
Quebec in 1845, DUt remained only a few 
weeks, and then came to Boston, where he 
has since been located. He attended the 
public schools until about thirteen years of 
age. In 1851 he served his apprenticeship 
as a plumber, which trade he was engaged 
in for a number of years. He served as 
sergeant in Company A of the Fifth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment during the war. After 
returning from the battle-field he resumed 
his employment as a journeyman plumber, 
and for a time was engaged in business on 
his own account. In 1883 he was appointed 
to his present position as inspector of build- 
ings. He was a member of the Charlestown 
Common Council of 1867, and of the same 
body in Boston during 1880, '81, '82. He 
is a member of Post 1 1, Grand Army of the 
Republic. 

WARD, JOHN P. J. 1 

WELCH, WILLIAM J., district superin- 
tendent Water Department, City Hall, was 
born in Boston in 1848, and attended the 
public schools. He was early engaged in 
the newspaper and periodical business at 
the Merchants' Exchange, and solely by his 
own exertions and industry he has accumu- 
lated a respectable fortune. In 1879 Mr. 
Welch was elected to the Common Council of 
1880, and also served in the Councils of 1881- 
82. He served on several important com- 
mittees, notably the Committees on Finance, 
Police, and Assessors' Department. He was 
elected an alderman in 1882 on the Demo- 
cratic and Citizens' tickets, and was a member 
of the Board in 1885. 

WHALL, WILLIAM B. F. 1 

WHITE, JAMES, tailor, born in County 
Limerick, Ireland, Jan. 20, 1831. He re- 
ceived a common-school education. He is 



1 See Lawyers. 



by occupation a tailor, and has been a resi- 
dent of Charlestown for many years. On 
May 26, 1865, he was commissioned captain 
of the Jackson Guard, Company G, Ninth 
Regiment, M.V.M., which was formed at that 
time. During the last two years that Charles- 
town was a separate city, he was a member 
of the Charlestown Common Council. He 
also represented Ward 3 in the Legislature of 
1881-82, and served on the Committee on 
Liquor Law. 

MEMBERS OF COMMON COUNCIL. 
AMORY, JONATHAN, 1822, '23. 
AMORY, THOMAS COFFIN, 1836, '37, '38, 
'39, '40, '41, '42. 
BARRY, EDWARD W., 1874. 
BARRY, JOHN H., 1857, '58. 
BARRY, PATRICK, 1875. 
BARRY, WILLIAM, 1822, '24, '25, '26, '27. 
BEAN, NICHOLAS J., 1865. 
BOIES, JEREMIAH, 1825, '26. 
BRADY, HUGH E., 1884, '85, '86. 
BRENNAN, THOMAS, 1871, '72, '73. 
BUCKLEY, JOSEPH, 1855, '56, '62, '63. 
CANNON, JOHN, 1879. 
CARNEY, MICHAEL (Ward 7), 1867. 
CARR, DANIEL, Jr., 1861. 
CARROLL, JOSEPH H., 1886. 
CASSIDY, PATRICK L., 1883, '84, '85. 
CAWLEY, DENNIS, Jr., 1866, '67, '74. 
COCHRAN, SAMUEL J., 1886. 
COLEMAN, JEREMIAH F., 1887. 
COLLINS, PATRICK, 1872, '73. 
CONNELL, JOSEPH P., 1881, '82, '84. 
CONNOR, CHRISTOPHER A., 1866, '67. 
COYLE, GEORGE J., 1875. 
COYLE, PATRICK, 1886, '87, '88. 
CRONIN, PATRICK H., 1880, '81. 
CROWLEY, JAMES K., 1869, '74. 
CULLEN, BERNARD, 1862, '63. 
DACEY, JAMES F., 1874. 
DACEY, JOHN, 1860, '61. 
DALY, JAMES F., 1881, '82. 
DALY, WILLIAM A., 1885. 
DEVINE, JAMES, 1870, '71, '72, '79, '80. 

DOHERTY, CdRNELIUS, 1859, '60. 
DOHERTY, CORNEUUS F., 1879, '80, '8l, 

'83. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



395 



DOHERTY, JOHN, ist, 1879, '80, '81. 
DOHERTY, THOMAS, 1869, '70. 
DOHERTY, THOMAS H., 1873. 
DOLAN, BARTHOLOMEW, 1872. 
DOLAN, THOMAS, 1868, '70, '71. 
DONNELLY, EUGENE C, 1870. 
DRISCOLL, MICHAEL J., 1868. 
DUGGAN, JOHN A., 1875, '77. 
DUGGAN, THOMAS J., 1886. 
ENGLISH, WILLIAM, 1885, '86. 
FAGAN, JAMES, 1877. 
FALLON, JOHN C., 1861, '62. 
FENNELLY, ROBERT, 1825. 
FINNERTY, EDWARD, 1883, '84. 
FITZPATRICK, THOMAS J., 1875, '76. 
FLYNN, DENNIS A., 1877, '87. 
FLYNN, JAMES J., 1865, '66, '68, '69, '71, 

'7 2 '73 '74, '75. '76, '77. '83- 
FLYNN, JOHN F., 1865, '66. 
FOLAN, MARTIN T., 1880, '81, '85, '86, '89. 
FORD, WILLIAM C., 1850, '57, '58, '59. 
FORD, WILLIAM H., 1881, '82. 
Fox, JAMES W., 1876. 
FOYE, JOHN W., 1871. 
FURLONG, NICHOLAS, 1879. 
GALLAGHER, JOHN, 1885, '86. 
GIBLIN, JOHN H., 1870. 
GOGIN, THOMAS, 1864, '67. 
GOOD, JOHN, 1882. 
GREEN, THOMAS H., 1884. 
HANIGAN, JEREMIAH, 1875. 
HAYES, JOHN T., 1879. 
HENNESSEY, EDWARD, 1849, '50. 
HICKEY, THOMAS H., 1886. 
HORGAN, DENNIS A., 1884, '85. 
HOUGHTON, MICHAEL J., 1882, '83. 
HUGHES, FRANCIS M., 1872, '73. 
JACKSON, PATRICK T , 1822. 
JACKSON, PATRICK T., 1864. 
KEANEY, MATTHEW, 1862, '63, '64, '68, '69. 
KELLEY, JOHN (Ward 6), 1877, '78- 
KELLEY, MICHAEL, 1873. 
KELLEY, ROGER J., 1879. 
KILDUFF, WILLIAM J., 1884. 
KILLION, MICHAEL J., 1882, '83. 
LAPPEN, JAMES A., 1875, '76. 
LEAHY, JOHN, 1860. * 
LOGAN, PATRICK F., 1863. 
LOUGHLIN, JAMES W., 1877. 



MACKIN, WILLIAM, 1884. 

MADDEN, HUGH A., 1866. 

MADDEN, JOHN, 1873. 

MAGUIRE, FRANCIS P., 1883, '84. 

MAHAN, JOHN W., 1873. 

MCCARTHY, CHARLES J., 1859, '60, '61, 
'62, '64. 

MCCARTY, MICHAEL H., 1874. 

MCCLUSKY, JAMES F., 1877. 

McCoRMicK, MARTIN S., 1881. 

McCuE, ROBERT, 1873. 

MCDEVITT, ROBERT, 1871. 

MCGILVRAY, DAVID F., 1856, '57. 

MCKENNEY, WILLIAM, 1873. 

MCNARY, WILLIAM S., 1886. 

MILLER, WILLIAM H., 1885. 

MINON, MICHAEL G., 1868. 

MOLEY, PATRICK, 1874, '75. 

MOONEY THOMAS (Ward 3), 1859. 

MOONEY, WILLIAM, 1864, '65. 

MULLANE, JEREMIAH M., 1869, '71, '72. 

MURPHY, CORNELIUS, 1861, '62. 

MURPHY, JAMES F., 1885. 

MURPHY, JOHN, 1886. 

MURPHY, JOHN J., 1870. 

NUGENT, JAMES H., 1877. 

O'BRIEN, CHRISTOPHER, 1886. 

O'BRIEN, FRANCIS, 1879. 

O'BRIEN, JOHN, 1870, '71. 

O'BRIEN, JOHN P., 1883. 

O'DONNELL, EDWARD, 1877. 

O'DoNNELL, PHILIP, 1861, '62, '63. 

POWER, RICHARD, 1875. 

QUINN, JOHN, 1870. 

REAGAN, WILLIAM J., 1884, '85, '86. 

RICHARDS, WILLIAM R., 1886. 

RIDDLE, PATRICK E., 1885. 

RILEY, JAMES, 1859, '60, '61, '62. 

RYAN, EDWARD, 1862, '63. 

RYAN, JOSEPH T., 1868, '69, '70, '71. 

SLATTERY, JOHN A., 1879. 

SWEENEY, DANIEL J., 2d, 1880. 

TAYLOR, WILLIAM, 1870, '71, '76. 

TAYLOR, WILLIAM, Jr., 1884, '85, '86. 

TEEVAN, JAMES, 1881, '82. 

TUCKER, JOHN C., 1858, '59, '60, '61, '62, 
'63, '67. 

WELLS, MICHAEL F., 1862, '63, '64, '67, 
'68, '69, '70, '73. 



BUSINESS AFFAIRS 



MEN OF BUSINESS. 



BUSINESS AFFAIRS AND MEN OF BUSINESS. 



THE geographical position of Boston makes it one of the most 
important commercial cities in the United States, and, as the 
metropolis of New England, it commands the immense volume of 
trade of the Eastern States. 

The almost fabulous growth of our industries, and the ex- 
tent of our import and export trade, have won the admiration of 
the world. The Old World steadily receives our products, and there 
is an encouraging increase of exported articles each year. Boston is 
also the great distributing point whence the merchandise of the East 
is shipped to every section of the continent. The abundant capital 
at the disposal of its citizens places it in the front rank of the lead- 
ing industrial cities in the country. The position of the Irish race, as 
projectors and promoters of the diversified business enterprises and 
important factors in the present development of trade and manufact- 
ures, is progressive. The early Irish settlers of whom there is any 
record seem to have engaged in the paper and chocolate industries. 
Such men as John Cogan, James Boies, John Hannan, and Jeremiah 
Smith, for instance, were among the most able and prominent busi- 
ness men of early times. About Cogan much might be written. 
To Mr. John B. Reagan, of Dorchester, Mass., we are indebted for 
the discovery of Cogan's Celtic origin, and the following sketch of 
his work in Boston, which appeared in "The Boston Herald " of May 
23, 1889, is interesting: 

(899) 



400 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 



JOHN COGAN, THE MAN WHO OPENED THE FIRST 
STORE IN BOSTON. 

To the Editor of the " Herald: " 

Among those who came over in the so-called Winthrop fleet, composed of 
" people from all parts," were several merchants from the maritime ports of Ireland, 
of whom John Cogan was one. He first went to Dorchester, and had land allotted 
him there in 1630. The keen and far-seeing eye of the man of business quickly 
discovered that Boston was destined to be the location for men of his stamp, and he 
moved there in 1632. He, in company with Winthrop, Bellingham, Coddington, 
and others, laid the foundation of what is to-day the city of Boston. He was 
appointed by Governor Winthrop in 1633 a commissioner to select the lands that 
were best adapted for agricultural purposes, that the colonists might not waste their 
energies in planting on land not adapted for their crop. He was one of the board 
of selectmen the first year of its existence, was one of the first to join the church, 
and so much was he esteemed by Rev. Mr. Wilson, the pastor of the first church in 
Boston, that Cogan was often consulted by him on worldly affairs. The lot on the 
north-east corner of State and Washington streets he purchased of Rev. Mr. Wilson, 
and erected a building on it; and on this spot, March 4, 1634, John Cogan from 
Ireland opened the first store in the town of Boston. To him belongs the honor of 
being the father of Boston merchants. He was one of the charter members of the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. The name of Mr. Cogan is insepa- 
rably connected with the interests and progress of the first twenty-five years of 
Boston's existence. He was the owner of a great deal of real estate in the city and 
surrounding towns. Among his property was the lot corner of Beacon and Tremont 
streets, known in our day as the Pavilion and Albion Hotel lot. It was 322 feet on 
Beacon street and 76 feet on Tremont street. After the death of Mr. Cogan it 
became the residence successively of Joshua Scotto, Colonel Shrimpton, and Rev. 
Mr. Oxenbridge, and was considered at that time one of the most desirable resi- 
dences in Boston. Mr. Cogan's next-door neighbor on the north, toward Pem- 
berton square, was Governor Bellingham. This Bellingham lot became famous 
afterward as the homestead of the Faneuils. The Faneuils came to Boston in 1691, 
and were obliged to give bonds to the town that they would not become a public 
charge. When Peter Faneuil died, in 1742, this property was appraised at the then 
enormous sum of .12,375, so that this locality must have been one of Boston's 
favored spots as a residence. In 1651 Mr. Cogan was married to Martha, the 
widow of Gov. John Winthrop, Governor Endicott performing the marriage 
ceremony. Among Mr. Cogan's donations to Harvard College was 175 acres of 
land in Chelsea. He was very wealthy for the times he lived in. Among his prop- 
erty was one farm in Chelsea, valued at 450, beside other parcels in that locality. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 401 

He had mills in Charlestown and in Maiden, also 500 acres of land in Woburn, and 
two stores in Boston, with other property beside his residence. All in all, he was 
one of Boston's chief pillars, both in Church and State. He died in Boston, April 
27, 1658. J. B. R. 

DORCHESTER, May 23, 1889. 

PAPER-MILLS IN MILTON. 

EARLY IRISH SETTLERS IN MASSACHUSETTS. 

i 
Recent articles on the early paper industry of this country have 

excited the curiosity of many of our older citizens, who have re- 
freshed their memory by tracing up the early history of some of the 
founders of the paper-mills. From records which have been ap- 
proved by the writers of history, a Dorchester (Mass.) citizen has 
compiled the following story of the paper industry on the Neponset 
river : 

On Sept. 13, 1 728, the Massachusetts General Court passed an act 
granting the exclusive privilege to make paper in this province for a 
term of ten years to some Boston merchants. Among them were 
Thomas Hancock and Benjamin Faneuil. A fine of twenty shillings 
was imposed on every ream manufactured by anybody else. These 
gentlemen leased a building at what is now Milton Lower Mills. 
Henry Deering acted as agent and superintendent. These gentlemen 
carried on the business until 1737, when it came under the superin- 
tendency of Jeremiah Smith, who had some years previously arrived 
from Ireland. 

In 1741 he was enabled to purchase the mill from the heirs of Rev. 
Joseph Belcher, of Dedham, with seven acres of land lying on both 
sides of the Neponset river, and bounded by the public landing and 
also the county road. Mr. Smith continued to carry on the business 
until 1775, when, having accumulated a fortune, he sold out to his 
son-in-law, Daniel Vose, and retired from active business. If to Mr. 
Smith belongs the credit of being the first individual paper manu- 
facturer, to others of his countrymen is due the fact that the 
Neponset river was made the basis of paper manufacturing in the 
North American colonies, which, in a measure, lasts to this day. 



402 THE IRISH IN BOSTON. 

About 1744, Capt. James Boies, who had been acting as super- 
cargo on vessels sailing from Galway and Bristol, settled in Dorchester, 
and built mills and manufactured paper. In 1771 he took into 
partnership his son-in-law, Hugh McLean, and they became the 
owners of several paper-mills and slitting-mills on the Neponset 
river. 

About 1795, a young man from New Jersey named Mark 
Hollingsworth was given employment in one of these mills, and after 
the deaths of Boies and McLean he, in company with Edward 
Tileston, became possessed of the mills and water privileges. The 
descendants of Messrs. Tileston and Hollingsworth carry on the 
business to this day in the same locality. 

Jeremiah Smith, Hugh McLean, and James Boies may be said 
to be the founders and early promoters of the paper industry of 
Dorchester and Milton. 

In the biographical sketches we have touched upon the business 
records of other men who were eminently among the solid men of 
the city in early times. The fact that the prominence of their descend- 
ants in business life does not stand out so boldly to-day is due to 
the blending of the Irish blood of the fathers with that of other 
nationalities. The Irish- American business men of our generation in 
Boston are progressing steadily towards the highest positions of 
profit in the commercial and mercantile world. The relative posi- 
tions between the Boston business men of Irish birth and descent 
and those of principal Western cities is very large, varying in point of ' 
wealth many millions of dollars. We have no Mackay, Flood, or 
other bonanza kings. The wealthy New York Irish-American 
capitalist has no peer in Boston. We are yet but sowers. 

A prominent citizen of Boston asked Gen. Benjamin F. Butler 
not long since why it was that the Irish citizens of Boston had not 
made more visible progress among the leading manufacturers and 
merchants of the city. The general replied that the Irish, in this 
respect, were like a young, sturdy, and growing wood, encompassed 
and overshadowed by a larger one of full growth, and that in course 
of time the young wood swells to such proportions as to force the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 403 

old wood down, and burst into full view; which seems to be a very 
unique explanation of the difficulty. It would involve much time 
and space to narrate the business success of the individual. Much 
can be learned from the biographical sketches in this book. That 
the Irish have contributed to the material advancement and pros- 
perity of Boston, and given to it much of its industrial prominence, 
is a fact unquestionable. 

THE UNION INSTITUTION FOR SAVINGS. 

When the Rev. John McElroy, S.J., was building the Church 
of the Immaculate Conception and Boston College on Harrison 
avenue, it required a large expenditure of money, and he found it 
very difficult to obtain loans from the savings-banks of this city, as 
they were prejudiced against such loans, and there was a possibility 
that the work would have to stop for want of means. 

Associated with Father McElroy there were a number of lay- 
men, who were anxious for the financial prosperity and success of 
the church and college, among the most active of whom were 
Joseph A. Laforme, Francis McLaughlin, John C. Crowley, Hugh 
O'Brien, Geo. F. Emery, and Hugh Carey, and the question was 
asked, Why not start a savings-bank that would be managed with 
more liberality, enable the large and increasing Catholi